32

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Oblasť politiky
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Customs 2020 and Fiscalis 2020 (2014-2020)

13-12-2018

The Customs 2020 programme was established by Regulation No 1294/2013 and is aimed at supporting the functioning of the customs union. The Fiscalis 2020 programme was established by Regulation No 1286/2013 and is aimed at improving the operation of the taxation systems in the internal market and supporting cooperation between the EU Member States.

The Customs 2020 programme was established by Regulation No 1294/2013 and is aimed at supporting the functioning of the customs union. The Fiscalis 2020 programme was established by Regulation No 1286/2013 and is aimed at improving the operation of the taxation systems in the internal market and supporting cooperation between the EU Member States.

Establishing the 'Customs' programme 2021-2027

30-11-2018

The impact assessment provides a good overview of the problems facing EU customs cooperation that need to be tackled after 2020, and sets out well the rationale for the new programme. However, the overall analysis is undermined by the limited range of viable options and the absence of a proper comparison of the options and assessment of their impacts, contrary to the Better Regulation guidelines. A more thorough assessment would have helped to better explain the choice of the preferred option.

The impact assessment provides a good overview of the problems facing EU customs cooperation that need to be tackled after 2020, and sets out well the rationale for the new programme. However, the overall analysis is undermined by the limited range of viable options and the absence of a proper comparison of the options and assessment of their impacts, contrary to the Better Regulation guidelines. A more thorough assessment would have helped to better explain the choice of the preferred option.

Future EU-Turkey relations

23-10-2018

In June 2018, Recep Tayyip Erdogan was re-elected as president of Turkey, this time with extended powers under the revised Turkish Constitution. Over the previous couple of years, his country's relationship with the EU had been challenged by issues such as the ongoing management of the migration crisis and the EU-Turkey Agreement, the attempted military coup in Istanbul and Ankara, and the ensuing purge, which the EU and international organisations criticised for its disproportionate severity. With ...

In June 2018, Recep Tayyip Erdogan was re-elected as president of Turkey, this time with extended powers under the revised Turkish Constitution. Over the previous couple of years, his country's relationship with the EU had been challenged by issues such as the ongoing management of the migration crisis and the EU-Turkey Agreement, the attempted military coup in Istanbul and Ankara, and the ensuing purge, which the EU and international organisations criticised for its disproportionate severity. With the constitutional referendum and the subsequent parliamentary and presidential elections, President Erdogan further reinforced his position at the helm of the institutional system and raised concerns among the EU and NATO about his commitment to Western institutions. Turkey deepened its relations with Russia, buying military equipment and coordinating with it on Syrian policies on the ground. At the same time, US-Turkish relations worsened due to the Syrian conflict and the imprisonment of a US pastor by Turkey, although he was subsequently released. Negotiations on Turkey's accession to the EU have nevertheless continued, despite an increasingly lively debate in some Member States about whether or not they should be halted. Some have proposed striking an economic agreement with Turkey as an alternative to membership. Others believe the outcome of the negotiations on the UK's future relationship with the EU might also provide a possible model for Turkey. Despite the numerous hurdles before it, accession not only remains the ultimate objective of EU-Turkey relations, endorsed by both the European Council and by Turkey, but it also provides potential for reform and dialogue regarding common standards, not least in the area of civil liberties.

Future trade relations between the EU and the UK: Options after Brexit

16-03-2018

This study analyses the various options for the future trade relations between the EU and the UK, after Brexit. It examines the various models against the canvas of two distinct paradigms: market integration and trade liberalization. It finds that an intermediate model, which would allow for continued convergence and mutual recognition in some sectors/freedoms, but not others, is unavailable and cannot easily be constructed for legal, institutional, and political reasons. The stark choice is between ...

This study analyses the various options for the future trade relations between the EU and the UK, after Brexit. It examines the various models against the canvas of two distinct paradigms: market integration and trade liberalization. It finds that an intermediate model, which would allow for continued convergence and mutual recognition in some sectors/freedoms, but not others, is unavailable and cannot easily be constructed for legal, institutional, and political reasons. The stark choice is between a customs union/free trade agreement, or continued internal market membership through the EEA or an equivalent agreement. The study further analyses the effects of Brexit on the UK’s continued participation in the trade agreements concluded by the EU. Notwithstanding a range of complexities, the study finds that such continued participation is not automatic but subject to negotiation.

Externý autor

Piet Eeckhout

EU–Kazakhstan Partnership Agreement

05-12-2017

In December 2017, the European Parliament is due to vote on whether to give consent to an Enhanced Partnership and Cooperation Agreement with Kazakhstan, which would replace a 1995 agreement.

In December 2017, the European Parliament is due to vote on whether to give consent to an Enhanced Partnership and Cooperation Agreement with Kazakhstan, which would replace a 1995 agreement.

Brexit and Ireland – Legal, political and economic considerations

22-11-2017

This study, commissioned by the European Parliament's Policy Department for Citizens' Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the AFCO Committee, describes the legal, political and economic relations of the two parts of Ireland and the United Kingdom, and possible arrangements for dealing with "Brexit". The paper discusses several specific issues, in particular the Common Travel Area between Ireland and the United Kingdom, the consequences of an "invisible" border between the two parts ...

This study, commissioned by the European Parliament's Policy Department for Citizens' Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the AFCO Committee, describes the legal, political and economic relations of the two parts of Ireland and the United Kingdom, and possible arrangements for dealing with "Brexit". The paper discusses several specific issues, in particular the Common Travel Area between Ireland and the United Kingdom, the consequences of an "invisible" border between the two parts of Ireland, and trade in agricultural products.

Smart Border 2.0 Avoiding a hard border on the island of Ireland for Customs control and the free movement of persons

22-11-2017

TThis study, commissioned by the European Parliament's Policy Department for Citizens' Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the AFCO Committee, provides background on cross-border movement and trade between Northern Ireland and Ireland and identifies international standards and best practices and provide insights into creating a smooth border experience. The technical solution provided is based on innovative approaches with a focus on cooperation, best practices and technology that ...

TThis study, commissioned by the European Parliament's Policy Department for Citizens' Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the AFCO Committee, provides background on cross-border movement and trade between Northern Ireland and Ireland and identifies international standards and best practices and provide insights into creating a smooth border experience. The technical solution provided is based on innovative approaches with a focus on cooperation, best practices and technology that is independent of any political agreements on the EU's exit from the EU and offers a template for future UK-EU border relationships.

Economic integration under the African Union

16-11-2017

Although it tends to prioritise political objectives, the African Union (AU) pursues a no less ambitious project for economic integration with the ultimate goal of creating a common market and a monetary and economic union. Currently, the main responsibility for driving economic integration forward is carried by the regional economic communities, which are overseen and coordinated by the AU. However, the pace of progress is very uneven. In addition, the AU has developed its own programmes for promoting ...

Although it tends to prioritise political objectives, the African Union (AU) pursues a no less ambitious project for economic integration with the ultimate goal of creating a common market and a monetary and economic union. Currently, the main responsibility for driving economic integration forward is carried by the regional economic communities, which are overseen and coordinated by the AU. However, the pace of progress is very uneven. In addition, the AU has developed its own programmes for promoting the continent's economic development.

Customs unions and FTAs: Debate with respect to EU neighbours

07-11-2017

The EU neighbourhood is undergoing deep transformations and this raises debate on how best to establish trade relations with neighbouring partners, like Turkey and the Eastern Partnership countries (such as Ukraine, Moldova and Georgia). Moreover, Brexit will entail the reorganisation of EU-UK relations, which will shake up cross-border trade flows. The EU can negotiate two basic types of trade agreement granting preferential market access to partners’ goods: free trade agreements (FTAs) and customs ...

The EU neighbourhood is undergoing deep transformations and this raises debate on how best to establish trade relations with neighbouring partners, like Turkey and the Eastern Partnership countries (such as Ukraine, Moldova and Georgia). Moreover, Brexit will entail the reorganisation of EU-UK relations, which will shake up cross-border trade flows. The EU can negotiate two basic types of trade agreement granting preferential market access to partners’ goods: free trade agreements (FTAs) and customs unions (CUs). CUs represent a higher level of integration, as the parties decide to harmonise their external trade barriers with the rest of the world. As FTAs do not maintain a single external border, they may result in trade deflection, whereby third countries can 'free ride' on FTA concessions by entering via the least restrictive border. For this reason, FTAs need to discriminate between goods originating in an FTA member and goods from third countries, through the introduction of costly preferential rules of origin (PRoO). Notwithstanding the cost of PRoO, FTAs have been the main type of trade agreements used, while the smaller number of CUs is due to the higher negotiation costs involved. CUs have therefore mainly been considered as a first step towards deeper regional integration. This is why there are ongoing political debates on customs unions in three different contexts: the assessment of the EU-Turkey CU, a CU as a further step in EU-Ukraine trade relations and the issue of the UK's exit from the EU CU as a result of Brexit. This briefing may be read in conjunction with one by Krisztina Binder, Reinvigorating EU-Turkey bilateral trade: Upgrading the customs union (PE 599.319), EPRS, March 2017.

Understanding the EU customs union

20-09-2017

In December 2016, the European Commission adopted its long-term plan to strengthen the governance and management of the EU customs union. The customs union, in place since 1968, is a pillar of the single market, and vital to the free flow of goods and services. According to the Commission, a strong customs system helps foster competitive businesses, increases wealth, and also protects against terrorist, health, and environmental threats. The customs union operates under the legal framework of the ...

In December 2016, the European Commission adopted its long-term plan to strengthen the governance and management of the EU customs union. The customs union, in place since 1968, is a pillar of the single market, and vital to the free flow of goods and services. According to the Commission, a strong customs system helps foster competitive businesses, increases wealth, and also protects against terrorist, health, and environmental threats. The customs union operates under the legal framework of the Union Customs Code (UCC), in force since May 2016. However, while customs rules are the same across the EU, national customs authorities do not always apply them in a consistent manner. The Commission has therefore proposed structural and administrative changes, inter alia, on customs policy monitoring, formulation, and implementation. In addition, the Commission proposes to tackle administrative issues (e.g. application of EU law, competency building for custom officials, aligning new EU-wide IT systems dedicated to customs procedures), and border management coordination. The European Parliament is critical of the differences between customs systems at the national level, in particular regarding customs duties and customs clearance, since these create fragmentation, additional administrative burdens (in particular for small and medium-sized enterprises), and hamper e-commerce. The Parliament suggests, among other things, the creation of more uniform electronic customs requirements and risk-assessment programmes. Parliament has also called on the Commission to present an interim report evaluating EU customs policy by 2017, including a review of the problems, overlaps, gaps, and complaints filed with customs authorities, and customs infringements.

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