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The role of the French Parliament has varied under successive French Republics. The Constitution of the Fifth Republic, adopted in 1958, was amended by referendum in 1962 to establish the direct election of the President by universal suffrage. This created a hybrid political regime with some presidential and some parliamentary characteristics, sometimes described as a 'semi-presidential regime' or a 'hyper-presidential' regime. The government is responsible to Parliament, but contrary to classical ...

'The European Council will revert to the issue' or 'reiterates' its view, were probably the most used sentences in the conclusions issued following the 16 December 2021 meeting of the Heads of State or Government. For many of the issues on the agenda, such as energy, where the geopolitical stakes are high, differences in position remain in the European Council; achieving consensus is therefore part of a longer process. On security and defence, no big decisions, but specific guidelines and targeted ...

The role of the European Council is to 'provide the Union with the necessary impetus for its development' and to define its 'general political directions and priorities'. Since its creation in 1975, the European Council has exercised considerable influence over the development of the European Union, a process enhanced by its designation as a formal institution of the Union under the Lisbon Treaty in 2009. The European Council Oversight Unit within the European Parliamentary Research Service (EPRS ...

Decarbonisation of the internal gas market is necessary for attaining the EU's climate target of reducing greenhouse gas emission by 55 % by 2030 and reaching net zero emissions by 2050. The revision of the current Gas Regulation and Gas Directive, adopted in 2009 for the natural gas market, is underpinned by the strategies on energy system integration and on a hydrogen economy. Introduction of renewable and low-carbon gases to the energy system requires a profound transformation of the gas market ...

The last regular European Council meeting of 2021, on 16 December, will discuss a broad range of topics, notably the coronavirus pandemic, crisis management and resilience, energy prices, security and defence, migration, and external relations. In the context of the worsening epidemiological situation and the emergence of the Omicron variant, EU leaders will address progress in vaccination across the EU and the impact of new restrictions on the single market. They will also discuss international ...

This Briefing forms part of an EPRS series which offers a synthesis of the pre-legislative state-of-play and advance consultation on a range of key European Commission priorities during the latter’s five-year term in office. It seeks to summarise the state of affairs in the relevant policy field, examine how existing policy is working on the ground, and identify best practice and ideas for the future on the part of governmental organisations at all levels of European system of multilevel governance ...

At the end of October 2021, the European Commission submitted a proposal for the revision of Regulation (EU) 2019/1021 on persistent organic pollutants (POPs), and in particular its Annexes IV and V, which determine how waste containing POPs must be treated, i.e. whether waste could be recycled or must be destroyed or irreversibly transformed. The proposal updates the concentration limits of certain (groups of) POP substances already regulated in Annexes IV and V of the regulation, and also establishes ...

This Briefing forms part of an EPRS series which offers a synthesis of the pre-legislative state-of-play and advance consultation on a range of key European Commission priorities during the latter's five-year term in office. It seeks to summarise the state of affairs in the relevant policy field, examine how existing policy is working on the ground, and identify best practice and ideas for the future on the part of governmental organisations at all levels of European system of multilevel governance ...

The European Council in 2019

Štúdia 30-11-2021

The year 2019 provided a respite for the European Council from crisis management, but was not without major challenges. Three stood out: the Spitzenkandidaten process for selecting the next President of the European Commission; Brexit, which unexpectedly remained on the agenda of the European Council throughout the year; and policy towards climate change. The European Council had mixed feelings about the Spitzenkandidaten process, with one of its leading members being adamantly opposed. That set ...

Boosting rail freight transport is an essential pillar of the European Union's long-term policy to make transport more sustainable by cutting greenhouse gas emissions and decarbonising the sector. However, rail freight transport has faced numerous barriers in its development, and its growth is held back by its lack of competitiveness with other modes of transport such as road transport. Regulation (EU) 913/2010 was designed to facilitate rail freight transport across the EU rail network, through ...