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Common foreign and security policy (CFSP) has a particular status in the EU legal framework, part of which is the unanimity rule within the Council. This report analyses decision-making rules in CFSP from a 'cost of non-Europe' perspective. It identifies CFSP challenges and the extent to which they could be attributed to unanimity. This allows us to identify the current 'cost of unanimity'. The report also analyses possible alternatives to unanimity decision-making in CFSP, such as a switch to qualified ...

This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the FEMM Committee, outlines and assesses the impacts of social media on women and girls, on gender equality, and on democracy and civic participation more generally. It further analyses whether social media are creating a bias in their treatment of women and men, and provides recommendations to policy makers.

This study aims at quantifying and comparing tax compliance costs burdening private businesses in the European Union by reviewing the available empirical literature and data with a focus on small and medium-sized enterprises. Data as well as methodological challenges are discussed and used to identify best-practice tax systems in Europe. We highlight differences in compliance costs met by firms of differing sizes, engaging or not in cross-border trade and for different tax types.

This study explores the main impacts of the smart city transition on our cities and, in particular, on citizens and territories. In our research, we start from an analysis of smart city use cases to identify a set of key challenges, and elaborate on the main accelerating factors that may amplify or contain their impact on particular groups and territories. We then present an account of best practices that can help mitigate or prevent such challenges, and make some general observations on their scalability ...

This collection of publications presents studies, in-depth-analyses and briefings related to Anti-Money Laundering (AML), produced or delivered by the Policy Department for Economic, Scientific and Quality of Life Policies (DG IPOL), the Economic Governance Support Unit (DG IPOL), and the Directorate-General for Parliamentary Research Services (EPRS). Combating money laundering and terrorist financing has been part of the EU and the international policy agenda for many years, with a series of reforms ...

Unionisation and the twin transition

V stručnosti 02-09-2022

The original full study gives an overview of the impacts of the twin (digital and green) transition on the labour market and the workplace. It explores the role and presents good practice examples of employee involvement, both via social dialogue and collective bargaining, as well as collaborative decision making in the workplace – in shaping the transitions at the macro and micro levels. Finally, the study summarises the main legislative and policy measures adopted at the EU level to foster employee ...

This study overviews the impacts of the twin (digital and green) transition on the labour market and the workplace. It explores the role and presents good practice examples of employee involvement, both via social dialogue and collective bargaining and direct co-decision making, in shaping the transition at the macro and micro levels. Finally, the study summarises the main legislative and policy measures adopted at the EU level to foster employee involvement.

KEY FINDINGS This Policy Recommendation Briefing is based on the study on “Esports - Background Analysis”. • A suitable and functioning strategy requires a shared understanding/definition of what esports is. It is important to differentiate esports from traditional sports. This can have an impact on the system of traditional sports as well. • Esports is constantly and rapidly evolving, making it necessary to address it as soon as possible. Creating a working group regarding a holistic esports ...

This study describes two main dimensions of 5G technology, i.e. privacy and security. This research paper focuses on the analysis of cybersecurity risks and threats, privacy challenges and 5G technology opportunities at EU level and worldwide, as well as the relationship between cybersecurity risks and privacy issues. The methodological framework for this assessment of the impact of 5G technology is built on three pillars: (i) a document-based analysis; (ii) a parallel analysis with stakeholder involvement ...

This analysis looks at statistics on perpetuated disadvantage in education and training, and studies a number of contributing factors by looking at evidence from case studies and other research that investigates the development of educational systems. It also analyses the extent to which reforms have been possible and the complex reasons behind them. Finally, it looks at the role of support and cooperation provided at EU level and the position of the European Parliament favouring a lifelong learning ...