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This study investigates the revision of the third energy package for gas in light of the current energy crisis. The report presents findings from desk research, interviews and a workshop on the current political context regarding natural gas and hydrogen as well as the role of unbundling rules for gas and hydrogen infrastructure, the development of an EU hydrogen backbone and the issue of ensuring energy supply through gas interconnectors.

This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the LIBE Committee, assesses the European Commission’s 2022 legal migration package on effectiveness, efficiency, legal and practical coherence, and fundamental rights compliance. The study finds that a more coherent and ambitious rights-based legal migration agenda is warranted. In the EU struggle for skilled and talented third-country national workers, social ...

The evolution of HIV from a fatal to a long-term condition poses challenges for people living with HIV and for health and social care systems across the EU. This paper aims to help Members of the European Parliament and other interested stakeholders to obtain a better picture of the current situation in relation to HIV among people living with HIV in the EU, HIV-related stigma and issues which impact on health-related quality of life for people living with HIV.

Africa-EU trade relations have a longstanding tradition. The EU remains the biggest trading and investment partner for most African countries, especially for those implementing Economic Partnership Agreement (EPAs) with the EU. The workshop shall provide a data-based discussion of the impact of current EPAs on economic regional development (and recent trends on intraregional economic integration in Africa) as well as an overview of EU's sustainable investment facilitation agreements negotiated with ...

This research study examines the impact of COVID-19 measures on democracy and fundamental rights in the EU. It considers what best practices have been evidenced, and the lessons that can be learned from comparative experience within EU Member States as well as relevant third countries. It examines pandemic governance in the EU and its Member States during the COVID-19 pandemic between 2020 and 2022. It describes how the COVID-19 pandemic was addressed by EU Member States, either in terms of declaring ...

This study aims at providing background information on the history and functioning of the UN Convention on Biological Diversity and its Protocols. It also gives an overview on recent developments and main topics to be discussed at COP15. Special emphasis is put on the development of the Post 2020 Global Biodiversity Framework.

Personalised pricing

Študija 29-11-2022

The study conceptualises personal pricing, distinguishing different forms including individual prices and group prices. It summarises empirical insights on the occurrence of personal pricing in practice and related consumer attitudes. In its legal part, it analyses whether and how current EU law deals with this phenomenon and identifies regulatory gaps and legal uncertainty, on the basis of which recommendations for future regulation of personalised pricing are presented. This document was provided ...

Global factors and ECB monetary policy

Poglobljena analiza 28-11-2022

The euro area’s current high inflation rate is due to both internally generated demand pressures and external shocks that have raised food and energy prices. This paper argues that the latter element is more important than the former. Central banks need to tighten monetary policy to address high inflation but, with central banks around the world under pressure to restore their anti-inflationary credentials, it is possible that there is going to be too much tightening of global financial conditions ...

The dispersion of inflation rates within the euro area tends to increase in times of very strong energy price increases. A small part of this divergence is due to fiscal policy measures implemented by member states and aimed at dampening the energy price increase. The monetary policy response of an inflation targeting central bank to adverse supply shocks depends on the nature of the shock (demand or supply driven, temporary or permanent) and on the credibility of the central bank's commitment to ...

Inflation has always had a strong global component, driven mostly by volatile energy prices. However, the unprecedented levels of inflation reached now cannot in all cases be explained by unprecedented energy prices – except for the euro area where gas prices have had a special impact. The international spill-over effects of national monetary policy are of uncertain sign. US tightening has a negative impact abroad, especially in emerging economies because of the dominant role of the US dollar in ...