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This paper provides a preliminary assessment of the contribution of the national RRPs to the 'Green Transition' pillar, focusing on the ‘sustainable mobility’ theme. Based on an analysis of five measures, it finds that while the measures are generally coherent and balanced, their 'lasting impact' is not adequately assured. Moreover, the milestones and targets of the measures provide insufficient guarantees that the RRF objectives will be met. Finally, several sustainable transport policy areas were ...

This study investigates the revision of the third energy package for gas in light of the current energy crisis. The report presents findings from desk research, interviews and a workshop on the current political context regarding natural gas and hydrogen as well as the role of unbundling rules for gas and hydrogen infrastructure, the development of an EU hydrogen backbone and the issue of ensuring energy supply through gas interconnectors.

This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the LIBE Committee, assesses the European Commission’s 2022 legal migration package on effectiveness, efficiency, legal and practical coherence, and fundamental rights compliance. The study finds that a more coherent and ambitious rights-based legal migration agenda is warranted. In the EU struggle for skilled and talented third-country national workers, social ...

Africa-EU trade relations have a longstanding tradition. The EU remains the biggest trading and investment partner for most African countries, especially for those implementing Economic Partnership Agreement (EPAs) with the EU. The workshop shall provide a data-based discussion of the impact of current EPAs on economic regional development (and recent trends on intraregional economic integration in Africa) as well as an overview of EU's sustainable investment facilitation agreements negotiated with ...

This research study examines the impact of COVID-19 measures on democracy and fundamental rights in the EU. It considers what best practices have been evidenced, and the lessons that can be learned from comparative experience within EU Member States as well as relevant third countries. It examines pandemic governance in the EU and its Member States during the COVID-19 pandemic between 2020 and 2022. It describes how the COVID-19 pandemic was addressed by EU Member States, either in terms of declaring ...

This paper considers initiatives funded by the RRF to support SMEs in the digital transition. It concludes that while there are many areas of good practice, risks remain due to the lack of outcome-based targets, the complexity of some schemes and relatively low levels of funding in relation to the ambition in some cases. Introducing targets based on (preferably harmonised) skills frameworks and digital maturity assessments could help establish the value add of initiatives to support SMEs.

Personalised pricing

Studie 29-11-2022

The study conceptualises personal pricing, distinguishing different forms including individual prices and group prices. It summarises empirical insights on the occurrence of personal pricing in practice and related consumer attitudes. In its legal part, it analyses whether and how current EU law deals with this phenomenon and identifies regulatory gaps and legal uncertainty, on the basis of which recommendations for future regulation of personalised pricing are presented. This document was provided ...

Dieses Dokument ist Teil einer Reihe von Studien, mit denen die Grundsätze der Gleichheit und der Nichtdiskriminierung in verschiedenen Staaten und internationalen Organisationen aus rechtsvergleichender Sicht dargestellt werden sollen. Nach einer Erklärung der einschlägigen Rechtsvorschriften und Rechtsprechung werden der Inhalt, die Grenzen und die mögliche Entwicklung dieser Grundsätze analysiert. Diese Studie widmet sich dem Europarat. Das Diskriminierungsverbot wird in einer ausgeprägten und ...

The ongoing escalation of inflation challenges policymakers with radical uncertainty. First, inflation is boosted by the interplay of global and domestic factors. Second, such factors involve both aggregate demand and supply with different intensity in different countries. Third, global factors such as energy prices are also driven by geopolitical unpredictable forces. Risks of both under and over-reaction are present. All this makes a good case for coordination of monetary and fiscal policies within ...

Inflation pressures have triggered a largely synchronised tightening of monetary policy around the world. The sharp appreciation of the US dollar is adding to the challenges that policymakers confront. The paper sets out to identify the channels through which US tightening spills over to the rest of the world, with a particular focus on the euro area. It also examines the risks that stem from uncoordinated monetary tightening and discusses how different forms of global cooperation can help mitigate ...