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The Network and Information Security (NIS) Directive is the first piece of EU-wide legislation on cybersecurity, and its specific aim was to achieve a high common level of cybersecurity across the Member States. While it increased the Member States' cybersecurity capabilities, its implementation proved difficult, resulting in fragmentation at different levels across the internal market. To respond to the growing threats posed with digitalisation and the surge in cyber-attacks, the Commission has ...

Since the People's Republic of China (PRC) launched its Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) in 2013, President Xi Jinping's signature foreign policy project has drawn widespread criticism, including for challenging the traditional model of multilateral infrastructure financing. Western-led bilateral and plurilateral infrastructure and connectivity initiatives designed as alternatives have remained fragmented and have been dwarfed in scope and scale by a geographically and thematically rapidly expanding ...

This Briefing forms part of an EPRS series which offers a synthesis of the pre-legislative state-of-play and advance consultation on a range of key European Commission priorities during the latter's five-year term in office. It seeks to summarise the state of affairs in the relevant policy field, examine how existing policy is working on the ground, and identify best practice and ideas for the future on the part of governmental organisations at all levels of European system of multilevel governance ...

Valéry Giscard d'Estaing was one of Europe's leading figures in the generation which came after that of the founding fathers. He was close to Jean Monnet, but he himself said that his main source of inspiration was Robert Schuman. For both Schuman and Valéry Giscard d'Estaing, their relationship with Germany was a thread running through their lives. Valéry Giscard d'Estaing was born in Koblenz, Germany, where his father had been posted in the French administration after the First World War. Giscard ...

Uncertainty is growing over the recovery of the European economy from the recession generated by the Covid-19 pandemic. The European Commission has painted an optimistic growth scenario in its most recent forecast, with the economy expected to expand by 5 per cent and 4.3 per cent in 2021 and 2022 respectively. However, an increasing number of analysts see the potential for growth dampened by new restrictions in the run-up to Christmas this year given a fourth/fifth wave of the pandemic currently ...

The IA undertakes a quantitative assessment of the economic, social and environmental impacts of strengthening the CO2 targets for cars and vans, using modelling tools with proven track record in supporting EU policy-making. It identifies and quantifies the costs and benefits of the combination of preferred options and qualitatively describes indirect costs and benefits. Despite the related considerable effort, the IA seems to define the problem at a rather aggregated level and does not provide further ...

On 23 September 2021, the European Commission adopted a legislative proposal to amend the 2014 Radio Equipment Directive, as a first step towards mandating a common charger for mobile phones and other small portable devices. Under the proposal, these devices would have to be equipped with a USB Type-C receptacle that can be charged with cables compatible with USB Type C, and to incorporate the USB Power Delivery communication protocol. The proposal would go hand in hand with an initiative on the ...

This note is prepared in view of an ordinary public hearing with the Chair of the Single Resolution Board (SRB), Elke König, which will take place on 1 December 2021. This briefing addresses the following topics: (i) cooperation with other authorities, (ii) home/host authorities and the issue of internal MREL, (iii) evolution of MREL stock and shortfalls, (iv) contributions to the Single Resolution Fund, and (v) summaries of external papers on the status quo of impediments to resolvability.

On 19 October 2021, the European Commission presented its work programme for 2022 (CWP 2022), setting out its legislative and non-legislative intentions for 2022. The CWP 2022 perpetuates the CWP 2021's twofold ambition (i.e. to recover from the pandemic and to boost the Commission's transformative agenda). A special emphasis is put on helping the Union emerge stronger and more resilient. This should be achieved by implementing the measures agreed over the last year, and through additional investments ...

The growing importance of global supply chains has fundamentally changed the way the global economy and goods manufacturing are organised. While trade conducted through global supply chains has fallen somewhat as a share of total trade since the 2008-2010 global financial and economic crisis, more than two-thirds of international trade still involves transactions made possible by such chains. The EU is profoundly involved in these production chains, more so than most other countries, and significantly ...