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Contemporary forms of slavery

20-12-2018

This briefing aims to clarify the concept of contemporary forms of slavery and analyse the legal obligations of States, as well as recent international developments at global and EU levels. It highlights the inconsistent application of the concept by global governance actors and discusses the inclusion of various exploitative practices within this conceptual framework. It also examines the prevalence of contemporary forms of slavery and assesses the policy framework for EU external action. The briefing ...

This briefing aims to clarify the concept of contemporary forms of slavery and analyse the legal obligations of States, as well as recent international developments at global and EU levels. It highlights the inconsistent application of the concept by global governance actors and discusses the inclusion of various exploitative practices within this conceptual framework. It also examines the prevalence of contemporary forms of slavery and assesses the policy framework for EU external action. The briefing then recommends possible action by the EU, including: promotion of a more consistent definition and use of the concept of contemporary forms of slavery and further clarifications on the relationship with the human trafficking and forced labour frameworks; a role for the EU as catalyst in achieving the Sustainable Development Goals and Targets in the field of all contemporary forms of slavery; support for standardising methods of data collection globally. Finally, the paper invites the EU to assess the possibility of drafting a new treaty on contemporary forms of slavery, as a way to fill some existing loopholes at the international level.

Extern avdelning

Silvia SCARPA

Migration into the EU [What Think Tanks are thinking]

30-06-2017

At the European Council meeting of 23 June 2017, European Union Heads of State or Government agreed to strengthen efforts to reduce irregular migration flows on the central Mediterranean route, notably by speeding up training, equipping the Libyan coast guard and improving cooperation with countries of migration origin. However, the European Council made limited progress on reforming the Common European Asylum System, with the migration debate clouded by refusal of some central and eastern European ...

At the European Council meeting of 23 June 2017, European Union Heads of State or Government agreed to strengthen efforts to reduce irregular migration flows on the central Mediterranean route, notably by speeding up training, equipping the Libyan coast guard and improving cooperation with countries of migration origin. However, the European Council made limited progress on reforming the Common European Asylum System, with the migration debate clouded by refusal of some central and eastern European countries to accept refugees under the existing quotas. This note offers links to recent commentaries and studies on migration from major international think-tanks and research institutes.

Political developments in Libya and prospects of stability

01-06-2017

Six years after the ousting and death of Libya's dictator Muammar Gaddafi in 2011 the country is facing political instability, economic problems and deteriorating security. The violence between rival factions resulted in tens of thousands of casualties, the collapse of the oil industry, favoured the rise of ISIL/Da'esh and contributed to the country's increasing role as a transit country for migrants hoping to reach Europe. Although the December 2015 UN-brokered agreement resulted in the creation ...

Six years after the ousting and death of Libya's dictator Muammar Gaddafi in 2011 the country is facing political instability, economic problems and deteriorating security. The violence between rival factions resulted in tens of thousands of casualties, the collapse of the oil industry, favoured the rise of ISIL/Da'esh and contributed to the country's increasing role as a transit country for migrants hoping to reach Europe. Although the December 2015 UN-brokered agreement resulted in the creation of an internationally recognised Government of National Accord, the latter is still struggling for legitimacy. A political solution to reduce the instability in Libya is critical, both for Libya and for its neighbours. The EU remains committed to an inclusive political settlement under the framework of the Libyan Political Agreement (LPA), and to supporting the Presidency Council (PC) and the Government of National Accord (GNA), headed by Prime Minister Fayez Sarraj, and backed by the United Nations. It welcomes their efforts to restore unified governance, prosperity and security to Libya. The EU works closely with the United Nations Support Mission in Libya (UNSMIL) to facilitate the implementation of the LPA and to support mediation efforts in the interest of all Libyans. The EU also supports the mediation activities of neighbours and regional partners including by coordinating efforts with the League of Arab States (LAS), the African Union (AU), and the United Nations (UN) in the framework of the Libya Quartet, in order to advance the political process and assist Libya in its democratic transition.

Outcome of the informal European Council and informal meeting of 27 Heads of State or Government on 3 February 2017

10-02-2017

The Maltese capital, Valletta, hosted an informal European Council meeting, as well as an informal meeting of EU-27 leaders on 3 February 2017. The first meeting concentrated on migration on the Central Mediterranean route, while the second looked at the future of the EU and preparations for the approaching 60th anniversary of the Rome Treaties on 25 March 2017. EU leaders also discussed the challenges for Europe in the wider global context. The President of the European Council, Donald Tusk, and ...

The Maltese capital, Valletta, hosted an informal European Council meeting, as well as an informal meeting of EU-27 leaders on 3 February 2017. The first meeting concentrated on migration on the Central Mediterranean route, while the second looked at the future of the EU and preparations for the approaching 60th anniversary of the Rome Treaties on 25 March 2017. EU leaders also discussed the challenges for Europe in the wider global context. The President of the European Council, Donald Tusk, and the Maltese Prime Minister and President-in-office of the Council, Joseph Muscat, stressed that the Members of the European Council agreed that ‘transatlantic cooperation remains an absolute priority for the EU’. On the eve of the informal European Council, President Tusk met with Prime Minister Muscat, the European Parliament President Antonio Tajani and Commission President Jean-Claude Juncker.  

The EU and migration [What Think Tank are thinking]

10-02-2017

At their meeting in Malta on 3 February, 2017, EU heads of states and government endorsed further objectives to ease the migratory challenge, with a view to stemming irregular migration flows through the central Mediterranean route. The plan foresees ‘immediate operational measures’ focused on training and supporting the Libyan coastguard in an effort to interrupt people-smuggling and to increase the number of search and rescue missions. As regards returns, the EU wants to ensure adequate reception ...

At their meeting in Malta on 3 February, 2017, EU heads of states and government endorsed further objectives to ease the migratory challenge, with a view to stemming irregular migration flows through the central Mediterranean route. The plan foresees ‘immediate operational measures’ focused on training and supporting the Libyan coastguard in an effort to interrupt people-smuggling and to increase the number of search and rescue missions. As regards returns, the EU wants to ensure adequate reception conditions for migrants in Libya, with help from UNHCR and the International Organisation for Migration. This note offers links to recent commentaries and studies on migration from major international think-tanks and research institutes. Earlier papers on the same topic can be found in a previous edition of 'What Think Tanks are thinking', published in September 2016.

Counter-terrorism Cooperation with the Southern Neighbourhood

02-02-2017

Since the EU adopted its Counter-Terrorism Strategy in 2005, it has focused on forging closer ties with third countries in the fight against terrorism. Cooperation with the Southern Neighbourhood in this field is particularly important. Every single country within this region is affected by terrorism to different degrees and terrorist attacks on European soil are increasingly linked with the Middle East and North Africa. The EU adopted a wide-ranging counter-terrorism approach in the South including ...

Since the EU adopted its Counter-Terrorism Strategy in 2005, it has focused on forging closer ties with third countries in the fight against terrorism. Cooperation with the Southern Neighbourhood in this field is particularly important. Every single country within this region is affected by terrorism to different degrees and terrorist attacks on European soil are increasingly linked with the Middle East and North Africa. The EU adopted a wide-ranging counter-terrorism approach in the South including actions that go beyond the strictly military and security interpretations of counter-terrorism. In line with the UN’s 4-pillar approach, the EU’s counter-terrorism measures can be broadly subdivided into four fields: (i) building state capacity (particularly in the areas of border control, criminal investigation and prosecution, and countering the financing of terrorism); (ii) strengthening the rule of law and respect for human rights; (iii) fostering regional cooperation; and (iv) preventing and combating terrorism. This study outlines and contextualises current counter-terrorism activities in the region.

Extern avdelning

Florence GAUB, Annelies PAUWELS

Outlook for the informal European Council and informal meeting of 27 Heads of State or Government on 3 February 2017

01-02-2017

The informal summit taking place on 3 February 2017 in Valletta, Malta, will take place in two parts: an informal European Council meeting in which all EU Member States will participate, followed by an informal meeting of the 27 Heads of State or Government without the UK. The informal European Council will discuss further steps to address the migration crisis, in particular the external dimension of migration. The main issues will be the Central Mediterranean route and EU-Libya cooperation. EU leaders ...

The informal summit taking place on 3 February 2017 in Valletta, Malta, will take place in two parts: an informal European Council meeting in which all EU Member States will participate, followed by an informal meeting of the 27 Heads of State or Government without the UK. The informal European Council will discuss further steps to address the migration crisis, in particular the external dimension of migration. The main issues will be the Central Mediterranean route and EU-Libya cooperation. EU leaders will also exchange views on other international challenges and the wider global context. The EU-27 leaders will then continue their reflection on their common future.

Outcome of the European Council of 28 June 2016 and the informal meeting of 27 Heads of State or Government on 29 June 2016

01-07-2016

The 28 June 2016 European Council was described by its President, Donald Tusk, as ‘very much a British European Council'. The result of the UK referendum held on 23 June 2016 – in which 51.9% of the 71.8% of the electorate who voted opted for the United Kingdom to leave the European Union – dominated the agenda. The meeting was thus split into two sessions. On 28 June, EU leaders from all 28 Member States discussed migration, jobs, growth and competitiveness and external relations, before hearing ...

The 28 June 2016 European Council was described by its President, Donald Tusk, as ‘very much a British European Council'. The result of the UK referendum held on 23 June 2016 – in which 51.9% of the 71.8% of the electorate who voted opted for the United Kingdom to leave the European Union – dominated the agenda. The meeting was thus split into two sessions. On 28 June, EU leaders from all 28 Member States discussed migration, jobs, growth and competitiveness and external relations, before hearing an account from the UK Prime Minister, David Cameron, on the situation in the United Kingdom after the outcome of the referendum, followed by a first exchange of views. The next day, on 29 June, the Heads of State or Government of 27 Member States, meeting without Mr Cameron, discussed the political and practical implications of the UK vote, as well as the future of the European Union with 27 Member States. Please click here for the full publication in PDF format  

The EU security environment: Challenges and shifts

15-06-2016

Over the past few years, the world’s commitment to peace and its capacity to deal with evolving security challenges have been put to the test. The outcomes – an increasing number of refugees, an expanding network of terrorist organisations, some countries’ high dependency on international aid, and a relatively low level of respect for civil liberties around the world – demonstrate an urgent need for reflection and adaptation.

Over the past few years, the world’s commitment to peace and its capacity to deal with evolving security challenges have been put to the test. The outcomes – an increasing number of refugees, an expanding network of terrorist organisations, some countries’ high dependency on international aid, and a relatively low level of respect for civil liberties around the world – demonstrate an urgent need for reflection and adaptation.

Libya after Gaddafi: A challenging transition

13-06-2016

Five years after the uprising against Muammar Gaddafi, Libya has finally made a breakthrough towards ending the two-year conflict that has seen the country divided between two rival governments and parliaments, each allied with loose coalitions of armed militias fighting each other. The resulting power vacuum has led, not least, to the rise of ISIL/Da'esh in Libya and, to the country's increasing role as a departure point for migrants hoping to reach Europe. A political solution to reduce the instability ...

Five years after the uprising against Muammar Gaddafi, Libya has finally made a breakthrough towards ending the two-year conflict that has seen the country divided between two rival governments and parliaments, each allied with loose coalitions of armed militias fighting each other. The resulting power vacuum has led, not least, to the rise of ISIL/Da'esh in Libya and, to the country's increasing role as a departure point for migrants hoping to reach Europe. A political solution to reduce the instability in Libya is critical, both for Libya and for its neighbours.

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