18

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Artificial Intelligence and civil law; liability rules for drones

13-12-2018

This study – commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the JURI Committee – analyses existing European and national legislation on the regulation of drones for civil use, discussing how they are defined and classified, whether certification and registration is required, how liability is apportioned between the subjects involved, and if compulsory insurance is provided for. Finally, on the basis of a risk-management ...

This study – commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the JURI Committee – analyses existing European and national legislation on the regulation of drones for civil use, discussing how they are defined and classified, whether certification and registration is required, how liability is apportioned between the subjects involved, and if compulsory insurance is provided for. Finally, on the basis of a risk-management approach, the study elaborates recommendations for future policy formulation.

Autor externo

Andrea Bertolini

European armaments standardisation

31-10-2018

The standardisation of armaments has been a long-standing focus of EU efforts to enhance the Union’s military effectiveness, to improve capability development and to support the competitiveness of the European defence industry. Armaments standardisation is a process that can lead to cost savings for defence spending by injecting added-value in defence production processes and the avoidance of capability and equipment duplication. Standardisation is a method of improving interoperability within and ...

The standardisation of armaments has been a long-standing focus of EU efforts to enhance the Union’s military effectiveness, to improve capability development and to support the competitiveness of the European defence industry. Armaments standardisation is a process that can lead to cost savings for defence spending by injecting added-value in defence production processes and the avoidance of capability and equipment duplication. Standardisation is a method of improving interoperability within and between European armed forces and a process that can enhance the operational effectiveness of Europe’s militaries. Both the EU and NATO have taken measures over many years and decades to enhance armaments standardisation in Europe. Yet the nature of the contemporary global defence market is that many more technologies and components integrated into military systems are sourced and/or produced in the civilian sector. The line drawn between defence equipment and capabilities on the one hand, and civilian products and technologies on the other, is increasingly blurred. In this context, and in relation to recent developments on EU defence cooperation, this study analyses the standardisation approaches taken by the EU in relation to maritime information sharing and remotely piloted aircraft systems. It makes recommendations on how EU approaches to armaments standardisation can be expanded and enhanced.

Autor externo

Daniel FIOTT (EUISS)

New civil aviation safety rules

15-10-2018

Flying remains one of the safest forms of transport, and the EU's accident rate is lower than in the rest of the world. However, it cannot automatically be assumed that such performance will continue, as global air traffic is forecast to double over the next 20 years. New technologies, such as unmanned aircraft (drones), are also appearing in European skies, which require adaption of the current regulatory framework. In December 2015, the European Commission proposed to update aviation safety rules ...

Flying remains one of the safest forms of transport, and the EU's accident rate is lower than in the rest of the world. However, it cannot automatically be assumed that such performance will continue, as global air traffic is forecast to double over the next 20 years. New technologies, such as unmanned aircraft (drones), are also appearing in European skies, which require adaption of the current regulatory framework. In December 2015, the European Commission proposed to update aviation safety rules. Two years later, the European Parliament and the Council reached a provisional agreement on the new rules and the rules have been in force since 11 September 2018. The reform includes the first-ever EU rules for civil drones, extends the EASA's mandate and provides for using existing resources more efficiently. Fourth edition. The 'EU Legislation in Progress' briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure. To view earlier editions of this briefing, please see: PE 620.199, 28 March 2018.

New civil aviation safety rules

28-03-2018

Flying remains one of the safest forms of transport, and the EU's accident rate is lower than in the rest of the world. However, it cannot automatically be assumed that such performance will continue, as global air traffic is forecast to double over the next 20 years. New technologies, such as unmanned aircraft (drones), are also appearing in European skies, which require adaption of the current regulatory framework. In December 2015, the European Commission proposed to update aviation safety rules ...

Flying remains one of the safest forms of transport, and the EU's accident rate is lower than in the rest of the world. However, it cannot automatically be assumed that such performance will continue, as global air traffic is forecast to double over the next 20 years. New technologies, such as unmanned aircraft (drones), are also appearing in European skies, which require adaption of the current regulatory framework. In December 2015, the European Commission proposed to update aviation safety rules. Two years later, the European Parliament and the Council reached a provisional agreement on the new rules. The reform includes the first-ever EU rules for civil drones, extends the EASA's mandate and provides for using existing resources more efficiently. The provisional agreement now needs to be confirmed by Parliament in plenary. Third edition. The 'EU Legislation in Progress' briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure. To view earlier editions of this briefing, please see: PE 595.877, 12 January 2017.

One step forward and two steps back for human rights in the world

01-03-2018

On 13 December 2017, just a few days after the United Nations' Human Rights Day, the European Parliament (EP) adopted in plenary its annual resolution on human rights and democracy. Addressing the numerous pressures exerted on human rights in 2016, the resolution calls upon the European Union to place human rights at the centre of EU relations with all third countries and to lead by example. The resolution hails the step forward made for the empowerment of women, but also warns of two new challenges ...

On 13 December 2017, just a few days after the United Nations' Human Rights Day, the European Parliament (EP) adopted in plenary its annual resolution on human rights and democracy. Addressing the numerous pressures exerted on human rights in 2016, the resolution calls upon the European Union to place human rights at the centre of EU relations with all third countries and to lead by example. The resolution hails the step forward made for the empowerment of women, but also warns of two new challenges – backward steps – to human rights in the world. One is brought about by new technological developments, and the other by new trends in terrorism involving psychological intimidation through the destruction of heritage sites.

Understanding artificial intelligence

11-01-2018

Artificial intelligence (AI) systems already permeate daily life: they drive cars, decide on mortgage applications, translate texts, recognise faces on social networks, identify spam emails, create artworks, play games, and intervene in conflict zones. The AI revolution that began in the 2000s emerged from the combination of machine learning techniques and 'big data'. The algorithms behind these systems work by identifying statistical correlation in the data they analyse, enabling them to perform ...

Artificial intelligence (AI) systems already permeate daily life: they drive cars, decide on mortgage applications, translate texts, recognise faces on social networks, identify spam emails, create artworks, play games, and intervene in conflict zones. The AI revolution that began in the 2000s emerged from the combination of machine learning techniques and 'big data'. The algorithms behind these systems work by identifying statistical correlation in the data they analyse, enabling them to perform tasks for which intelligence is required if a human were to perform them. Nevertheless, data-driven AI can only perform one task at a time, and cannot transfer its knowledge. 'Strong AI', able to display human-like intelligence and common sense, and which might be able to set its own goals, is not yet within reach. Despite the fears portrayed in film and TV entertainment, the idea of a 'superintelligence' able to self-improve and dominate humans remains an esoteric possibility, as development of strong AI systems is not predicted for a few decades or more, if indeed development ever reaches this stage. Nevertheless, the development of data-driven AI systems implies adaptation of legal frameworks on the collection, use and storage of data, due to privacy and other issues. Bias in data supplied to AI systems can also reproduce or amplify bias in the decisions they make. However, the key issue remains the level of autonomy given to AI systems to make decisions that could be life-changing, keeping in mind that they only provide recommendations, that they do not understand the tasks they perform, and that there is no way to know how they reach their conclusions. AI systems are expected to impact society, especially the job market, and could increase inequalities. To counter the abuse of probabilistic prediction and the risks to privacy, in April 2016 the European Parliament and the Council of the EU adopted the General Data Protection Regulation. The European Parliament also requested an update of the Union legal framework on robotics and AI in February 2017.

Research for TRAN Committee - Transport in California

16-10-2017

This overview was prepared for the mission of the Committee on Transport and Tourism (TRAN) to Silicon Valley (30 October-3 November 2017).

This overview was prepared for the mission of the Committee on Transport and Tourism (TRAN) to Silicon Valley (30 October-3 November 2017).

Towards an EU common position on the use of armed drones

15-06-2017

Since the European Parliament (EP) passed a resolution on the use of armed drones in February 2014, it has pointed several times to the need for a common EU position on the matter. It has stressed in particular the importance of ensuring compliance with international human rights and humanitarian law when using armed drones. This publication, which was requested by the EP’s Human Rights Subcommittee, includes a briefing with specific recommendations, drawn up from a legal standpoint, on the elements ...

Since the European Parliament (EP) passed a resolution on the use of armed drones in February 2014, it has pointed several times to the need for a common EU position on the matter. It has stressed in particular the importance of ensuring compliance with international human rights and humanitarian law when using armed drones. This publication, which was requested by the EP’s Human Rights Subcommittee, includes a briefing with specific recommendations, drawn up from a legal standpoint, on the elements that a future Council decision on the use of armed drones should include. This publication also includes a report on the workshop held on 22 March 2017, at which a first draft of the briefing was presented and discussed with Members and stakeholders. The discussion at the workshop confirmed that there was broad support in Parliament for the development of common European principles governing the use of armed drones, not least in view of the emergence of new risks from non-state actors and the EU’s commitment to enhancing security and defence cooperation. While there is currently no agreement between Member States to pursue the matter at EU level, the workshop debate drew attention to the common rules on exports of armed drones and drone technology that already exist. Furthermore, progress has been made recently in agreeing a joint EU position regarding the related matter of lethal autonomous weapons.

Autor externo

Jessica DORSEY, Giulia BONACQUISTI

Cybersecurity in the EU Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP): Challenges and risks for the EU

16-05-2017

This report is the result of a study conducted by the European Union Agency for Network and Information Security (ENISA) for the European Parliament’s Science and Technology Options Assessment (STOA) Panel with the aim of identifying risks, challenges and opportunities for cyber-defence in the context of the EU Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP). Acceptance of cyber as an independent domain calls for the investigation of its integration with the EU’s current and future policies and capabilities ...

This report is the result of a study conducted by the European Union Agency for Network and Information Security (ENISA) for the European Parliament’s Science and Technology Options Assessment (STOA) Panel with the aim of identifying risks, challenges and opportunities for cyber-defence in the context of the EU Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP). Acceptance of cyber as an independent domain calls for the investigation of its integration with the EU’s current and future policies and capabilities. ENISA analysed the related literature and work on cybersecurity, including its own publications, to form the basis for this study. In addition, a number of stakeholders, experts and practitioners, from academia, EU institutions and international organisations, were consulted in order to ensure the study is well-founded and comprehensive. The study revolves around three thematic areas, namely: policies, capacity building, and the integration of cyber in the CSDP missions, with the last one being the main focus of the study. For each thematic area, we compile a set of policy options, covering different levels, starting from the EU’s political/strategic level and progressing down to the operational and even tactical/technical levels of the CSDP’s supporting mechanisms. These policy options are summarised in a separate options briefing document accompanying this study.

Autor externo

EPRS, DG; Panagiotis Trimintzios, Georgios Chatzichristos, Silvia Portesi, Prokopios Drogkaris, Lauri Palkmets, Dimitra Liveri and Andrea Dufkova.

A global strategy on foreign and security policy for the EU

02-03-2017

Tracking European Commission priority initiatives in 2017 – Number 1 The letter from Donald Tusk, President of the European Council, of 31 January 2017, notes that ‘the challenges currently facing the European Union are more dangerous than ever before in the time since the signature of the Treaty of Rome’. Indeed, the current evolving international environment and geopolitical shifts highlight the need for effective and coherent implementation of the EU global strategy. The top strategic priorities ...

Tracking European Commission priority initiatives in 2017 – Number 1 The letter from Donald Tusk, President of the European Council, of 31 January 2017, notes that ‘the challenges currently facing the European Union are more dangerous than ever before in the time since the signature of the Treaty of Rome’. Indeed, the current evolving international environment and geopolitical shifts highlight the need for effective and coherent implementation of the EU global strategy. The top strategic priorities for the implementation of the strategy, as decided by the Foreign Affairs Council on 17 October 2016 include: security and defence; building resilience and an integrated approach to conflicts and crises; addressing the internal/external security nexus; updating existing strategies and preparing new ones; and enhancing public diplomacy. Strengthening EU cooperation on external security and defence was also discussed at the European Council meeting in December 2016. Heads of State or Government focused on three priorities: implementation of the EU global strategy in the security and defence area, the European defence action plan, and the implementation of the EU-NATO Joint Declaration signed in Warsaw in July 2016. The first implementation report is expected in June 2017. This is an updated edition of a briefing published in April 2016.

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