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Anti-money laundering - reinforcing the supervisory and regulatory framework

02-09-2019

On the back of a number of high profile cases and alleged cases of money laundering, this briefing presents current initiatives and actions aiming at reinforcing the anti-money laundering supervisory and regulatory framework in the EU. This briefing first outlines (1) the EU supervisory architecture and the respective roles of European and national authorities in applying anti-money laundering legislation that have been further specified in the 5th AML Directive and (2) ways that have been proposed ...

On the back of a number of high profile cases and alleged cases of money laundering, this briefing presents current initiatives and actions aiming at reinforcing the anti-money laundering supervisory and regulatory framework in the EU. This briefing first outlines (1) the EU supervisory architecture and the respective roles of European and national authorities in applying anti-money laundering legislation that have been further specified in the 5th AML Directive and (2) ways that have been proposed to further improve the anti-money laundering supervisory and regulatory frameworks, including the 12 September 2018 Commission’s communication, the changes to the European Supervisory Authority (ESA) Regulation adopted by the co-legislators on the basis of a Commission proposal and the most recent Commission’s state of play of supervisory and regulatory landscapes on anti-money laundering. Some previous AML cases are presented in Annex. This briefing updates an EGOV briefing originally drafted in April 2018. On a more prospective note, this briefing also presents (3) some possible additional reforms to bring about a more integrated AML supervisory architecture in the EU. In that respect, President-elect U. von der Leyen’s political declaration stresses the need for further action without specifying at this stage possible additional supervisory and regulatory developments: “The complexity and sophistication of our financial system has opened the door to new risks of money laundering and terrorist financing. We need better supervision and a comprehensive policy to prevent loopholes.”

Digital technology in elections: Efficiency versus credibility?

10-09-2018

Digital technology brings greater efficiency in many walks of life, and elections are no exception. Online databases hugely facilitate the task of creating and managing accurate and up-to-date electoral rolls. In less developed countries, whose citizens often lack reliable identity documents, biometric technology can help to identify voters, thus preventing fraud in the form of multiple voting. However, for some aspects of election management, digitalisation is more controversial. Electronic voting ...

Digital technology brings greater efficiency in many walks of life, and elections are no exception. Online databases hugely facilitate the task of creating and managing accurate and up-to-date electoral rolls. In less developed countries, whose citizens often lack reliable identity documents, biometric technology can help to identify voters, thus preventing fraud in the form of multiple voting. However, for some aspects of election management, digitalisation is more controversial. Electronic voting machines count votes quickly and accurately. First used in the United States, they have spread to several Latin American and Asian countries. However, the intangible nature of digital processes makes detecting tampering more difficult; as a result, most European countries are sticking to tried-and-trusted conventional paper ballots. Even more controversial is the idea of internet voting. On the one hand, allowing citizens the convenience of casting their vote online without the need to visit polling stations could help to reverse a worrying decline in voter turnout across the world. On the other hand, current technology does not allow internet voting systems to be fully secured against hackers, a major concern given the growing sophistication of cyber-attacks (for example, from Russia). To date, only Estonia gives all voters the option of online voting in national elections.

Political and Electoral Rights of Non-citizen Residents in Latvia and Estonia: Current Situation and Perspectives

16-05-2018

Persons with undetermined citizenship of Estonia and non-citizens of Latvia (‘respective non-citizen populations’) do not have the right to take part in the elections to the European Parliament. The position of Estonia and Latvia is that their respective non-citizen populations have certain legal links with respective States but that these populations are not their nationals. There are certain differences between persons with undetermined citizenship of Estonia and non-citizens of Latvia, both regarding ...

Persons with undetermined citizenship of Estonia and non-citizens of Latvia (‘respective non-citizen populations’) do not have the right to take part in the elections to the European Parliament. The position of Estonia and Latvia is that their respective non-citizen populations have certain legal links with respective States but that these populations are not their nationals. There are certain differences between persons with undetermined citizenship of Estonia and non-citizens of Latvia, both regarding the formal title of the status and the content of the rights (for example, Estonian non-citizen population can vote in municipal elections). The background to the status of respective non-citizen populations is set by public international law rules on the statehood of Baltic States. The mainstream position is that Baltic States were unlawfully controlled by the Soviet Union until the early 1990s, therefore Soviet-era settlers and their descendants did not have an automatic right to their nationality. There are three ways of conceptualising the legal status of the respective non-citizen populations. The Estonian and Latvian position that they have a special status has been accepted by some States and, by necessary implication, by the Grand Chamber of the European Court of Human Rights. Some UN human rights institutions characterise these peoples as stateless. The third reading, suggested by certain legal writers, is that respective non-citizen populations are nationals with limited political rights.

Autor externo

Martins Paparinskis

Naturalization and Citizenship in Latvia and Estonia

16-05-2018

This in-depth analysis, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the PETI Committee, argues that Latvia and Estonia have introduced legal statuses –non-citizenship in Latvian and undetermined citizenship in Estonia – that are unique in the European Union in that they give their holders a status that is not citizenship but that is not statelessness either suggesting that the statuses give far-reaching rights to ...

This in-depth analysis, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the PETI Committee, argues that Latvia and Estonia have introduced legal statuses –non-citizenship in Latvian and undetermined citizenship in Estonia – that are unique in the European Union in that they give their holders a status that is not citizenship but that is not statelessness either suggesting that the statuses give far-reaching rights to their holders while staying short of citizenship. Moreover, the author suggests that debates about the status of non-citizens in Latvia and Aliens in Estonia need to be read against the background of the two states’ history as Soviet republics and political and legal decisions that were taken in the 1990s. She supports that Citizenship has become a very emotional and contested issue in Latvia and Estonia. She goes on to say that Latvia and Estonia bring a key question regarding citizenship to light i.e. the question of the agent of citizenship : who needs to act in issues regarding citizenship and whether it is the state´s task to confer citizenship or is it an individuals’ task to claim it.

Autor externo

Susanne Tonsmann

Democratic Transition and Linguistic Minorities in Estonia and Latvia

16-05-2018

Upon request by the PETI Committee, the Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs commissioned this in-depth analysis on Democratic Transition and Linguistic Minorities in Estonia and Latvia. The writer claims that in order to understand the situation of political representation rights of ethnic and linguistic minorities in Estonia and Latvia it is essential to provide a historical-political framework that contextualizes the presence of such substantial minorities in the ...

Upon request by the PETI Committee, the Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs commissioned this in-depth analysis on Democratic Transition and Linguistic Minorities in Estonia and Latvia. The writer claims that in order to understand the situation of political representation rights of ethnic and linguistic minorities in Estonia and Latvia it is essential to provide a historical-political framework that contextualizes the presence of such substantial minorities in the two countries and justifies the type of relationship existing with the majority of nation holder. He also suggests that from one side, full integration is the goal that needs to be pursued, while at the same time it's important to ensure the cultural and national values of Latvians and Estonians.

Autor externo

Angela DI GREGORIO

Economic Dialogue and Exchange of Views with the Presidents of the Council (ECOFIN)

23-01-2018

Toomas Tõniste, Minister of Finance of Estonia, is participating in the ECON Committee in his capacity of the outgoing President of the ECOFIN Council following the Estonia’s Presidency (July - December 2017). Vladislav Goranov, Minister of Finance of Bulgaria, is participating in the ECON Committee in his capacity of the incoming President of the ECOFIN Council during the Bulgaria’s Presidency (January - July 2018). This briefing provides an overview of the main achievements of the Estonian Presidency ...

Toomas Tõniste, Minister of Finance of Estonia, is participating in the ECON Committee in his capacity of the outgoing President of the ECOFIN Council following the Estonia’s Presidency (July - December 2017). Vladislav Goranov, Minister of Finance of Bulgaria, is participating in the ECON Committee in his capacity of the incoming President of the ECOFIN Council during the Bulgaria’s Presidency (January - July 2018). This briefing provides an overview of the main achievements of the Estonian Presidency, the Bulgaria Presidency priorities in the economic and financial areas, the recent developments under the European Semester, the implementation of the SGP, the MIP as well as the Banking Union. Finally, it presents the latest developments under the third financial assistance programme to Greece. According to the Treaty of the Union “Member States shall regard their economic policies as a matter of common concern and shall coordinate them within the Council”.

Economic Dialogue and Exchange of Views with the President of the Council (ECOFIN)

10-07-2017

Toomas Töniste, Minister of Finance of Estonia, is participating in the ECON Committee as current President of the ECOFIN Council during the Estonia Presidency (July - December 2017). According to the Treaty of the Union “Member States shall regard their economic policies as a matter of common concern and shall coordinate them within the Council”. This briefing reviews recent developments with regard to Economic Governance issues, including activities in the context of the European Semester, as well ...

Toomas Töniste, Minister of Finance of Estonia, is participating in the ECON Committee as current President of the ECOFIN Council during the Estonia Presidency (July - December 2017). According to the Treaty of the Union “Member States shall regard their economic policies as a matter of common concern and shall coordinate them within the Council”. This briefing reviews recent developments with regard to Economic Governance issues, including activities in the context of the European Semester, as well as the latest developments in completing the Banking Union.

Priority dossiers under the Estonian EU Council Presidency

15-06-2017

Estonia will hold the EU Council Presidency from July to December 2017. Its presidency will herald a new Trio Presidency, composed of Estonia, Bulgaria and Austria. This will be the first time Estonia holds the rotating presidency. Estonia is currently led by a government coalition consisting of three political parties: the Estonian Centre Party (Eesti Keskerakond), the Social Democratic Party (Sotsiaaldemokraatlik Erakond) and the Pro Patria and Res Publica Union (Isamaa ja Res Publica Liit). Its ...

Estonia will hold the EU Council Presidency from July to December 2017. Its presidency will herald a new Trio Presidency, composed of Estonia, Bulgaria and Austria. This will be the first time Estonia holds the rotating presidency. Estonia is currently led by a government coalition consisting of three political parties: the Estonian Centre Party (Eesti Keskerakond), the Social Democratic Party (Sotsiaaldemokraatlik Erakond) and the Pro Patria and Res Publica Union (Isamaa ja Res Publica Liit). Its Prime Minister, Jüri Ratas, in office since November 2016, belongs to the Estonian Centre Party. Estonia is a republic divided into 15 counties. It has a unicameral parliamentary system with 101 Members of Parliament, elected by proportional representation. On 15 October 2017, local municipality elections will be held, followed by parliamentary (Riigikogu) elections in 2019.

Circular economy with focus on waste, renewable energy and sustainable bioenergy in Estonia

15-05-2017

This briefing reviews Estonia’s progress in the transition to a circular economy, focusing on a three crucial and related policy areas: waste, renewable energy and sustainable bioenergy. A key challenge for Estonia in terms of moving to a circular economy will be to strengthen recycling, as well as high rates of separate collection in cities including Tallinn – Estonia is not on track to meet the EU’s 2020 targets for municipal solid waste recycling. • The share of renewable energy has increased ...

This briefing reviews Estonia’s progress in the transition to a circular economy, focusing on a three crucial and related policy areas: waste, renewable energy and sustainable bioenergy. A key challenge for Estonia in terms of moving to a circular economy will be to strengthen recycling, as well as high rates of separate collection in cities including Tallinn – Estonia is not on track to meet the EU’s 2020 targets for municipal solid waste recycling. • The share of renewable energy has increased strongly in the past ten years, due mainly to a growth in wind power and biomass, which is used for household heating and for district heating. The intensity of forest use is among the highest in the EU. As a large share of Estonian forests will reach maturity in coming years, Estonia has the capacity to extract greater levels of biomass.

Autor externo

Tony Zamparutti, Alicia McNeill, Harri Moora, Maarja Joe and Evelin Piirsalu

The social and employment situation in Estonia and priorities of the Estonian Presidency

15-05-2017

In Estonia, during the recovery from recession, the employment rate increased almost 10 percentage points (p.p.) to the level of almost 77% and the unemployment rate decreased by 10 p.p. to the level on 7%. Active labour market policies played an important role here as Estonia succeeded in adjusting active labour market services to meet the needs of the labour market. As a result, Estonia’s employment rate is one of the highest in the EU and their unemployment rate one of the lowest.

In Estonia, during the recovery from recession, the employment rate increased almost 10 percentage points (p.p.) to the level of almost 77% and the unemployment rate decreased by 10 p.p. to the level on 7%. Active labour market policies played an important role here as Estonia succeeded in adjusting active labour market services to meet the needs of the labour market. As a result, Estonia’s employment rate is one of the highest in the EU and their unemployment rate one of the lowest.

Autor externo

Kerly Spenbergt

Futuros eventos

16-10-2019
State of the Union: The view from regions and cities
Outro evento -
EPRS
17-10-2019
What Europe is Thinking: The latest Pew survey of opinion in 14 EU Member States
Outro evento -
EPRS
05-11-2019
The Art and Craft of Political Speech-writing: A conversation with Eric Schnure
Outro evento -
EPRS

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