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How to include ’Mode 5’ services commitments in bilateral free trade agreements and at multilateral stage?

11-07-2018

Mode 5 refers to services which are incorporated into goods which are then traded across international borders. Unlike traditional services, Mode 5 services are not subject to the existing international trade regime under the WTO General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS). Rather, they are subject to trade rules under the framework that governs trade in goods. As a consequence, trade in Mode 5 services is not fully liberalised, even though liberalisation would be in the best interest of international ...

Mode 5 refers to services which are incorporated into goods which are then traded across international borders. Unlike traditional services, Mode 5 services are not subject to the existing international trade regime under the WTO General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS). Rather, they are subject to trade rules under the framework that governs trade in goods. As a consequence, trade in Mode 5 services is not fully liberalised, even though liberalisation would be in the best interest of international trade and the European Union. This report explores different avenues for including Mode 5 service commitments in multilateral trade agreements and free trade agreements, analyzing benefits and associated challenges. The broad conclusion is that while it may be possible to pursue Mode 5 options at the multilateral level, the most viable immediate strategy would consist in including such commitments in free trade agreements between the EU and its trading partners.

Extern avdelning

Ms Marina FOLTEA

Copernicus – The EU's Earth observation and monitoring programme

24-10-2017

Copernicus is the European Union's Earth observation and monitoring programme. It has a space component and a ground-based component, and provides users with data services. It is a user-driven programme under civilian control, building on existing national and European capacities, and continuing the work of the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) programme. It is based on a partnership between the EU, the European Space Agency (ESA) and the EU Member States.

Copernicus is the European Union's Earth observation and monitoring programme. It has a space component and a ground-based component, and provides users with data services. It is a user-driven programme under civilian control, building on existing national and European capacities, and continuing the work of the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) programme. It is based on a partnership between the EU, the European Space Agency (ESA) and the EU Member States.

Securing the Copernicus programme: Why EU earth observation matters

06-04-2017

The Copernicus programme is a user-driven programme which provides six free-of-charge operational services (atmosphere monitoring, marine environment monitoring, land monitoring, climate change, emergency management and security) to EU, national, and regional institutions, as well as to the private sector. The programme builds on the initiative on global monitoring for environment and security launched in 2001. It aims at filling the gaps in European earth observation capacities. Data is provided ...

The Copernicus programme is a user-driven programme which provides six free-of-charge operational services (atmosphere monitoring, marine environment monitoring, land monitoring, climate change, emergency management and security) to EU, national, and regional institutions, as well as to the private sector. The programme builds on the initiative on global monitoring for environment and security launched in 2001. It aims at filling the gaps in European earth observation capacities. Data is provided from space infrastructures, particularly the sentinel missions developed under the programme, and in situ infrastructure supported by the Member States. Copernicus services are mainly operated by European Union (EU) agencies. Copernicus requires a high level of continuity in data and service provision. A strong political commitment at EU level is required to provide adequate funding for the development of the operational earth observation missions and services. The EU – under the framework programme for research and operational programmes – and the European Space Agency (ESA) have invested more than €7 billion in Copernicus since 2002. By the end of 2017, four of the six sentinel missions should be fully deployed and the last of the six services should become fully operational. As Copernicus reaches its full operational stage, the focus of the programme is shifting towards the uptake of the services and the development of a downstream sector that would provide additional commercial services to the users. This aspect is a key priority of the space strategy adopted by the European Commission in October 2016. The development of the downstream sector is dependent on the long-term continuity of service, to be ensured by improved governance of the programme and renewed long-term political and financial commitments for the next EU budgetary period.

The Collaborative Economy: Socioeconomic, Regulatory and Labor Issues

16-01-2017

This briefing provides a discussion of economic, regulatory, labor and social issues related to the sharing economy (collaborative economy). It provides a definition for the collaborative economy, placing it in the context of a range of past and current definitions, and proposing a new term, “crowd-based capitalism,” as a term that unifies changes across different industries. It outlines how this new form of commercial exchange blurs the lines between personal and commercial, elevating the importance ...

This briefing provides a discussion of economic, regulatory, labor and social issues related to the sharing economy (collaborative economy). It provides a definition for the collaborative economy, placing it in the context of a range of past and current definitions, and proposing a new term, “crowd-based capitalism,” as a term that unifies changes across different industries. It outlines how this new form of commercial exchange blurs the lines between personal and commercial, elevating the importance of social factors in creating commercial trust. It reflects on how the economic returns from the sharing economy may be repartitioned across social actors, and the promise of lower economic inequality. It outlines new approaches to regulating the sharing economy, the necessity of carefully designed self-regulatory mechanisms, the promise of data-driven delegation, and a set of principles to draw the right lines between the government and the platforms. It concludes with a summary of the state of the independent workforce and outlines approaches for creating a new social contract as society shifts away from employment and towards freelance work. This document was prepared by Professor Arun Sundararajan at the request of the Committee on Internal Market and Consumer Protection.

Proceedings of the Workshop on "Collaborative Economy"

16-01-2017

This proceedings summaries the workshop chaired by MEP Nicola DANTI on collaborative economy. The workshop is a part of the overall work done within the European Parliament in order to deal with this new form of economy in the context of the Single Market. This document was prepared by Policy Department A at the request of the Committee on Internal Market and Consumer Protection.

This proceedings summaries the workshop chaired by MEP Nicola DANTI on collaborative economy. The workshop is a part of the overall work done within the European Parliament in order to deal with this new form of economy in the context of the Single Market. This document was prepared by Policy Department A at the request of the Committee on Internal Market and Consumer Protection.

Extern avdelning

Alexandros GONIADIS

An Economic Review on the Collaborative Economy

15-12-2016

This paper provides an overview of the empirical evidence concerning the potential gains from collaborative economy and the economic impact some of its business models on. It discusses how we can distinguish professional and non-professional services and provides a list of 9 tentative recommendations for the better protection of the users of the collaborative platforms. It also summarises the main regulatory concerns that emerge from the operation of such platforms. This document was prepared by ...

This paper provides an overview of the empirical evidence concerning the potential gains from collaborative economy and the economic impact some of its business models on. It discusses how we can distinguish professional and non-professional services and provides a list of 9 tentative recommendations for the better protection of the users of the collaborative platforms. It also summarises the main regulatory concerns that emerge from the operation of such platforms. This document was prepared by Policy Department A at the request of the Committee on Internal Market and Consumer Protection.

Critical Assessment of European Agenda for the Collaborative Economy

15-12-2016

The research paper describes the main legal challenges for regulating the collaborative economy and evaluates the definition of, and elucidates how the existing body of EU law applies to collaborative economy business models. In the last part, the paper elaborates on how a regulatory framework for non-professional provision of services and prosumers should look like and makes a few concrete proposals for future policies. This paper was commissioned by the Policy Department A for Economic, Scientific ...

The research paper describes the main legal challenges for regulating the collaborative economy and evaluates the definition of, and elucidates how the existing body of EU law applies to collaborative economy business models. In the last part, the paper elaborates on how a regulatory framework for non-professional provision of services and prosumers should look like and makes a few concrete proposals for future policies. This paper was commissioned by the Policy Department A for Economic, Scientific and Quality of Life Policies upon request of the European Parliament´s Committee on the Internal Market and Consumer Protection.

TTIP - Challenges and Opportunities

29-06-2016

This leaflet provides short compilation of papers prepared by the European Parliament’s Policy Department A: Economic and Scientific Policy in relation to the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP).

This leaflet provides short compilation of papers prepared by the European Parliament’s Policy Department A: Economic and Scientific Policy in relation to the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP).

EYE 2016 – Sharing economy: They come in like a wrecking ball

28-04-2016

The sharing economy (also referred to as the collaborative economy, peer-to-peer economy or collaborative consumption), is based on the sharing of human and physical resources like creation, production, distribution, trade and consumption of goods and services. For consumers, it stresses the shift from ownership towards accessibility. The sharing economy seems to be bringing about an alternative business model to the traditional corporate one. It is taking advantage of new technologies, by using ...

The sharing economy (also referred to as the collaborative economy, peer-to-peer economy or collaborative consumption), is based on the sharing of human and physical resources like creation, production, distribution, trade and consumption of goods and services. For consumers, it stresses the shift from ownership towards accessibility. The sharing economy seems to be bringing about an alternative business model to the traditional corporate one. It is taking advantage of new technologies, by using internet platforms as well as information and communications technology applications, and leveraging communities or crowds to rent, share, swap, barter, trade, or sell access to products or services. This note has been prepared for the European Youth Event, taking place in Strasbourg in May 2016. Please click here for the full publication in PDF format

Nigeria: Economic situation

28-01-2016

After years of sustained growth, Nigeria is now Africa's biggest economy. However, with oil and gas as the main source of foreign exchange and federal government revenue, it is suffering from the fall in oil prices. Nigeria is yet to transform into a diversified and competitive modern economy. This publication updates an EPRS note of May 2015, PE 556.984.

After years of sustained growth, Nigeria is now Africa's biggest economy. However, with oil and gas as the main source of foreign exchange and federal government revenue, it is suffering from the fall in oil prices. Nigeria is yet to transform into a diversified and competitive modern economy. This publication updates an EPRS note of May 2015, PE 556.984.

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