14

rezultati

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Vrsta publikacije
Politično področje
Avtor
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Datum

Political institutions in Indonesia: Democracy, decentralisation, diversity

28-01-2020

Until his downfall in 1998, General Suharto ruled Indonesia with an iron fist. Since then, a series of reforms have transformed his authoritarian 'New Order' into the world's third largest democracy (and largest Muslim democracy). Indonesia has a presidential system in which a directly elected president serves as both head of state and of government. A maximum two-term limit on the presidency helps to ensure a peaceful alternation of power. Also directly elected, the House of Representatives (the ...

Until his downfall in 1998, General Suharto ruled Indonesia with an iron fist. Since then, a series of reforms have transformed his authoritarian 'New Order' into the world's third largest democracy (and largest Muslim democracy). Indonesia has a presidential system in which a directly elected president serves as both head of state and of government. A maximum two-term limit on the presidency helps to ensure a peaceful alternation of power. Also directly elected, the House of Representatives (the lower house of the bicameral People's Consultative Assembly) has asserted itself as a strong and independent institution. There are nine parliamentary parties, none of which holds a majority, obliging the government to seek support from a broad coalition. Despite the success of Indonesia's political reforms, its commitment to democratic values cannot be taken for granted. Although Indonesia has traditionally been a tolerant, multicultural society, a rising tide of Islamic populism threatens to disrupt the delicate balance between the country's Muslim majority and minorities such as Christians and Buddhists. The Corruption Eradication Commission (KPK) has had some success in tackling endemic graft in the country's courts, local governments and Parliament; however, the latter recently voted to weaken the KPK's powers. While trust in democratic institutions declines, the military – whose commitment to democratic values has often been questionable – is becoming increasingly influential.

The state of implementation of the associations and free trade agreements with Ukraine, Georgia and Moldova with a particular focus on Ukraine and systemic analysis of key sectors

16-11-2017

Signing and ratifying Association Agreements with Georgia, Moldova, and Ukraine has proven to be an impressive affirmation of Brussels’ soft power. The EU’s overtures have persuaded elites and mobilised societies despite the fact that the Agreements come neither with a membership promise nor with the kind of financial assistance that has been given to the EU’s new member states. EU assistance has been effective in restoring macro-financial stability in all three countries. While costs of compliance ...

Signing and ratifying Association Agreements with Georgia, Moldova, and Ukraine has proven to be an impressive affirmation of Brussels’ soft power. The EU’s overtures have persuaded elites and mobilised societies despite the fact that the Agreements come neither with a membership promise nor with the kind of financial assistance that has been given to the EU’s new member states. EU assistance has been effective in restoring macro-financial stability in all three countries. While costs of compliance with the DCFTA were calculated, level of investment associated with the necessary modernisation to make these economies competitive were neglected. The discrepancy between costs and benefits should prompt the EU to be more flexible. Brussels’ achievements remain fragile. Informal interests continue to play important roles in these countries and have the potential to thwart reforms. In the absence of strong, de-politicised institutions, the EU should work to support political consolidation—the alternative is further polarisation and political fragility—while at the same time insisting on adherence to democratic standards and strengthened institutional checks and balances.

Zunanji avtor

Iulian GROZA; Balazs JARABIK (coordinator); Jana KOBZOVA; Dr. Viktor KONSTANTYNOV; Tsovinar KUIUMCHIAN; Leonid LITRA; Tornike SHARASHENIDZE; Isaac WEBB

Legal Proceedings available to Individuals before the Highest Courts: A Comparative Law Perspective - Canada

06-10-2017

This study is part of a wider project seeking to investigate, from a comparative law perspective, judicial proceedings available to individuals before the highest courts of different states, and before certain international courts. The aim of this study is to examine the various judicial proceedings available to individuals in Canadian law, and in particular before the Supreme Court of Canada. To this end, the text is divided into five parts. The introduction provides an overview of Canadian constitutional ...

This study is part of a wider project seeking to investigate, from a comparative law perspective, judicial proceedings available to individuals before the highest courts of different states, and before certain international courts. The aim of this study is to examine the various judicial proceedings available to individuals in Canadian law, and in particular before the Supreme Court of Canada. To this end, the text is divided into five parts. The introduction provides an overview of Canadian constitutional history, which explains the coexistence of rights derived from several legal traditions. It then introduces the federal system, the origins of constitutional review, as well as the court structure (I). As Canada practises a ‘diffuse’ (or ‘decentralized’) constitutional review process, the second part deals with the different types of proceedings available to individuals in matters of constitutional justice before both administrative and judicial courts, while highlighting proceedings available before the Supreme Court of Canada (II). This is followed by an examination of the constitutional and legal sources of individual — and in some cases collective — rights (III), as well as the means developed by the judiciary, the legislative, and the executive branches to ensure the effective judicial protection of rights (IV). The conclusion assesses the effectiveness of proceedings available to individuals in matters of ‘constitutional justice’. Essentially, while Canadian citizens benefit from a wide range of rights and proceedings, access to the country’s Supreme Court is restricted due to the limited number of cases the Court chooses to hear every year. More generally, access to justice continues to pose real challenges in Canada. This is not due to judicial failings or a lack of sources of rights per se, but rather to lengthy judicial delays and the often enormous costs of proceedings.

Zunanji avtor

EPRS, Comparative Law

Policy decentralization at the ECB

15-09-2017

The decentralized implementation of ECB policy to national central banks has raised concerns about the transparency of policy operations. We argue that these concerns are misplaced: first, the sharp monetary easing under the assets purchase programme is actually allocated according to the capital key of the ECB; second, this allocation may feed divergences between the different Eurozone member states. Though the latter point is not part of the ECB mandate, we argue that another policy may well be ...

The decentralized implementation of ECB policy to national central banks has raised concerns about the transparency of policy operations. We argue that these concerns are misplaced: first, the sharp monetary easing under the assets purchase programme is actually allocated according to the capital key of the ECB; second, this allocation may feed divergences between the different Eurozone member states. Though the latter point is not part of the ECB mandate, we argue that another policy may well be possible.

Zunanji avtor

Christophe BLOT, Jérôme CREEL (Sciences Po, OFCE)

The Single Monetary Policy and Decentralisation: An Assessment

15-09-2017

Monetary policy in the Eurosystem is ‘one and indivisible’, an exclusive EU competence. However, there remains an operational distinction: while the decision-making stage is centralized at the ECB, the implementation stage is decentralized at the level of the National Central Banks (NCBs). In response to the crisis the Eurosystem operational framework has undergone major changes with the introduction of non-standard monetary policy instruments as well as the recourse to emergency liquidity assistance ...

Monetary policy in the Eurosystem is ‘one and indivisible’, an exclusive EU competence. However, there remains an operational distinction: while the decision-making stage is centralized at the ECB, the implementation stage is decentralized at the level of the National Central Banks (NCBs). In response to the crisis the Eurosystem operational framework has undergone major changes with the introduction of non-standard monetary policy instruments as well as the recourse to emergency liquidity assistance or lender of last resort (LOLR). Against this background, we assess the balance between centralization and decentralisation, considering in particular the LOLR function both as regards market liquidity assistance (ECB competence) and individual liquidity assistance (national competence, NCBs). We discuss measures which may improve the simplicity, transparency and cost efficiency of the existing operational framework and facilitate the effective exercise of accountability by the European Parliament. We further recommend that the role of the ECB in the provision individual liquidity assistance be reconsidered in the light of Article 18 ESCB Statute (European System of Central Banks) and the advent of banking union. We also argue that data on Emergency Liquidity Assistance (ELA) should be reported, albeit with a lag, and that all banks provide a disclosure policy.

Zunanji avtor

Mark HALLERBERG, Rosa M. LASTRA

The Impact of the United Kingdom’s withdrawal from the European Union on Scotland, Wales and Gibraltar

26-04-2017

Upon request by the AFCO Committee, the Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs has commissioned this in-depth analysis on the impact of Brexit on the devolved territories of Scotland and Wales as well as the Overseas Territory of Gibraltar. It examines the economic and political implications of Brexit on these territories, the consequences of the possible return to devolved administrations of formerly ‘Europeanised’ competencies and looks at how Brexit might affect their ...

Upon request by the AFCO Committee, the Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs has commissioned this in-depth analysis on the impact of Brexit on the devolved territories of Scotland and Wales as well as the Overseas Territory of Gibraltar. It examines the economic and political implications of Brexit on these territories, the consequences of the possible return to devolved administrations of formerly ‘Europeanised’ competencies and looks at how Brexit might affect their future status within the UK as well as their relations with the EU.

Research for CULT Committee - Erasmus+: Decentralised Implementation - First Experiences

07-07-2016

Erasmus+ is the Union programme in the field of education, training, youth and sport for the financial period from 2014 to 2020. This study looks into the implementation of the decentralised actions of the Erasmus+ programme by National Agencies, two and a half years into the programme period. Its aim is to map the opportunities and challenges encountered in the implementation of these actions and to formulate recommendations for improvement.

Erasmus+ is the Union programme in the field of education, training, youth and sport for the financial period from 2014 to 2020. This study looks into the implementation of the decentralised actions of the Erasmus+ programme by National Agencies, two and a half years into the programme period. Its aim is to map the opportunities and challenges encountered in the implementation of these actions and to formulate recommendations for improvement.

Zunanji avtor

Irina Ferencz, Marija Mitic and Bernd Wächter (ACA)

Ukraine and the Minsk II agreement: On a frozen path to peace?

27-01-2016

While Kyiv took an important step towards Europe with the entry into force of the Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area on 1 January 2016, Ukraine's path to peace with neighbouring Russia remains complicated. The implementation of the fragile Minsk II ceasefire agreement — negotiated by the leaders of France, Germany, Ukraine and Russia in February 2015 — has been extended into 2016. Several unresolved issues will continue to pose challenges to the fulfilment of Minsk II in 2016. The death toll ...

While Kyiv took an important step towards Europe with the entry into force of the Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area on 1 January 2016, Ukraine's path to peace with neighbouring Russia remains complicated. The implementation of the fragile Minsk II ceasefire agreement — negotiated by the leaders of France, Germany, Ukraine and Russia in February 2015 — has been extended into 2016. Several unresolved issues will continue to pose challenges to the fulfilment of Minsk II in 2016. The death toll has now surpassed 9 000, and Russia continues to supply the rebels with ammunition, weaponry and fighters. In addition, Ukrainian pilot Nadiya Savchenko is still imprisoned in Russia over murder charges. At the same time, the practical consequences of the conflict are tangible in the rebel-held areas, where a humanitarian crisis is unfolding. While the self-proclaimed republics in Donetsk and Luhansk had agreed to postpone local elections until February 2016 — a move that was welcomed by Kyiv, Moscow and Brussels — the next developments hinge on a political settlement. However, some analysts hope that recent Russian high-level appointments could give new impetus to negotiations. This briefing brings up to date that of 16 July 2015, 'Ukraine: Follow-up of Minsk II – A fragile ceasefire'.

Economic, Social and Territorial Situation in Croatia

22-10-2015

This in-depth analysis was written upon request of the Committee on Regional Development. The aim is to inform Members about the political, socio-economic and administrative system of Croatia, and in particular Istria County and the City of Zagreb. The analysis also provides an overview of cohesion policy in Croatia, including the arrangements in place for the 2014-2020 programming period and the European Territorial Cooperation programmes.

This in-depth analysis was written upon request of the Committee on Regional Development. The aim is to inform Members about the political, socio-economic and administrative system of Croatia, and in particular Istria County and the City of Zagreb. The analysis also provides an overview of cohesion policy in Croatia, including the arrangements in place for the 2014-2020 programming period and the European Territorial Cooperation programmes.

Economic, Social and Territorial Situation of Ukraine

15-10-2014

This in-depth analysis provides an overview of Ukrainian economic, political and administrative framework. It focuses on the description of the territorial administration system of the country, including its territorial division, the competences of different levels of administration and their financial capacities. This analysis provides also the information about the measures taken by the Ukrainian government, regarding the administrative organisation of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea that was ...

This in-depth analysis provides an overview of Ukrainian economic, political and administrative framework. It focuses on the description of the territorial administration system of the country, including its territorial division, the competences of different levels of administration and their financial capacities. This analysis provides also the information about the measures taken by the Ukrainian government, regarding the administrative organisation of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea that was illegally annexed by the Russian Federation and certain districts of Donetsk and Luhansk regions that are under the control of pro-Russian separatists.

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EPRS online Book Talk | How to own the room (and the zoom) [...]
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Hearing on Future-proofing the Tourism Sector: Challenges and Opportunities Ahead
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30-11-2020
LIBE - FEMM Joint Hearing: Combating Gender based Violence: Cyber Violence
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