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Femicide, its causes and recent trends: What do we know?

22-11-2021

Femicide is a violation of the basic human rights to life, liberty and personal security, as well as an obstacle to social and economic development. The term indicates the act of intentionally killing a female person, either woman or girl, because of her gender, and it is the end-result of combined risk factors existing at the level of the individual, interpersonal relations, community and society. This crime displays three prominent characteristics: women are disproportionately killed by men; victims ...

Femicide is a violation of the basic human rights to life, liberty and personal security, as well as an obstacle to social and economic development. The term indicates the act of intentionally killing a female person, either woman or girl, because of her gender, and it is the end-result of combined risk factors existing at the level of the individual, interpersonal relations, community and society. This crime displays three prominent characteristics: women are disproportionately killed by men; victims have previously experienced non-lethal violence; the rate at which women are killed tends to remain steady over time. Estimates indicate that 87 000 women were intentionally killed in 2017, but the exact number is unknown and suspected to be higher. The COVID-19 pandemic has worsened the situation and reduced access to services. Femicide’s classification differs according to context, but most significantly includes: killing by an intimate partner or family member; honour, dowry and witch-hunting deaths; femicide-suicide; pre- and post-natal excess female mortality; infanticide; and deliberate neglect, rooted in a preference for sons over daughters. Collecting accurate data is a strategic goal and necessary to facilitate the design of effective policies.

Extern avdelning

Consuelo, CORRADI

Preventing, protecting, providing access to justice: How can states respond to femicide?

22-11-2021

Growing awareness of femicide has not universally translated into effective policy and programming. Though legislation relating to gender-based violence and/or femicide exists in many countries, both persist. A combined social, cultural, political and economic approach situates femicide prevention and responses at various levels, including changes in individual behaviour. Using the term ‘femicide’ more frequently at international forums is crucial not only to focus attention on the gendered nature ...

Growing awareness of femicide has not universally translated into effective policy and programming. Though legislation relating to gender-based violence and/or femicide exists in many countries, both persist. A combined social, cultural, political and economic approach situates femicide prevention and responses at various levels, including changes in individual behaviour. Using the term ‘femicide’ more frequently at international forums is crucial not only to focus attention on the gendered nature of violence but also to act as a call for action. Situational studies reveal that political will to end femicide differs from country to country. Femicide together with the patriarchal norms and misogyny that precipitate it are not just extra-EU problems. Rather, they are of global concern, demanding a global response; in non-EU countries this response is often dependent on donor funding. We now know more than ever what works to reverse patterns of violence. These patterns can be broken by developing the capacity of women’s organisations and strengthening global feminist movements that work with national and local activist networks. Additionally, engaging men and boys in this process of transformation is vital if we are to address violence against women and girls and ultimately end femicide.

Extern avdelning

Tamsin BRADLEY

Internal and external dimension of illegal logging: legal issues and solutions

03-11-2021

This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the PETI Committee, aims at gaining deeper insights into the legal aspects of illegal logging and related trade in illegally harvested timber and timber products. It analyses the legal requirements and their implications for various actors in the EU and in third countries. The study examines the disparities in enforcement and penalties regimes in Member States ...

This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the PETI Committee, aims at gaining deeper insights into the legal aspects of illegal logging and related trade in illegally harvested timber and timber products. It analyses the legal requirements and their implications for various actors in the EU and in third countries. The study examines the disparities in enforcement and penalties regimes in Member States and analyses their role in trade diversion. The study further explores the possibility for strengthening the timber regime by broadening its scope and tackling underlying issues such as corruption and human rights violations. The study also assesses the external dimension, specifically focusing on the Voluntary Partnership Agreements with major producers’ countries. The study formulates various recommendations to improve the regime taking into account both the internal and external dimension of illegal logging.

Extern avdelning

Dr. Kévine KINDJI

The concept of 'climate refugee': Towards a possible definition

18-10-2021

According to statistics published by the Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre, since 2008 over 318 million people around the world have been forcibly displaced by floods, windstorms, earthquakes or droughts, 30.7 million in 2020 alone. This is equivalent to one person being displaced every second. Depending on the frequency and scale of the major natural disasters occurring, there are significant fluctuations in the total number of displaced people from one year to the next, yet the trend over ...

According to statistics published by the Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre, since 2008 over 318 million people around the world have been forcibly displaced by floods, windstorms, earthquakes or droughts, 30.7 million in 2020 alone. This is equivalent to one person being displaced every second. Depending on the frequency and scale of the major natural disasters occurring, there are significant fluctuations in the total number of displaced people from one year to the next, yet the trend over recent decades has been a growing one. Many find refuge within their own country, but some are forced to go abroad. In the summer of 2021, Europe witnessed heavy and unprecedented flooding, particularly in Belgium and Germany, and heat domes in the Mediterranean region. Scientists relate this directly to climate change. All things considered, the number of 'climate refugees' looks set to rise. So far, the national and international response to this challenge has been limited, and protection for the people affected remains inadequate. What adds further to the gap in protection of such people – who are often described as 'climate refugees' – is that there is neither a clear definition of this category of people, nor are they covered by the 1951 Refugee Convention. The latter extends only to people who have a well-founded fear of being persecuted because of their race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group, or political opinion, and who are unable or unwilling to seek protection from their home countries. While the EU has not so far recognised climate refugees formally, it has expressed growing concern and has taken action to support the countries potentially affected by climate-related stress and help them develop resilience. This briefing is an update of an earlier one from January 2019.

Policy Departments’ Monthly Highlights - October 2021

13-10-2021

The Monthly Highlights publication provides an overview, at a glance, of the on-going work of the policy departments, including a selection of the latest and forthcoming publications, and a list of future events.

The Monthly Highlights publication provides an overview, at a glance, of the on-going work of the policy departments, including a selection of the latest and forthcoming publications, and a list of future events.

The Human Right to Drinking Water: Impact of large-scale agriculture and industry

30-09-2021

Access to safe drinking water is a human right. It is indispensable to a healthy, dignified and productive life. However, a significant proportion of the global population is not able to enjoy this human right. The purpose of this in-depth analysis is to consider the impacts of large-scale agricultural activity and industry on the progressive realisation of the human right to drinking water. In particular, it considers how the European Union and the European Parliament can better support non-EU countries ...

Access to safe drinking water is a human right. It is indispensable to a healthy, dignified and productive life. However, a significant proportion of the global population is not able to enjoy this human right. The purpose of this in-depth analysis is to consider the impacts of large-scale agricultural activity and industry on the progressive realisation of the human right to drinking water. In particular, it considers how the European Union and the European Parliament can better support non-EU countries to realise this human right. States and businesses have obligations and responsibilities towards citizens to ensure safe drinking water. However, fulfilling these obligations and responsibilities is in contention with competing water uses and economic considerations and marred by poor enabling environments and power dynamics. Achieving the human right to drinking water needs to be considered in the context of trade-offs emerging from the water-food-energy nexus where water use in one sector can have impacts on others. Virtual water embedded in the trade of agricultural goods demonstrates that demand for food can affect local water availability, posing challenges to ensuring the human right to drinking water in these places. Existing good practices focus on better recognition of obligations and responsibilities through a human rights-based approach, improved assessments of impacts, enhanced stakeholder engagement and mechanisms for due diligence. There are opportunities for the EU to extend the discussion on the human right to drinking water with other interlinked rights, noting the complex and integrated impacts of water resources.

Extern avdelning

• Dr Naho MIRUMACHI • Dr Aleksandra DUDA • Jagoda GREGULSKA • Joanna SMĘTEK

Nutzung von SLAPP-Klagen zur Einschüchterung von Journalisten, nichtstaatlichen Organisationen und der Zivilgesellschaft

15-09-2021

Diese Studie, die von der Politischen Abteilung für Bürgerrechte und konstitutionelle Angelegenheiten des Europäischen Parlaments auf Ersuchen des JURI-Ausschusses in Auftrag gegeben wurde, analysiert Rechtsdefinitionen von strategischen Klagen gegen öffentliche Beteiligung (SLAPP) und bewertet die Vereinbarkeit einer Anti-SLAPP-Gesetzgebung mit EU-Recht. Es wird empfohlen, eine Anti-SLAPP-Richtlinie zu verabschieden sowie die Brüssel-Ia-Verordnung und die Rom-II-Verordnung neu zu fassen, um das ...

Diese Studie, die von der Politischen Abteilung für Bürgerrechte und konstitutionelle Angelegenheiten des Europäischen Parlaments auf Ersuchen des JURI-Ausschusses in Auftrag gegeben wurde, analysiert Rechtsdefinitionen von strategischen Klagen gegen öffentliche Beteiligung (SLAPP) und bewertet die Vereinbarkeit einer Anti-SLAPP-Gesetzgebung mit EU-Recht. Es wird empfohlen, eine Anti-SLAPP-Richtlinie zu verabschieden sowie die Brüssel-Ia-Verordnung und die Rom-II-Verordnung neu zu fassen, um das Auftreten von SLAPP-Klagen zu begrenzen.

Extern avdelning

Justin BORG-BARTHET Benedetta LOBINA Magdalena ZABROCKA.

L’utilisation des poursuites-bâillons pour réduire au silence les journalistes, les ONG et la société civile

15-09-2021

La présente étude, commandée par le département thématique des droits des citoyens et des affaires constitutionnelles du Parlement européen à la demande de la commission des affaires juridiques (JURI), analyse les définitions juridiques des poursuites stratégiques altérant le débat public (poursuites-bâillons) et évalue la compatibilité de la législation contre les poursuites-bâillons dans le droit européen. Il est recommandé l’adoption d’une directive contre les poursuites-bâillons et la refonte ...

La présente étude, commandée par le département thématique des droits des citoyens et des affaires constitutionnelles du Parlement européen à la demande de la commission des affaires juridiques (JURI), analyse les définitions juridiques des poursuites stratégiques altérant le débat public (poursuites-bâillons) et évalue la compatibilité de la législation contre les poursuites-bâillons dans le droit européen. Il est recommandé l’adoption d’une directive contre les poursuites-bâillons et la refonte des règlements Bruxelles I bis et Rome II en vue de limiter l’incidence des poursuites-bâillons.

Extern avdelning

Justin BORG-BARTHET Benedetta LOBINA Magdalena ZABROCKA.

Trends in Chinese reporting on the European Union: Xinhua's coverage of EU affairs, 2012-2021

10-09-2021

The main Chinese news service, Xinhua, has steadily expanded its coverage on the European Union over the past decade. The main challenges facing the Union have featured strongly, from the refugee crisis to Brexit to the impact of Covid 19. The tone of the coverage in this period has been neutral, rather than negative, and has not become more critical during the pandemic. Internal EU policies are often put in a favourable light, although internal divisions also feature in Xinhua's reporting. Xinhua ...

The main Chinese news service, Xinhua, has steadily expanded its coverage on the European Union over the past decade. The main challenges facing the Union have featured strongly, from the refugee crisis to Brexit to the impact of Covid 19. The tone of the coverage in this period has been neutral, rather than negative, and has not become more critical during the pandemic. Internal EU policies are often put in a favourable light, although internal divisions also feature in Xinhua's reporting. Xinhua tends to emphasise EU cooperation with China and EU divisions with the United States. It also criticises EU sanctions and human rights complaints, both about China – for example on Xinjiang and Hong Kong – and about countries including Russia and Turkey. These trends are in line with China's long-standing stated preference for the EU to become a pole in a multipolar world order that is able to balance US power, despite its disapproval of the EU's pursuit of human rights issues. Xinhua's coverage emphasises both the opportunities and the challenges facing European integration. This dual approach tends to support the view that China is ambiguous about the EU's ability to become a more influential and more useful strategic partner on the world stage. This briefing is based on a quantitative and qualitative analysis of Chinese-language online articles by the state-affiliated Xinhua News Agency since 2012, as well as a selection of secondary sources.

Policy Departments’ Monthly Highlights - September 2021

09-09-2021

The Monthly Highlights publication provides an overview, at a glance, of the on-going work of the policy departments, including a selection of the latest and forthcoming publications, and a list of future events.

The Monthly Highlights publication provides an overview, at a glance, of the on-going work of the policy departments, including a selection of the latest and forthcoming publications, and a list of future events.

Kommande evenemang

29-11-2021
The Mutual Defence Clause (Article 42(7) TEU) in the face of new threats
Utfrågning -
SEDE
29-11-2021
Competitiveness of EU agriculture
Utfrågning -
AGRI
30-11-2021
Eliminating Violence against Women - Inter-parliamentary committee meeting
Övrigt -
FEMM

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