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Following the 1975 establishment of diplomatic relations with China, the European Economic Community (EEC) focused its strategic approach – in line with its competences at the time – on support for China's economic opening, launched in 1978 by Deng Xiaoping. While this approach resulted in a swiftly expanding trade and investment relationship, results in other areas are rather mixed. By most accounts, the strategy also failed to contribute to making significant progress on the rule of law in China ...

Stepping up EU cooperation with Taiwan

Kort sammanfattning 13-10-2021

Since its political transition began in the 1980s, Taiwan has become a vibrant democracy and has also joined the ranks of high-income countries. Economic relations between the EU and Taiwan are flourishing, as illustrated by the fact that the EU is Taiwan's most important source of foreign direct investment. The European Parliament has repeatedly called for the EU to take the first steps towards a bilateral investment agreement. During its October II plenary session, Parliament is expected to debate ...

China's ambitions in artificial intelligence

Kort sammanfattning 09-09-2021

In 2017, China announced an ambitious programme for its domestic development of artificial intelligence (AI) technology, with the aim of becoming the world's 'major AI innovation centre' by 2030. China plans to expand AI in many spheres of production, governance and defence by that deadline. Even today, the country ranks second globally in AI, although it still has to overcome major challenges, in particular in terms of talent and the production of very sophisticated semiconductors. China hopes to ...

Scarcity of medical equipment during the COVID-19 crisis, and the ensuing discussion on ‘reshoring’ certain industries back to Europe, have brought back an old dilemma. Namely, countries wish to be strategically independent while depending on products and resources from other countries to fulfil their economic needs. This reflects the debate about whether markets or governments are better at delivering solutions. We can also define this debate as a choice between ‘competitive capitalism’ and ‘strategic ...