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The term Holocaust refers to the mass murder of 6 million European Jews, Roma and other persecuted groups, whom the Nazi regime and its collaborators sought to annihilate. The expropriation, state-sponsored discrimination and persecution of the Jews by the Nazi regime began in 1933, followed by pogroms and their mass incarceration in concentration camps. Ultimately, this policy was extended to all Nazi-controlled European territories and countries during World War II, culminating in mass summary ...

The December plenary session highlights included the election of the European Ombudsman; commemoration of the 10th anniversary of the Lisbon Treaty and the Charter of Fundamental Rights becoming legally binding; and the award of the 2019 Sakharov Prize for Freedom of Thought. Parliament adopted positions on the rule of law in Malta, following the murder of Daphne Caruana Galizia, and on public discrimination and hate speech against LGBTI people, including LGBTI-free zones. It also debated statements ...

The November I plenary session highlights included statements and debates on the 30th anniversary of the fall of the Berlin Wall and on the 30th anniversary of the adoption of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. Parliament also debated statements made by the Vice-President of the European Commission/High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy (HR/VP) on Turkish drilling activities in European Union waters in the Eastern Mediterranean, and on the situation in ...

This month marks the 30th anniversary of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), the first international treaty to recognise children as human beings with innate rights. Since 1989, conditions for children have improved, but millions remain unprotected. This is an updated and expanded version of an 'at a glance' note from 2014.

This year marks the 30th anniversary of the fall of the Berlin Wall, set in motion by the events of 9 November 1989, which led to Germany’s full reunification within less than a year. The accession of the German Democratic Republic (GDR) to the Federal Republic of Germany (Federal Republic) completed the reunification process on 3 October 1990. Moreover, with the accession of the former GDR to the Federal Republic, the GDR integrated into the European Economic Community (EEC) of the time via a special ...

Each year, 18 December is observed as International Migrants Day. Nominated by the United Nations General Assembly on 4 December 2000 in response to increasing migration in the world, the day aims to draw attention to the human rights of migrants, and highlight their contribution to our societies.

Heads of State or Government of the EU-27 marked the 60th anniversary of the European Union's founding Treaty of Rome on 25 March 2017, with pledges to seek closer unity, improve internal and external security, boost economic growth and employment, reduce social inequalities and bolster the bloc's global role. Their Rome Declaration outlines principles to help re-launch the Union after its recent economic and migration crises, last year's Brexit vote, and the shock effect of Donald Trump's election ...

This note seeks to provide some reflections on the challenges, current policies and possible future prospects of 'historical memory' in a European context. Based on acknowledging the complex nature of collective memories in general and shared European historical remembrance in particular, including their susceptibility to political instrumentalisation, it is argued that a critical 'culture of remembering' needs to be developed. Such a culture requires increased efforts for nation states to come to ...

A day of remembrance is held every year on 24 April, to mark the Armenian genocide. The relocation of the Ottoman Armenians in 1915, now a century ago, remains one of the most significant and controversial issues in Turkish-Armenian relations. Hundreds of thousands of Armenians were relocated under extremely harsh conditions. The numbers of casualties among them were high, and the underlying causes make it the object of considerable controversy still today. How can the two countries establish effective ...

The papers presented here were submitted for a symposium organised by the Committee on Constitutional Affairs in September 2007. They were reprinted at the occasion of a commemoration of Spinelli's 100th anniversary which took place in the European Parliament on 5 March 2009, in cooperation with the Lazio region.