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This document is part of a series of studies, which, in a comparative law perspective, seek to present the principles of equality and non-discrimination in different States. This study examines sources of equality law and judicial interpretation of the principles of equality and non-discrimination in Canada. Contemporary equality law was a response to histories of both public and private discrimination in Canada. Statutory protections for equality and non-discrimination emerged in the post World ...

This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the AFCO Committee, provides an overview of transparency and integrity-related elements in the current EU setting, covering both substantive elements (including, in particular, conflict of interest and revolving-doors) as well as the body in charge of ethical control and guidance. Based on a comparison covering France, Ireland and Canada, this study proposes an ...

This study forms part of a wider-ranging project which seeks to lay the groundwork for comparisons between legal frameworks governing the ratification of international treaties in different legal systems. The subject of this study is the ratification of international treaties under the laws of the United States. It describes relevant constitutional, statutory, and other legal provisions with respect to the making and ratification of treaties, as well as legal provisions relating to the making of ...

This study was commissioned by the European Parliament's Policy Department for Citizens' Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the LIBE Committee. The study argues that hate speech and hate crimes poison societies by threatening individual rights, human dignity and equality, reinforcing tensions between social groups, disturbing public peace and public order, and jeopardising peaceful coexistence. The lack of adequate means of prevention and response violates values enshrined in Article ...

This briefing provides an overview of the structure of public expenditures across EU Member States, by delving into their composition according to the classification of the functions of government provided by Eurostat. The overview aims at identifying similarities and differences among EU Members States in 2018 and spotting possible trends of convergence and divergence since 2008. This note is regularly updated.

The spread of the coronavirus pandemic has prompted countries to take extensive and far-reaching measures to tackle the consequences of the outbreak. Apart from curbing the spread of the disease, these measures have also posed legal and economic challenges, significantly affecting people's lives. Due to the nature of the virus, citizens' rights and freedoms have been curtailed, inter alia affecting their freedom of movement and assembly, as well as the right to conduct economic activities. Whilst ...

Conducting in-depth investigations is an ancient and essential right of parliaments in Europe. Yet, despite a provision of the Lisbon treaty, the European Parliament still has a limited institutional capacity to conduct inquiries. This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the AFCO Committee, discusses the theoretical basis of parliamentary investigation, compares recent committees of inquiries and develops ...

This survey, provided by the Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the AFCO Committee, looks into the legal and administrative framework in which parliamentary committees of inquiry operate in the EU Member States. It focuses, in particular, in the investigative powers these committees have at hand to assist national parliaments in exercising parliamentary control. It also examines the role of Member States’ parliamentary committees of inquiry in guiding ...

The Congress is the legislative branch of the US system of government and is divided into two chambers: the House of Representatives (lower chamber) and the Senate (upper chamber). The formal powers of the Congress are set out in Article 1 of the US Constitution, and include making laws, collecting revenue, borrowing and spending money, declaring war, making treaties with foreign nations, and overseeing the executive branch. Elections to the US Congress occur in November every second year, with the ...

This study forms part of a wider-ranging project which seeks to lay the groundwork for comparisons between legal frameworks governing freedom of expression in different legal systems. The document will analyse, with reference to the United Kingdom and the subject at hand, the legislation in force, the most relevant case law and the concept of freedom of expression with its current and prospective limits, ending with some conclusions and possible solutions for future challenges. In the absence of ...