6

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Oblasť politiky
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Trade agreement between the European Union and Colombia and Peru

07-08-2018

This European Implementation Assessment consists of two parts. The in-house opening analysis (part I) presents briefly the signature of the trade agreement between the EU and Colombia and Peru. It also presents the socio-economic situation in Colombia and Peru and the relations between the EU and Colombia and Peru as well as the relations between the EU and Andean Community. The research paper prepared by external experts (part II) presents detail analysis of trade in goods and services and foreign ...

This European Implementation Assessment consists of two parts. The in-house opening analysis (part I) presents briefly the signature of the trade agreement between the EU and Colombia and Peru. It also presents the socio-economic situation in Colombia and Peru and the relations between the EU and Colombia and Peru as well as the relations between the EU and Andean Community. The research paper prepared by external experts (part II) presents detail analysis of trade in goods and services and foreign direct investments. The paper also evaluated in detail the implementation of the trade and sustainable development chapter of the agreement in both Colombia and Peru. They are followed by the presentation of the international cooperation of Colombia and Peru. Finally, the paper provides recommendation for the improvement of the implementation of the trade agreement.

Benefits of EU international trade agreements

25-10-2017

Trade is the EU's most important link to the world beyond its borders. In force since the 1957 Treaty of Rome, the transition to a common EU trade policy was completed in 1968. It is the EU's oldest instrument influencing the bloc's foreign relations. Today, Article 207 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) establishes the common trade policy as an exclusive EU competence. Following the procedure under that legal basis the EU negotiates, concludes and implements trade agreements ...

Trade is the EU's most important link to the world beyond its borders. In force since the 1957 Treaty of Rome, the transition to a common EU trade policy was completed in 1968. It is the EU's oldest instrument influencing the bloc's foreign relations. Today, Article 207 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) establishes the common trade policy as an exclusive EU competence. Following the procedure under that legal basis the EU negotiates, concludes and implements trade agreements. Currently, the EU is negotiating and up-dating Free Trade Agreements (FTAs) with 19 countries and 2 sub-regional blocs, namely the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and the Southern Common Market of South American countries (Mercado Común de Sur: Mercosur). Within the EU's latest trade strategy – the 2015 'Trade for All – Towards a more responsible trade and investment strategy', FTAs are considered instruments that contribute to the EU's objective of generating jobs and growth. About 31 million jobs in Europe depend, directly or indirectly, on the EU and its Member States' ability to trade. In other words, EU external trade concerns almost one in every seven jobs in Europe. In France, for example, over 2.2 million jobs rely on French exports outside the EU. Around 90 % of future global growth is expected to be generated outside Europe's borders. Figures show that the EU share of world GDP has slowly decreased in recent years (see graph below). Against this background, the EU needs to seize trade opportunities beyond its borders in order to gain higher levels of growth in Europe.

Sexual Violence against Minors in Latin America

12-10-2016

Sexual violence against minors is a major problem in Latin America. Children are mostly at risk in their own homes, while adolescents are at risk in their homes but also in the wider community (for instance, schools or boyfriends). However, data is very limited due to silence around the issue. Latin America is highly patriarchal, is riven by inequalities within and between social groups, and has weak judicial institutions; these are all factors that impact on gender based violence. However, governments ...

Sexual violence against minors is a major problem in Latin America. Children are mostly at risk in their own homes, while adolescents are at risk in their homes but also in the wider community (for instance, schools or boyfriends). However, data is very limited due to silence around the issue. Latin America is highly patriarchal, is riven by inequalities within and between social groups, and has weak judicial institutions; these are all factors that impact on gender based violence. However, governments in Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, and Paraguay are starting to see children as individuals with rights, rather than minors under the sole authority of fathers, and are designing laws and agencies to protect those rights. Civil society in the meantime is increasingly mobilising against violence against women, including violence against girls, two forms of violence that go hand in hand, at a time when the problem is increasingly recognised and acted upon globally. This report outlines possibilities for the EU to support these recent developments and initiatives to end violence against minors via the establishment of national action plans, in collaboration with national, regional and global partners.

Externý autor

Jelke BOESTEN (International Development Institute, King’s College, London, the UK)

EU–Latin America trade relations: Overview and figures

11-03-2016

Trade relations between the EU and Latin American countries have come back into the spotlight in recent years. Collectively, the countries forming the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC) represent the fifth largest trading partner of the EU. The EU has concluded agreements with two Latin American (LA) groupings (Cariforum and the Central America group) and with four other Latin American countries (Mexico, Chile, Peru and Colombia). The FTAs concluded by the EU with Latin American ...

Trade relations between the EU and Latin American countries have come back into the spotlight in recent years. Collectively, the countries forming the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC) represent the fifth largest trading partner of the EU. The EU has concluded agreements with two Latin American (LA) groupings (Cariforum and the Central America group) and with four other Latin American countries (Mexico, Chile, Peru and Colombia). The FTAs concluded by the EU with Latin American countries differ considerably in terms of coverage and methodology depending on the time at which they were concluded and the context of the negotiations. The EU now aims to modernise the oldest FTAs, concluded with Mexico and Chile, in order to align them to the current standards of EU FTAs. The long-standing negotiations on a comprehensive trade agreement with Mercosur – which would mean the EU then had trade agreements with nearly all of Latin America – are yet to pick up pace, however.

Ecuador: political parties

12-12-2014

The political party system in Ecuador has suffered historically from fragmentation and volatility, accentuated by the 1972-78 dictatorship, and then chronic economic crises between 1984 and 2005. As a result, the country has enjoyed relatively few periods of genuine political stability. The 2006 presidential elections brought major changes, both through the weakening of the traditional parties and the appearance of new political forces, with greater strength at national level.

The political party system in Ecuador has suffered historically from fragmentation and volatility, accentuated by the 1972-78 dictatorship, and then chronic economic crises between 1984 and 2005. As a result, the country has enjoyed relatively few periods of genuine political stability. The 2006 presidential elections brought major changes, both through the weakening of the traditional parties and the appearance of new political forces, with greater strength at national level.

In Ecuador, a Decisive Victory for President Rafael Correa Consolidates the 'Citizen's Revolution'

26-02-2013

Ecuador's President Rafael Correa was re-elected for a third term with 56.9 % of the vote. His closest opponent, Guillermo Lasso, lagged far behind, with 22.8 %. Correa's support can be attributed to his social policy. In power since 2007, he has weathered the economic crisis well, making use of financial reforms and high oil prices to subsidise public spending. Alianza País (AP), Correa's party, won an absolute majority in the National Assembly. While the overseas vote remains to be counted, the ...

Ecuador's President Rafael Correa was re-elected for a third term with 56.9 % of the vote. His closest opponent, Guillermo Lasso, lagged far behind, with 22.8 %. Correa's support can be attributed to his social policy. In power since 2007, he has weathered the economic crisis well, making use of financial reforms and high oil prices to subsidise public spending. Alianza País (AP), Correa's party, won an absolute majority in the National Assembly. While the overseas vote remains to be counted, the AP is certain to obtain a two-thirds majority in the Assembly, allowing it to reform the constitution. The chief opposition parties are the Movement CREO and the PSC, although they control together only 18 seats (about 13 %). The absolute majority for AP in the parliament will allow the passage of controversial proposals, including laws on communications and water resources. These proposals have provoked considerable resistance in the past. President Correa's re-election is consistent with a trend of electing socially-minded presidents in Latin American countries. Yet Correa has said he will not seek re-election in 2017.

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