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European research area (ERA) – Regional and cross-border perspectives

30-04-2019

The ERA is a coordination system for national research infrastructures, and itself constitutes an infrastructure designed to create a single market for science. The main implementing instrument for the ERA is the European Union (EU) framework programme for research and innovation (R&I), currently Horizon 2020, alongside national roadmaps for implementing the common priorities. While the ERA offers a way to improve joint programming for research and innovation activities, interaction between research ...

The ERA is a coordination system for national research infrastructures, and itself constitutes an infrastructure designed to create a single market for science. The main implementing instrument for the ERA is the European Union (EU) framework programme for research and innovation (R&I), currently Horizon 2020, alongside national roadmaps for implementing the common priorities. While the ERA offers a way to improve joint programming for research and innovation activities, interaction between research infrastructures, the use of public-public partnerships between Member States, the application of smart specialisation strategies (S3) and the mobility of researchers, challenges still remain. The Horizon 2020 focus on excellence as the main criterion for receiving funding – a requirement designed to cement the EU's reputation in science and its global competitiveness – has led to a concentration of funding as well as R&I capacities in some countries and regions, while increasing the (innovation) gap between EU-15 and EU-13 countries. Other main challenges include the absence of a clear, shared definition of the ERA concept, the multiplication of instruments, and the non-use of binding legislation for ERA implementation. One way to improve the ERA and to broaden participation and cohesion without undermining the criterion of excellence might be to enhance the interoperability between funding and programmes and to continue working on making the EU state aid rules more R&I-friendly.

Legal migration to the EU

07-03-2019

Entering the EU as a non-European is not too difficult for people from stable countries. Those planning to visit one or more EU Member States can get in as a tourist, with or without a visa. If the intention is to live and work for a longer period, they can use the many possibilities offered by labour migration. Regular mobility schemes also include provisions for other categories such as students, researchers, au pairs and voluntary workers. People wishing to join a family member who is already ...

Entering the EU as a non-European is not too difficult for people from stable countries. Those planning to visit one or more EU Member States can get in as a tourist, with or without a visa. If the intention is to live and work for a longer period, they can use the many possibilities offered by labour migration. Regular mobility schemes also include provisions for other categories such as students, researchers, au pairs and voluntary workers. People wishing to join a family member who is already residing legally in the EU might even be eligible for family reunification. However, for people coming from countries at war or where democracy is in serious peril, or who happen to live in a non-EU country after fleeing their own country, or who are simply looking for a better life, the options are more limited. Moreover, even when options exist, gaining access to them is not always possible for people who find themselves in precarious, dangerous or even life-threatening situations. In 2015, a record number of people tried to reach Europe by all means, often risking their lives along their journeys. Although the number of irregular arrivals in the EU is back to pre-crisis levels, immigration remains one of the key concerns of European citizens and is expected to remain a challenge for years to come. In order to address this challenge, the EU has embarked on a process of reform aimed at rebuilding its common asylum policies on fairer and more solid ground, strengthening its external borders by reinforcing the links between border controls and security, and renewing cooperation with third countries on migration issues. A forward-looking and comprehensive European immigration policy, based on solidarity and respect for European values, requires a balanced approach to dealing with both irregular and legal migration. The EU is committed to help create more, safe and controlled channels to migration both to help people in need of protection and to address labour market needs and skills shortages adequately.

EP-EUI Roundtable - Role of the European Parliament in promoting the use of independent expertise in the legislative process

16-08-2018

This report reflects on the role of European Parliament in promoting the use of independent expertise in the European legislative process. The European Parliament has a unique model of involving independent expertise of universities and think tanks in the European legislative process to guarantee that its decisions are based on the best available evidence. The EP-EUI roundtable discussed the general framework, best practices and the way forward for involving independent expertise in the European ...

This report reflects on the role of European Parliament in promoting the use of independent expertise in the European legislative process. The European Parliament has a unique model of involving independent expertise of universities and think tanks in the European legislative process to guarantee that its decisions are based on the best available evidence. The EP-EUI roundtable discussed the general framework, best practices and the way forward for involving independent expertise in the European legislative process. This document has been prepared in the framework of scientific cooperation between the European Parliament and the European University Institute.

EU Research Policy: Tackling the major challenges facing European society

10-03-2017

• 2014 – 2020, EU funds for research and innovation near €120 billion. • €31 billion of EU funds are set aside for research into societal challenges (2014 – 2020) • A fully established European Research Area will generate annual gains of €16 billion.

• 2014 – 2020, EU funds for research and innovation near €120 billion. • €31 billion of EU funds are set aside for research into societal challenges (2014 – 2020) • A fully established European Research Area will generate annual gains of €16 billion.

The ERANET scheme

21-10-2016

The ERANET scheme, developed in 2002, was the first instrument to support joint programming of national research activities. The scheme created networks of programme owners and programme managers from national or regional research funding institutions, to foster mutual knowledge and exchange of good practices. However, the instrument revealed existing national administrative and legal barriers that prevent the implementation of transnational joint programmes, and thus had a limited impact on the ...

The ERANET scheme, developed in 2002, was the first instrument to support joint programming of national research activities. The scheme created networks of programme owners and programme managers from national or regional research funding institutions, to foster mutual knowledge and exchange of good practices. However, the instrument revealed existing national administrative and legal barriers that prevent the implementation of transnational joint programmes, and thus had a limited impact on the fragmentation of the research landscape.

EU Innovation Policy – Part I: Building the EU innovation policy mix

25-05-2016

This publication aims at providing an overview of the evolution of European Union innovation policy. The paper focuses on the progressive integration of a wide range of policies and instruments into the EU innovation policy mix and reflects on some barriers limiting the development of a EU innovation policy. European Union innovation policy finds its roots in the development of Community policy for research. However the understanding that innovation is a complex process led to the establishment of ...

This publication aims at providing an overview of the evolution of European Union innovation policy. The paper focuses on the progressive integration of a wide range of policies and instruments into the EU innovation policy mix and reflects on some barriers limiting the development of a EU innovation policy. European Union innovation policy finds its roots in the development of Community policy for research. However the understanding that innovation is a complex process led to the establishment of a EU innovation policy mix including both key policies (research, industrial, education and regional policies) and key framework conditions (funding, taxation, single market and competition, regulation, standards, intellectual property rights, etc.). Despite the actions already taken, numerous issues and bottlenecks still hamper the innovation process. It appears necessary to give innovation its full place as an overarching policy at the EU level and fully embrace the concept of open innovation.

Foreign students and researchers: New rules for mobility

02-05-2016

The aging of the EU population and a shortage of skills, coupled with competition from other attractive destinations for the talented and the highly skilled, have created a need for more effective EU policies in this area. This is especially important because current EU legislation has been evaluated as insufficient to fully tackle the challenge.

The aging of the EU population and a shortage of skills, coupled with competition from other attractive destinations for the talented and the highly skilled, have created a need for more effective EU policies in this area. This is especially important because current EU legislation has been evaluated as insufficient to fully tackle the challenge.

Research in the European Treaties

16-03-2016

Whilst Community research activities were a key component of the Treaties establishing the European Coal and Steel Community in 1951 and the European Atomic Energy Community in 1957, there were no provisions related to research policy in the Treaty establishing the European Economic Community (EEC) in 1958. In 1972, the European Commission proposed to define and implement a Community research policy; however, there was no legal basis for it in the EEC Treaty. That is why in the 1970s and early 1980s ...

Whilst Community research activities were a key component of the Treaties establishing the European Coal and Steel Community in 1951 and the European Atomic Energy Community in 1957, there were no provisions related to research policy in the Treaty establishing the European Economic Community (EEC) in 1958. In 1972, the European Commission proposed to define and implement a Community research policy; however, there was no legal basis for it in the EEC Treaty. That is why in the 1970s and early 1980s, the first EEC research programmes were adopted on the basis of Article 235 of the EEC Treaty, which gave the Council the implicit competence to adopt Community measures on policy areas not included in this Treaty. In 1982, the European Parliament called for the situation to be clarified. The Single European Act, signed in 1986, enshrined research policy in the EEC Treaty. It defined cooperation and coordination of national research policies as the objectives of the common research policy, provided a clear legal framework for the adoption of the Community framework programme for research, and offered additional tools for the implementation of research policies. The amendments introduced by the Treaty of Maastricht in 1992 and the Treaty of Amsterdam in 1997 concerned mainly the legislative procedures to be used for the adoption of the relevant provisions. The inception of the European Research Area (ERA) in 2000 triggered the use of articles, dormant since 1986, for the establishment of public-public and public-private partnerships (Articles 185 and 187 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, TFEU). While the Treaty of Nice (2001) did not amend the articles related to research, the Treaty of Lisbon (2007) recognised research and space as a shared competence. It made the completion of ERA a Treaty requirement and provided the legal basis for the adoption of legislation to implement ERA. So far, this possibility, supported by the Parliament, has not been used due to opposition from the Council.

The European Research Area: Evolving concept, implementation challenges

16-03-2016

The 'European Research Area' (ERA) is the policy concept at the heart of the common European policy for research. The framing and adoption of ERA in 2000 was the result of a lengthy process started in 1972. Proposed by the European Commission, the concept has been reshaped by the Council of the European Union in 2008 and influenced by the involvement of stakeholders since 2012. The commitment of the Member States is now at the heart of the process of developing ERA. More than 40 years after the ...

The 'European Research Area' (ERA) is the policy concept at the heart of the common European policy for research. The framing and adoption of ERA in 2000 was the result of a lengthy process started in 1972. Proposed by the European Commission, the concept has been reshaped by the Council of the European Union in 2008 and influenced by the involvement of stakeholders since 2012. The commitment of the Member States is now at the heart of the process of developing ERA. More than 40 years after the first steps to establish a common research policy, and 16 years after the formulation of the concept, ERA remains a work in progress, as both a complex concept to define and a challenging one to implement.

Entry and residence of third-country nationals for research and study purposes

20-02-2014

The European Union faces major structural and demographic challenges. To maintain its position as world-leading economy, the EU needs to attract more skilled labour. Students from third countries are an important source of skilled workers, while the EU has a shortage of the researchers and innovators desperately required if the Union is to meet its economic growth targets.

The European Union faces major structural and demographic challenges. To maintain its position as world-leading economy, the EU needs to attract more skilled labour. Students from third countries are an important source of skilled workers, while the EU has a shortage of the researchers and innovators desperately required if the Union is to meet its economic growth targets.

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EPRS online policy roundtable with the World Bank: Where next for the global economy
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Public Hearing on "Gender aspects of precarious work"
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27-01-2021
Public hearing on AI and Green Deal
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