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resultat

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Publikationstyp
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Economic Dialogues with the President of the Eurogroup during 2014-2019

19-12-2019

This note provides an overview of the Economic Dialogues with the President of the Eurogroup held in the competent Committee of the European Parliament during the 8th legislative term. It provides a summary of the issues raised during the nine dialogues that took place between autumn 2014 and spring 2019, and presents the main topic discussed at each dialogue.

This note provides an overview of the Economic Dialogues with the President of the Eurogroup held in the competent Committee of the European Parliament during the 8th legislative term. It provides a summary of the issues raised during the nine dialogues that took place between autumn 2014 and spring 2019, and presents the main topic discussed at each dialogue.

Diversifying unity. How Eastern Partnership countries develop their economy, governance and identity in a geopolitical context

30-10-2019

This study analyses the Eastern Partnership (EaP) in the year of its 10th anniversary. The Eastern Partnership was set up in 2009 as a joint policy initiative aiming at deepening and strengthening relations between the European Union, its Member States and the six EaP countries of Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova, Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan. While each of these countries shares a past in the former Soviet Union, they have developed over time in different directions. Ukraine, Moldova and Georgia have ...

This study analyses the Eastern Partnership (EaP) in the year of its 10th anniversary. The Eastern Partnership was set up in 2009 as a joint policy initiative aiming at deepening and strengthening relations between the European Union, its Member States and the six EaP countries of Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova, Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan. While each of these countries shares a past in the former Soviet Union, they have developed over time in different directions. Ukraine, Moldova and Georgia have concluded Association Agreements with the EU, which include Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Areas. They will have to fulfil conditions laid down in the Association Agreements to make progress on reforms of governance, the judiciary and fighting corruption. Moreover, Georgia and Ukraine are seeking to integrate more deeply into the Western world order, aspiring to membership of NATO and the EU. Armenia and Azerbaijan have different ways of cooperating with the EU. Belarus is furthest from the EU because of its poor record on democracy and human rights. All six countries are to a certain extent within Russia’s sphere of influence and have to deal with several geopolitical constraints, but they have increasingly developed economic relations and national identities of their own. It will be a challenge to maintain a common perspective for the next 10 years of the Eastern Partnership and a further divergence between the countries is likely. This will not only be between countries with an Association Agreement and the others, but along multiple vectors. While further developing statehood, the eastern partners will want to decide increasingly for themselves which forms of cooperation they want to pursue in the future. They may choose international partners according to their perceived needs, including Russia, the US, China or Turkey. The EU for its part should continue to pursue its strengths of assisting in achieving better governance and democracy and strengthening economic ties, while contributing to diminishing geopolitical tensions.

Prospects following South Africa's 2019 elections

02-07-2019

Regional economic and political leader, G20 member, and elected to a United Nations Security Council seat in 2019 for the third time since the end of apartheid, South Africa is a strategic EU partner. Recognised as one of only two full democracies on its continent in the 2018 Democracy Index, South Africa nevertheless faces considerable problems, affecting both the economy and a fragile social fabric still affected by its apartheid history. The governing party's election success comes as no surprise ...

Regional economic and political leader, G20 member, and elected to a United Nations Security Council seat in 2019 for the third time since the end of apartheid, South Africa is a strategic EU partner. Recognised as one of only two full democracies on its continent in the 2018 Democracy Index, South Africa nevertheless faces considerable problems, affecting both the economy and a fragile social fabric still affected by its apartheid history. The governing party's election success comes as no surprise, although its falling popularity increasingly puts its ability to address South Africa's challenges into question. In this context, a revived EU-South Africa strategic partnership could provide a framework for enhanced cooperation in sensitive policy areas.

Utdrag ur studien - EU – en utdelning på två biljoner euro: Kartläggning av kostnaden för uteblivna EU åtgärder 2019-2024

18-04-2019

Detta utdrag kommer från en studie som sammanför pågående arbeten inom ett långsiktigt projekt för att fastställa och analysera ”kostnaden för uteblivna EU-åtgärder” inom ett antal politikområden. Detta begrepp, som först lanserades av Europaparlamentet på 1980-talet, används här för att kvantitativt beräkna de potentiella effektivitetsvinsterna i dagens europeiska ekonomi av att genomföra en rad politiska initiativ som förespråkats av parlamentet – från en mer omfattande och djupgående digital inre ...

Detta utdrag kommer från en studie som sammanför pågående arbeten inom ett långsiktigt projekt för att fastställa och analysera ”kostnaden för uteblivna EU-åtgärder” inom ett antal politikområden. Detta begrepp, som först lanserades av Europaparlamentet på 1980-talet, används här för att kvantitativt beräkna de potentiella effektivitetsvinsterna i dagens europeiska ekonomi av att genomföra en rad politiska initiativ som förespråkats av parlamentet – från en mer omfattande och djupgående digital inre marknad till en mer systematiskt samordnad nationell och europeisk försvarspolitik eller ökat samarbete för att bekämpa skatteflykt bland företag. Fördelarna mäts huvudsakligen i ökad BNP eller i form av en mer rationell användning av offentliga resurser. Den senaste analysen visar att det finns potentiella vinster för EU:s ekonomi (EU-28) på över 2 200 miljarder euro, som skulle kunna uppnås om den politik som parlamentet förespråkat inom en rad specifika områden antogs av EU-institutionerna och därefter genomfördes fullt ut under tioårsperioden 2019–2029. Detta skulle i själva verket utgöra en utdelning på två biljoner euro, vilket motsvarar en ökning på cirka 14 % av EU:s totala BNP (som 2017 uppgick till 15,3 biljoner euro). Studien är avsedd att utgöra ett bidrag till den pågående diskussionen om EU:s politiska prioriteringar inför den kommande femåriga institutionella cykeln, från 2019 till 2024.

Interlinks between migration and development

23-01-2019

The EU and its Member States have reshaped their external policies, including development cooperation, to place more focus on migration-related issues. Widely used in this context, political rhetoric on 'addressing root causes of migration' has been questioned by academics as creating unrealistic expectations. Indeed, a positive correlation between migration and narrowly understood economic development persists until countries reach middle-income country level. However, several key drivers of migration ...

The EU and its Member States have reshaped their external policies, including development cooperation, to place more focus on migration-related issues. Widely used in this context, political rhetoric on 'addressing root causes of migration' has been questioned by academics as creating unrealistic expectations. Indeed, a positive correlation between migration and narrowly understood economic development persists until countries reach middle-income country level. However, several key drivers of migration are related to discrepancies in levels of human development. Demographic pressures, youth unemployment, job opportunities in the country of destination, the growth of migrant networks and the desire to reunite families, all play roles in migration. A complex interaction between aid and migration also exists, which is far from a simple one-way causality. In general, poverty alleviation, the primary objective of development aid, tends to enhance rather than deter the realisation of the aspiration to migrate, in the short- and medium-term, by increasing household incomes. A more global approach to cooperation with third countries, such as the EU's already well-established assistance focusing on good governance, infrastructure, rural development and strengthening resilience, as well as going beyond development assistance to include trade and investment, appears promising in terms of deterring migration. On the other hand, studies confirm that international migration is an important path for development: remittances constitute a tool for poverty reduction, while diaspora skills and networks provide resources for economic and social progress. Nevertheless, EU policy integrating development aid as an instrument for curbing irregular migration is criticised by development stakeholders as undermining aid effectiveness, principles, and risks diverting aid from the most needy and indirectly prompting human rights violations. To avoid such outcomes, a contextual analysis must be the basis for identifying genuine synergies to be reinforced between development and migration management.

Research for REGI Committee - Externalities of Cohesion Policy

15-10-2018

The study investigates the effects of Cohesion Policy (CP) which occur in a country other than the one in which CP resources were actually spent. The study estimates that macroeconomic spillovers significantly contribute to the impact of CP. Spillovers directed to EU countries represent around 9% of the total annual CP expenditure. Other spillovers to Non-EU countries are around 8% of the CP expenditure. Macro and micro spillovers together arrive at the 21% of the annual CP expenditure 67% of which ...

The study investigates the effects of Cohesion Policy (CP) which occur in a country other than the one in which CP resources were actually spent. The study estimates that macroeconomic spillovers significantly contribute to the impact of CP. Spillovers directed to EU countries represent around 9% of the total annual CP expenditure. Other spillovers to Non-EU countries are around 8% of the CP expenditure. Macro and micro spillovers together arrive at the 21% of the annual CP expenditure 67% of which is distributed among EU countries. Around 20% of the CP expenditure can trigger sectoral spillover effects in the environment, transport and higher education sectors. The analysis demonstrates that externalities reinforce EU growth and competitiveness without CP deserting its convergence objective.

Extern avdelning

Andrea Naldini, Alessandro Daraio, Gessica Vella and Enrico Wolleb, Roman Römisch

How could the Stability and Growth Pact be simplified?

23-04-2018

Past reforms of the Stability and Growth Pact (SGP) have improved its economic rationale, but this progress has come at the expense of simplicity, transparency and, possibly, enforceability. This study surveys and evaluates reform models that could reduce complexity without compromising the SGP’s indispensable flexibility. From a holistic perspective, the greatest potential for simplification will result from a shift of discretionary power to an independent fiscal institution. Independence is a substitute ...

Past reforms of the Stability and Growth Pact (SGP) have improved its economic rationale, but this progress has come at the expense of simplicity, transparency and, possibly, enforceability. This study surveys and evaluates reform models that could reduce complexity without compromising the SGP’s indispensable flexibility. From a holistic perspective, the greatest potential for simplification will result from a shift of discretionary power to an independent fiscal institution. Independence is a substitute for complexity. With a narrower focus on the potential streamlining of the SGP and a reduction of excess complexity, first, the preventive and corrective arms could be integrated into one procedure. Second, this integrated procedure should be centred on a net expenditure rule that is combined with a debt feedback mechanism and a memory for expenditure overruns. Third, further fiscal indicators that are currently treated as parallel targets (headline deficit rule and structural balance) could be downgraded to non-binding reference values. And fourth, the planned transposition of the Fiscal Compact into European law should follow SGP reforms in order to promote consistency between European and national fiscal rules.

Extern avdelning

Friedrich Heinemann

How could the Stability and Growth Pact be simplified?

23-04-2018

An assessment of the present SGP fiscal rules reveals a significant deterioration in simplicity, undermining their effectiveness. In fact, in both design and process, they have become the most complex worldwide. Three options for future reform are offered to correct this deficiency. Under the first, the structural balance and the debt convergence targets are replaced with a debt-stabilizing or -reducing primary surplus target, while retaining the expenditure benchmark. The second consolidates all ...

An assessment of the present SGP fiscal rules reveals a significant deterioration in simplicity, undermining their effectiveness. In fact, in both design and process, they have become the most complex worldwide. Three options for future reform are offered to correct this deficiency. Under the first, the structural balance and the debt convergence targets are replaced with a debt-stabilizing or -reducing primary surplus target, while retaining the expenditure benchmark. The second consolidates all current rules into a single operational debt rule by setting a limit on the discretionary budget deficit, derived from the debt reduction target. The third option consists of a market-based approach, inspired by the oldest and most successful subnational fiscal frameworks.

Extern avdelning

George Kopits

Rural poverty in the European Union

13-03-2017

In 2015, 119 million European citizens, representing almost a quarter of the EU population, were at risk of poverty and social exclusion. Statistics show that the average poverty rate is slightly higher in rural areas, with very contrasting situations across the Union as some countries display a huge poverty gap between rural and urban areas. Rural poverty, which appears to be less documented than urban poverty, is linked to the specific disadvantages of rural areas. These include an unfavourable ...

In 2015, 119 million European citizens, representing almost a quarter of the EU population, were at risk of poverty and social exclusion. Statistics show that the average poverty rate is slightly higher in rural areas, with very contrasting situations across the Union as some countries display a huge poverty gap between rural and urban areas. Rural poverty, which appears to be less documented than urban poverty, is linked to the specific disadvantages of rural areas. These include an unfavourable demographic situation, a weaker labour market, limited access to education and also remoteness and rural isolation. The latter is associated with a lack of basic services such as healthcare and social services, and with increased costs for inhabitants on account of travel distances. These factors are considered to be the main drivers of rural poverty. Through their interaction, they can generate a spiral of decline in which poverty can become entrenched. While the fight against poverty and social exclusion lies primarily within the remit of the Member States and their regions, this issue is at the heart of the Europe 2020 strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. Several EU funds and policies can contribute to alleviating poverty, in particular the current EU rural development policy which, for the first time, includes a priority relating to the promotion of social inclusion, poverty reduction and economic development in rural areas. Within this policy, Member States and regions can use EU funding to implement measures that, although not directly targeting poverty reduction, may help tackle those drivers of poverty in many ways, such as fostering job creation, improving services, developing infrastructure for information and communications technologies (ICT), and enhancing access to education. In this regard, local strategies such as the Leader method are particularly suited to supporting disadvantaged groups.

Developing EU waterborne passenger transport

15-11-2016

The waterborne transport sector offers many opportunities, in terms of greening and economic development, for the transport of passengers in the European Union. A European Parliament own-initiative report on unleashing the potential of ferries in coastal areas and inland waterways aims at raising the focus on waterborne passenger transport (WPT) on the transport policy agenda.

The waterborne transport sector offers many opportunities, in terms of greening and economic development, for the transport of passengers in the European Union. A European Parliament own-initiative report on unleashing the potential of ferries in coastal areas and inland waterways aims at raising the focus on waterborne passenger transport (WPT) on the transport policy agenda.

Kommande evenemang

04-03-2021
ICM International Women's Day 2021
Övrigt -
FEMM
04-03-2021
EPRS online policy roundtable: Unpacking the latest Eurobarometer survey
Övrigt -
EPRS
15-03-2021
EPRS online Book Talk with Vivien Schmidt: Legitimacy and power in the EU
Övrigt -
EPRS

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