37

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Oblasť politiky
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Inclusion of migrants in formal education

14-11-2019

Statistics show that students with a migrant background are not as integrated in formal education as other students. Yet the term ‘students with a migrant background’ catches many different individuals. Some of those students may have been born in the country in which they are studying, with their parents or grandparents being the ones to have moved states. Some of the new arrivals are asylum‑seekers or refugees, who may have experienced chronic stress and severe trauma. Some students have chosen ...

Statistics show that students with a migrant background are not as integrated in formal education as other students. Yet the term ‘students with a migrant background’ catches many different individuals. Some of those students may have been born in the country in which they are studying, with their parents or grandparents being the ones to have moved states. Some of the new arrivals are asylum‑seekers or refugees, who may have experienced chronic stress and severe trauma. Some students have chosen to study abroad but, though they come from a different country, they are not considered migrants. This infographic looks at the complex picture behind the statistics, and at how authorities in Member States address the inclusion of migrant students through their policies.

A decade on from the financial crisis: Key data

17-10-2019

The financial crisis began with the collapse of Lehman Brothers, starting a worldwide chain reaction. The EU economy contracted for five consecutive quarters, with growth returning only in the second half of 2009. Stimulatory and fiscal actions by national governments and the EU, and the Eurosystem's loose monetary policy, helped achieve recovery. It was short-lived, however, as in 2010 a sovereign debt crisis resulted from a loss of financial market confidence, with soaring public debt. Yields on ...

The financial crisis began with the collapse of Lehman Brothers, starting a worldwide chain reaction. The EU economy contracted for five consecutive quarters, with growth returning only in the second half of 2009. Stimulatory and fiscal actions by national governments and the EU, and the Eurosystem's loose monetary policy, helped achieve recovery. It was short-lived, however, as in 2010 a sovereign debt crisis resulted from a loss of financial market confidence, with soaring public debt. Yields on government bonds, particularly in the periphery countries, rose dramatically. Ad hoc rescue devices, such as the European Financial Stabilisation Mechanism, brought the situation under control, later supported by the pledge of European Central Bank President Mario Draghi to do 'whatever it takes' to save the euro. The acute phase of the crisis ended in 2014, followed by a period of extremely low inflation and weak growth. To boost inflation, facilitate bank lending and stimulate the economy, the Eurosystem relied increasingly on quantitative easing. While 2017 was the EU's best year since the crises, with economic performance returning to pre-crisis levels, recent data suggest that the momentum is weakening, both in and outside the EU.

Data on returns of irregular migrants

05-04-2019

The Return Directive is the main piece of EU legislation applied to return procedures. Under this directive, Member States shall generally issue a return decision (an administrative or judicial decision imposing and obligation to leave the territory of Member States) against every third-country national (TCN) found to be irregularly present in their territory. A proposal to recast the EU Return Directive is currently being discussed within the European Parliament and the Council. This infographic ...

The Return Directive is the main piece of EU legislation applied to return procedures. Under this directive, Member States shall generally issue a return decision (an administrative or judicial decision imposing and obligation to leave the territory of Member States) against every third-country national (TCN) found to be irregularly present in their territory. A proposal to recast the EU Return Directive is currently being discussed within the European Parliament and the Council. This infographic aims to provide relevant data on the EU return policy.

Women in politics: A global perspective

28-02-2019

Fair representation of women in political life has a positive impact on gender mainstreaming in various policies. The United Nations has set a dedicated target within the sustainable development goals dealing specifically with women's access to leadership. The available data on the presence of women in parliaments and in governments show a positive trend, but much still remains to be done to ensure an equal presence of both genders in decision-making. The European Union supports gender equality in ...

Fair representation of women in political life has a positive impact on gender mainstreaming in various policies. The United Nations has set a dedicated target within the sustainable development goals dealing specifically with women's access to leadership. The available data on the presence of women in parliaments and in governments show a positive trend, but much still remains to be done to ensure an equal presence of both genders in decision-making. The European Union supports gender equality in politics, and the European Parliament has reaffirmed the importance of such a policy on various occasions.

Non-formal learning: Access and validation

10-12-2018

Learning happens in different contexts, over the course of a lifetime, following various possible educational paths, as shown in Figure 1. In adult life, learning ranges from programmes that impart basic skills, learning groups engaged in raising awareness on various issues, mature students at university, open and distance learning, on-the-job training, courses that combine theory with practice, and classes or other learning activities taken in pursuit of a special interest. This infographic explains ...

Learning happens in different contexts, over the course of a lifetime, following various possible educational paths, as shown in Figure 1. In adult life, learning ranges from programmes that impart basic skills, learning groups engaged in raising awareness on various issues, mature students at university, open and distance learning, on-the-job training, courses that combine theory with practice, and classes or other learning activities taken in pursuit of a special interest. This infographic explains the modalities that non-formal learning takes across Member States.

Migration & asylum: Projects & funding

16-05-2018

Funding instruments in the field of migration and asylum management cover, on the one hand, different EU policy fields, such as enlargement, neighbourhood, development cooperation and common foreign and security policy, as well as, on the other, international projects such as those managed by the International Organization for Migration (IOM) and the United Nations Refugee Agency (UNHCR) at a more global level. The legal basis of each funding instrument provides for the range of its geographical ...

Funding instruments in the field of migration and asylum management cover, on the one hand, different EU policy fields, such as enlargement, neighbourhood, development cooperation and common foreign and security policy, as well as, on the other, international projects such as those managed by the International Organization for Migration (IOM) and the United Nations Refugee Agency (UNHCR) at a more global level. The legal basis of each funding instrument provides for the range of its geographical and thematic coverage. In addition, interaction takes place between the different areas covered by the thematic and geographic programmes and other external financing Instruments. The funding landscape changed in 2013 with the new Financial Regulation applicable to the EU budget. This enabled the European Commission to create and administer Union Trust Funds in the field of external action, from 2014: these include multi-donor trust funds for emergency, post-emergency or thematic actions such as the Bêkou and the Madad Fund. The European Parliament welcomed this development in an April 2013 resolution, considering that it would allow the EU to raise the visibility of its external action and to have greater control over the delivery chain of such funds. Following the Valletta Summit in November 2015, an Emergency Trust Fund for stability, to address the root causes of irregular migration and displaced persons in Africa was created. To meet the increased migratory challenges, EU funding for the 2015-2018 period has more than doubled. Moreover, the crisis in Syria and in the neighbouring region led to the creation of different funding instruments, by the EU and the international community. EU agencies active externally are also funded through the EU budget. For the 2015-2018 period contributions for support to such EU agencies and their operations reaches €1.4 billion. Funding is one of the main instruments for EU cooperation with third countries in the area of migration, asylum and borders. This paper aims to map and clarify the different funding instruments established for migration-related projects, financed by the EU as well as by the international community.

Regulation of lobbying across the EU

07-12-2016

The infographic illustrates in broad terms the differences between Member States’ approaches to regulating lobbying (legislation or soft-regulation), as well as the existence of codes of conduct for lobbyists (either provided for by legislation, or through self-regulation by lobbyists’ organisations), and registers of lobbyists (mandatory or voluntary).

The infographic illustrates in broad terms the differences between Member States’ approaches to regulating lobbying (legislation or soft-regulation), as well as the existence of codes of conduct for lobbyists (either provided for by legislation, or through self-regulation by lobbyists’ organisations), and registers of lobbyists (mandatory or voluntary).

Economic impact of Big Data

28-09-2016

An EP resolution of 10 March 2016 quotes the benefits of a data driven economy and its expected impact on GDP growth and on job creation according to different worldwide studies. While the volume and the variety of big data is increasing exponentially, its value for the European economy has been highlighted by the creation of the Big Data Public and Private Partnership, which was set up to support both technical and non-technical priority areas in the value chain. A number of indicators covering ...

An EP resolution of 10 March 2016 quotes the benefits of a data driven economy and its expected impact on GDP growth and on job creation according to different worldwide studies. While the volume and the variety of big data is increasing exponentially, its value for the European economy has been highlighted by the creation of the Big Data Public and Private Partnership, which was set up to support both technical and non-technical priority areas in the value chain. A number of indicators covering the European data market are presented in this infographic, in particular regarding its size and expected developments in terms of companies, employment and revenues with a 2020 horizon.

Cross-border online sales in the EU

15-07-2016

Geo-blocking practices are commonly used to restrict cross-border sales of tangible goods e.g. (e.g. clothes, electronics) as well as of electronically supplied services (e.g. cloud services) and electronically delivered content (e.g. audiovisual services, e-books). In order to give customers better access to goods and services in the Single Market, the European Commission has proposed a regulation to prevent Geoblocking and related practices which introduce discrimination – based on customers’ nationality ...

Geo-blocking practices are commonly used to restrict cross-border sales of tangible goods e.g. (e.g. clothes, electronics) as well as of electronically supplied services (e.g. cloud services) and electronically delivered content (e.g. audiovisual services, e-books). In order to give customers better access to goods and services in the Single Market, the European Commission has proposed a regulation to prevent Geoblocking and related practices which introduce discrimination – based on customers’ nationality, place of residence or place of establishment – between traders and customers in cross-border commercial transactions (See EPRS Legislation in progress briefing). Against this background, this paper provides some statistical data on: the value of cross-border online trade in the EU, the public’s interest in accessing online content cross-border, consumers’ behaviour towards online shopping, online retailers’ experience and concerns with cross-border transactions, audiovisual and online music services, and development of e-learning activities.

Water use in the EU

27-04-2016

Water stress is st eadily increasing, as a result either of droughts – a temporary decline in water resources due to low rainfall – or situations of water scarcity, where demand exceeds the level of sustainable use. Assessment of the global use of water resources is hampered by the lack of established standards, and conventional measurements may yield diverging results. Data extracted in April 2016. This is an updated version of a document published in May 2015.

Water stress is st eadily increasing, as a result either of droughts – a temporary decline in water resources due to low rainfall – or situations of water scarcity, where demand exceeds the level of sustainable use. Assessment of the global use of water resources is hampered by the lack of established standards, and conventional measurements may yield diverging results. Data extracted in April 2016. This is an updated version of a document published in May 2015.

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