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The UK was a European Union Member State from 1973 until 31 January 2020. For reasons of comparability and consistency, the historical data for the 'EU-27' in this infographic covers all current Member States, regardless of whether they were Member States at the time concerned.

The 2007 Lugano Convention is an international treaty that regulates the free movement of court judgments in civil cases between the Member States of the EU, on one hand, and the three EFTA states (Switzerland, Norway and Iceland), on the other. The convention effectively extends the regime of quasi-automatic recognition and enforcement of judgments that was applicable between EU Member States at the time under the Brussels I Regulation (No 44/2001). Whereas the EU rules currently in force regulating ...

Human rights sanctions are nothing new, but the death in 2009 of Russian whistle-blower Sergei Magnitsky in detention resulted in calls for more vigorous action to counter continuing abuses in many countries. Adopted by the US in 2016, the Global Magnitsky Act was the first of a new generation of human rights sanctions programmes, which, in contrast to traditional sanctions targeted at individual countries, can be flexibly applied to perpetrators from all over the world, regardless of their geographical ...

The level playing-field (LPF) provisions of the Trade and Cooperation Agreement (TCA) between the European Union (EU) and the United Kingdom (UK) constitute a key part of the agreement, and are the product of some of the more challenging issues in the negotiations. The LPF provisions seek to safeguard fair competition between the parties. A notable component are the rules on social provisions, labour, environment and climate change, often referred to as the 'trade and sustainable development' (TSD ...

Brexit Adjustment Reserve

Briefing 09-11-2021

As part of the preparations for the United Kingdom's withdrawal from the European Union, the European Council agreed in July 2020 to create a Brexit adjustment reserve within the special instruments outside the budget ceilings of the European Union's multiannual financial framework, with a budget of €5 billion to counter unforeseen and adverse consequences in Member States and sectors that are most affected. The Commission adopted a proposal for a regulation on the Brexit adjustment reserve on 25 ...

Since the referendum to leave the European Union (EU) in 2016, the United Kingdom (UK) has been rethinking its role in world affairs. Under the 'Global Britain' banner, the UK sees itself as a force for multilateralism, a strong military power with global presence and reach, and a strong pillar of the transatlantic alliance. Reflection on the implications of 'Global Britain' for the UK's future foreign, security and defence policy has resulted in two strategic documents, the Integrated Review and ...

In most Member States, visitor’ groups are not sponsored to visit the national parliament. A visit to the national parliament is free of charge, and all the costs related to the visit, for example travel costs, accommodation and local minor expenses, need to be paid by the visitors themselves. Germany is the only country which has various kinds of programmes where visitors can be reimbursed. Members of Parliament can invite up to 200 people a year of which the travel costs are partially covered ...

This in-depth analysis provides evidence on differences in the practice of supervising large banks in the UK and in the euro area. It identifies the diverging institutional architecture (partially supranationalised vs. national oversight) as a pivotal determinant for a higher effectiveness of supervisory decision making in the UK. The ECB is likely to take a more stringent stance in prudential supervision than UK authorities. The setting of risk weights and the design of macroprudential stress test ...

This note is prepared in view of an ordinary public hearing with the Chair of the Single Resolution Board (SRB), Elke König, which will take place on 1 July 2021. The Chair will present the SRB’s annual report for 2020. This briefing addresses (i) the review of the crisis management framework, and in particular the SRB’s input to the Commission’s public consultation; (ii) MREL policy and statistics; (iii) liquidity in resolution; (iv) the relationship with the United Kingdom: contractual recognition ...

The UK enters the post-Brexit period with a regulatory framework that is closely aligned with that of the UK, and stronger in some areas. This paper highlights that the changes in regulatory strategy and the institutional framework that have been announced by the UK will make its bank regulation more responsive, and greater use of proportionality the sector will become more competitive. Competition for EU banks in international markets will intensify, though not due to an erosion of regulatory standards ...