17

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Oblasť politiky
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State of play of existing instruments for combating impunity for international crimes

14-08-2020

The European Union and its Member States have been at the forefront of the fight against impunity for core international crimes, collectively providing political, technical and financial assistance to international, regional and domestic accountability efforts. Focusing on the current EU framework on accountability and six country situations (Rwanda, Colombia, Venezuela, Myanmar, Syria and Iraq), this study offers recommendations to guide future EU policy and the engagement of the European Parliament ...

The European Union and its Member States have been at the forefront of the fight against impunity for core international crimes, collectively providing political, technical and financial assistance to international, regional and domestic accountability efforts. Focusing on the current EU framework on accountability and six country situations (Rwanda, Colombia, Venezuela, Myanmar, Syria and Iraq), this study offers recommendations to guide future EU policy and the engagement of the European Parliament in the fight against impunity. The recommendations include enhancing the capacity, efficiency and coordination of EU institutions working on accountability, as well as encouraging comprehensive, impartial and inclusive approaches to country situations. EU action in bilateral and multilateral fora is also covered, with a view to enhancing the universal reach of accountability mechanisms and the protection of their integrity, encouraging cooperation and assistance, and to upholding the principle of complementarity.

Externý autor

Olympia BEKOU

EU sanctions: A key foreign and security policy instrument

08-05-2018

Sanctions have become an increasingly central element of the EU's common and foreign security policy. At present, the EU has 42 sanctions programmes in place, making it the world's second-most active user of restrictive measures, after the US. Unlike the comprehensive trade embargoes used in the past, the EU has moved towards asset freezes and visa bans targeted at individual persons and companies, aiming to influence foreign governments while avoiding humanitarian costs for the general population ...

Sanctions have become an increasingly central element of the EU's common and foreign security policy. At present, the EU has 42 sanctions programmes in place, making it the world's second-most active user of restrictive measures, after the US. Unlike the comprehensive trade embargoes used in the past, the EU has moved towards asset freezes and visa bans targeted at individual persons and companies, aiming to influence foreign governments while avoiding humanitarian costs for the general population. Other measures in the sanctions toolkit include arms embargoes, sectoral trade and investment restrictions, as well as suspensions of development aid and trade preferences. The declared purpose of EU sanctions is to uphold the international security order as well as defending human rights and democracy standards, by encouraging targeted countries to change their behaviour. Measuring their effectiveness is difficult, as sanctions rarely achieve all their aims, and usually there are other causes to which changes can be attributed. However, even when this primary purpose is not achieved, sanctions may have useful secondary effects, for example by deterring other actors from similar behaviour. The broader the international support for EU sanctions and the closer the relationship between the EU and the targeted country are, the stronger the prospects for success will be. On the other hand, effectiveness can be undermined by inconsistent application of sanctions standards and by the difficulty of coordinating implementation between multiple stakeholders.

Water disputes in the Mekong basin

17-04-2018

The Mekong is south-east Asia's longest river (around 4 900km). From its source in Tibet, it flows southwards through the Chinese province of Yunnan before passing through five south-east Asian countries (Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam). Nearly half of the river is in China, where it is known as the Lancang. For the 70 million people who live in the Mekong basin, the river is a vital source of food and water, as well as an important transport route. Increasingly, it is being used to ...

The Mekong is south-east Asia's longest river (around 4 900km). From its source in Tibet, it flows southwards through the Chinese province of Yunnan before passing through five south-east Asian countries (Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam). Nearly half of the river is in China, where it is known as the Lancang. For the 70 million people who live in the Mekong basin, the river is a vital source of food and water, as well as an important transport route. Increasingly, it is being used to generate hydroelectricity. Human activity threatens the river's fauna and flora, and competition for natural resources is intensifying.

Plenary round-up - Strasbourg, September 2017

15-09-2017

In addition to the State of the Union address by European Commission President, Jean-Claude Juncker, the main debates held during Parliament's September plenary session included questions such as fire safety in buildings, the impact of hurricane Irma, breaches of human rights and a series of statements related to external relations presented by the High Representative, Federica Mogherini. On the legislative front, Members voted, inter alia, on proposals concerning the WIFI4EU regulation (an initiative ...

In addition to the State of the Union address by European Commission President, Jean-Claude Juncker, the main debates held during Parliament's September plenary session included questions such as fire safety in buildings, the impact of hurricane Irma, breaches of human rights and a series of statements related to external relations presented by the High Representative, Federica Mogherini. On the legislative front, Members voted, inter alia, on proposals concerning the WIFI4EU regulation (an initiative to promote internet connectivity in local communities), security of gas supply, the European Accessibility Act and the European Venture Capital Funds and European Social Entrepreneurship Funds investment schemes. Parliament pushed the Council to move forward with ratifying the Istanbul Convention on combating violence against women. It also raised concerns over the EU Common Position on arms export, as well as adopting three resolutions aimed at modernising EU-Chile trade relations.

Plight of the Rohingya minority in Myanmar/Burma

15-09-2017

The brutal military crackdown since October 2016 in Myanmar/Burma's Rakhine State has highlighted the tragic situation of Muslim Rohingya, often described as one of the most persecuted minorities in the world. Deprived of citizenship and basic freedoms at home, those who risk their lives to escape can at best hope for a precarious existence abroad. This text updates an earlier 'at a glance note', published in February 2017 - PE 599.257.

The brutal military crackdown since October 2016 in Myanmar/Burma's Rakhine State has highlighted the tragic situation of Muslim Rohingya, often described as one of the most persecuted minorities in the world. Deprived of citizenship and basic freedoms at home, those who risk their lives to escape can at best hope for a precarious existence abroad. This text updates an earlier 'at a glance note', published in February 2017 - PE 599.257.

Plight of the Rohingya minority in Myanmar/Burma

06-02-2017

The brutal military crackdown since October 2016 in Myanmar/Burma's Rakhine State has highlighted the tragic situation of Muslim Rohingya, often described as one of the most persecuted minorities in the world. Deprived of citizenship and basic freedoms at home, those who risk their lives to escape can at best hope for a precarious existence abroad.

The brutal military crackdown since October 2016 in Myanmar/Burma's Rakhine State has highlighted the tragic situation of Muslim Rohingya, often described as one of the most persecuted minorities in the world. Deprived of citizenship and basic freedoms at home, those who risk their lives to escape can at best hope for a precarious existence abroad.

Myanmar/Burma's 2015 elections: Democracy at last?

28-10-2015

Twenty-five years ago, Aung San Suu Kyi's NLD party won an overwhelming electoral victory, only to be denied power by the SLORC junta. The 2015 elections give the party and its leader a second chance to end decades of direct and indirect military rule. In the absence of opinion polls it is impossible to reliably predict the results. While the NLD is widely seen as the likely winner, the incumbent USDP party, closely linked to the former junta, and ethnic parties will probably win substantial minorities ...

Twenty-five years ago, Aung San Suu Kyi's NLD party won an overwhelming electoral victory, only to be denied power by the SLORC junta. The 2015 elections give the party and its leader a second chance to end decades of direct and indirect military rule. In the absence of opinion polls it is impossible to reliably predict the results. While the NLD is widely seen as the likely winner, the incumbent USDP party, closely linked to the former junta, and ethnic parties will probably win substantial minorities. The 2012 by-elections are an encouraging precedent, raising hope that elections in 2015 will be considerably fairer than in 2010. It is however unlikely that they will be completely transparent and credible, among other things due to the large share of the population excluded from voting. With one quarter of parliamentary seats filled by military appointees, the NLD needs to win two thirds of elected seats in order to command an overall majority. Failing this, it will have to form a coalition, possibly with the ethnic parties. On the other hand, with military support, the USDP only needs to win one third of elected seats to stay in power. The newly constituted parliament will then elect a president, who in turn appoints the new government. With Nobel and Sakharov prize-winner Aung San Suu Kyi constitutionally excluded from the presidency, no obvious alternative has emerged. A victory for the opposition would be a major step forward for democracy. However, difficult reforms will still be needed, and a military backlash cannot be completely excluded either, potentially repeating the tragic events of 1990.

Myanmar/Burma: Political parties

22-10-2015

After decades of direct and indirect military rule, Myanmar/Burma's political future now hangs in the balance, with elections on 8 November 2015 offering its best chance of a transition to democracy for many years. The two main parties contesting the election are the incumbent, military-backed USDP, and the opposition party, NLD, led by the charismatic Aung San Suu Kyi.

After decades of direct and indirect military rule, Myanmar/Burma's political future now hangs in the balance, with elections on 8 November 2015 offering its best chance of a transition to democracy for many years. The two main parties contesting the election are the incumbent, military-backed USDP, and the opposition party, NLD, led by the charismatic Aung San Suu Kyi.

Myanmar/Burma: The next tiger?

22-10-2015

Decades of economic mismanagement have left formerly wealthy Myanmar/Burma one of the poorest countries in the world. However, prospects have brightened recently – foreign trade and investment are booming, growth is accelerating and decrepit infrastructure is being rebuilt, giving the country a chance of becoming the next south-east Asian 'tiger' economy.

Decades of economic mismanagement have left formerly wealthy Myanmar/Burma one of the poorest countries in the world. However, prospects have brightened recently – foreign trade and investment are booming, growth is accelerating and decrepit infrastructure is being rebuilt, giving the country a chance of becoming the next south-east Asian 'tiger' economy.

Myanmar/Burma: Social situation

22-10-2015

One of the least developed countries in Asia, Myanmar/Burma lags behind its neighbours in areas such as health and education. In the medium term, the country's improving economic situation should enable faster progress.

One of the least developed countries in Asia, Myanmar/Burma lags behind its neighbours in areas such as health and education. In the medium term, the country's improving economic situation should enable faster progress.

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