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In this study we execute an in-depth analysis of the evolution of market concentration, competition and costs in the EU market for statutory auditing before and after the Audit Reform. Based on data from archival databases and a survey, we present evidence suggesting that rivalry between the largest audit suppliers increased, as did audit costs, non-Big 4 audit market share, and joint audit rates. Non-audit services (NAS) fees earned by the incumbent auditor decreased. This document was provided ...

This evaluation of the EU Generalised Scheme of Preferences (GSP) focuses on the incentives in the GSP provisions that aim to push beneficiaries to comply with human rights and the extent to which these have been implemented and have had an impact on poverty reduction and good governance. The annexed economic evaluation of the GSP Regulation examines three inter-related questions: how beneficiaries have graduated from the GSP and what role preferences have played; how trade relations between the ...

The CJEU’s Schrems judgment of October 2015, besides declaring the European Commission’s Decision on the EU-US ‘Safe Harbour’ data transfer regime invalid, has also settled a number of crucial requirements corresponding to the foundations of EU data protection. In less than one year from the CJEU ruling, the Commission had adopted a new adequacy decision in which the new framework for EU-US data transfer, the Privacy Shield (2016), is deemed to adequately protect EU citizens. The main improvements ...

Gender equality and trade

Pe scurt 06-03-2018

Trade liberalisation has a gender-differentiated impact. The EU, which is committed to the promotion of gender equality in all policies, has established specific mechanisms in its bilateral trade agreements to enforce women's labour rights, and monitor the gender impact of the agreement. Parliament is due to discuss an own-initiative report during its March plenary session asking for those to be reinforced.

This report assesses the openness of public procurement markets in key third countries of interest to the EU. It provides a comparative overview of the regulatory and market access characteristics of the US, Brazil, India, China, Japans’ procurement markets, with reference to the procurement regulation and enforcement within the EU. The report assesses the available data on both the de jure and de facto levels of openness of these markets to put forward some conclusions of value to policy making ...

This study was prepared at the request of the European Parliament's Committee on Industry, Research and Energy (ITRE). The paper provides an overall assessment of European investments in the electricity sector. It concludes by providing policy recommendations to facilitate the investments in the electricity sector which are needed to enable a transition to a low carbon energy supply, while realising a fully integrated and interconnected electricity system, enhancing competitiveness and ensuring security ...

The notes in this compilation provide an indication of the possible economic and financial impact of Brexit on the euro-area/EU economy. Notwithstanding the potential adverse effects, Brexit could also provide an opportunity for far-reaching reform to the euro area governance. The notes have been requested by the Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs as an input for the November 2016 session of the Monetary Dialogue.

Competition in the food retail sector is of high importance for European citizens in their daily life. Competition rules are enforced jointly by the European Commission but in practice also to a great deal by the national competition authorities. This workshop aims to give an overview on the current state of play, specific trends or developments and most imminent challenges. It will look i.a. at the following questions: Is competition working effectively? How does the market structure look like? ...

Unfair trade practices imposed by the stronger party to a contract can have a profound impact on the functioning of the market, increasing costs and reducing revenues of the parties that experience them. This background paper reviews unfair trade practices that can appear on any side of the B2B (Business-to-Business ) transaction, in any sector of the market. Recently unfair trading practices have been of particular interest to the EU in relation to food supply chains. Briefing concludes that any ...

In spite of the fact that Europe pioneered both technological and content innovation in cinema, at present the EU film landscape is characterised by the strong presence of Hollywood productions. In 2013, they held a share of nearly 70% of the EU market, while European productions represented only 26%. What makes the major US companies so powerful is the fact that they are vertically integrated, with activities spanning production and distribution, allowing them to spread risks over several films, ...