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All Muslims share certain fundamental beliefs and practices. Nonetheless, over time, leadership disputes within the Muslim community have resulted in the formation of different branches, leading to the development of distinct religious identities within Islam. Sunni Islam is by far the largest branch of Islam: its followers make up 87 to 90% of the global Muslim population. The name 'Sunni Islam' derives from the term ahl al-sunna wa-l-jama'a ('people of the prophetic tradition and the community ...

This note summarises issues relating to the current legal framework for cross-border adoption matters – legal gaps and consequent obstacles to free movement of citizens – and avenues for solutions. It is draws on the background briefings prepared by independent experts and presented at the JURI-PETI workshop on ‘Adoption: Cross-border legal issues’ held at the European Parliament (EP) on 1 December 2015. The workshop had two main objectives: on the one hand, to respond to a number of petitions submitted ...

This collection of briefings was prepared in view of a joint JURI-PETI Workshop organised by the Policy Department on 1 December 2015, to address legal issues related to cross-border adoptions in the EU. Presented in a first session dedicated to "Citizens' concerns and petitions on adoption cross-border legal issues in the EU", the two first papers deal with "Child protection: tensions created by the diversity of the domestic laws of EU Member States" and "The view of Ombudsmen for Children from ...

Since its inception in the 7th century AD, Islam has been the predominant religion in a great number of political entities from North Africa to south-east Asia. The desire to organise a society according to Islamic principles has spawned very different results in the course of history – not least because interpretations of Islam have varied across the regions of the world and through the ages.

Understanding Sharia

Na kratko 18-05-2015

The Sharia – literally meaning 'path' – is the normative value system of Islam which guides the individual in their interaction with Allah (God) and society. Although the Sharia includes a number of clear precepts, it is not a set of deterministic rules and therefore requires interpretation. This is the subject of Islamic legal studies (fiqh). Recently, reference to the Sharia has become an important component of identity politics both within and outside the Muslim world. It is therefore necessary ...

The volatile security situation in Yemen is closely linked to living conditions in the country. Yemen remains one of the poorest countries in the world – with high rates of unemployment, illiteracy and an absence of basic services. The transition process launched in the aftermath of the Arab Spring has failed to deliver the results expected, instead strengthening the perception of inequalities and government inefficiency. Fixing Yemen's economy and broken society is a key condition for any workable ...

Yemen in Crises: What Role for the EU

Poglobljena analiza 05-01-2015

This briefing scrutinises the status of the transitional process taking place in Yemen. It analyses the political, economic, humanitarian and security conditions in Yemen. This briefing aims at helping Members of the European Parliament to have a better understanding of the country's situation and the latest developments. The case of Yemen suggests that overthrowing a despotic regime could be relatively easy but building new democracy to replace it is much harder. Adding to these difficulties is ...

As the Boko Haram terrorist group wages war on a widening range of targets in Nigeria, the inefficiency of the country’s government has been starkly revealed – along with the urgent need for deep-cutting political and socio-economic reforms to counter a growing sense of insecurity. The north has been particularly hard-hit, with poor governance, omnipresent corruption and worsening social indicators compounding the security problem. Boko Haram, originally a peaceful Islamist movement, has moved progressively ...

Despite cautious liberalisation in a few limited areas, Egypt’s new constitution of January 2014 does not represent a new democratic departure. The process of its adoption was not inclusive. Public consultations leading to the referendum were selective and weak. According to observation missions the referendum campaign was entirely skewed in favour of a ‘yes’ vote. Key elements of Egypt’s constitution are at odds with international legal obligations and standards. Human rights provisions are not ...

The longstanding issue of discrimination against religious minorities has worsened in the aftermath of the Arab Spring, even more so since the ousting of President Mohammed Morsi in July 2013. The new constitution, approved by referendum on 14-15 January 2014, has been welcomed by the majority of Copts as offering them better protection than the previous charter, adopted under Muslim Brotherhood rule.