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Application of the equal pay principle through pay transparency measures EN

22-07-2021 PE 662.647 LIBE FEMM
Briefing
Résumé : This briefing provides an initial analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of the impact assessment (IA) accompanying the Commission proposal for a directive aimed at strengthening the application of the principle of equal pay for equal work or work of equal value between men and women, enshrined in Article 119 of the Treaty of Rome. Following two negative opinions of the Regulatory Scrutiny Board and an exceptional third positive one, the IA provides a good problem definition. The IA coherently identifies the problem drivers and makes a compelling case for the consequences should situation remain unchanged. The options retained for assessment seem built around a pre-selected preferred option package. The analysis regarding the impact on SMEs appears to be insufficiently developed while the one on competitiveness is missing. The proposal includes all the measures presented in the IA's preferred package as well as two extra measures which were suggested, but not explicitly included in the preferred package.
Auteurs : Laura ZANDERSONE, STEFANO VETTORAZZI

Gender-based violence as a new area of crime listed in Article 83(1) TFEU - European added value assessment EN

14-06-2021 PE 662.640 LIBE FEMM
Étude
Résumé : This European added value assessment (EAVA) supports the European Parliament's legislative-initiative report on a 'Proposal for a Council decision to identify gender-based violence as a new area of crime listed in Article 83(1) TFEU', 2021/2035(INL). The assessment reviews the significant harm generated by gender-based violence in the EU and presents evidence supporting the classification of gender-based violence as a particularly serious crime with a cross-border dimension. Through improving prevention, prosecution and protection, EU action could generate significant benefits to victims and society; considering only the economic dimension, by decreasing the incidence of gender-based violence, it could generate benefits in the order of €25.1 billion in the short term and between €54.4 billion and €83.9 billion in the longer term. Moreover, the EAVA identifies complementary EU action that could enhance the European added value of this policy option, such as expanding the mandate of the equality bodies, promoting the quality of survey and administrative data and supporting education activities and training.
Auteurs : Cecilia NAVARRA, NIOMBO LOMBA, MEENAKSHI FERNANDES

Gender equality: Economic value of care from the perspective of the applicable EU funds EN

14-06-2021 PE 694.784 FEMM
Étude
Résumé : This study was commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the FEMM Committee. It explores the impact of COVID-19 on the EU care economy, the gendered nature of care work and its continued reliance on unpaid or low-paid work of women. Issues of valuing and measuring care are examined selected countries are examined with different systems of care provision. Despite the recognition of the centrality of the care economy during the pandemic, the establishment of a new highly significant EU funding mechanism (the Recovery and Resilience Fund, RRF) is focused largely on digital and green investments, paying only marginal attention to gender equality and the care economy.
Auteurs : Ursula Barry

Women's entrepreneurship and self-employment, including aspects of gendered Corporate Social Responsibility EN

31-05-2021 PE 694.301 FEMM
Étude
Résumé : This study was commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the FEMM Committee. It highlights that despite the increasing number of public policies and institutional resources designed to promote women-led business, the entrepreneurship gender gap persists. This study aims to analyse this apparent contradiction, focusing on three main questions: What are the constraints that women face when deciding to become entrepreneurs? What factors attract women’s interest and motivate them to start their own business? And which policies may benefit women’s entrepreneurship?
Auteurs : María BASTIDA, Associate Professor of Economics at the University of Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

La COVID-19 et ses répercussions économiques sur les femmes et la pauvreté des femmes

19-05-2021 PE 693.183 FEMM
Étude
Résumé : Cette vue d’ensemble d’une analyse de cas approfondie, commandée par le département thématique des droits des citoyens et des affaires constitutionnelles du Parlement européen à la demande de la commission FEMM, examine les effets de la crise de la COVID-19 sur un échantillon représentatif d’États membres dans le but d’alimenter des recommandations stratégiques pour la période de relance afin que les avancées de ces dernières années en matière d’égalité entre les hommes et les femmes ne soient pas compromises par les effets négatifs à court terme des mesures mises en oeuvre pour lutter contre la crise sanitaire de la COVID-19.
Auteurs : Paola PROFETA
Type de document

Résumé exécutif

Traumatismes subis par les femmes réfugiées et conséquences pour leur intégration et leur participation dans le pays de l’Union qui les accueille

19-04-2021 PE 691.875 FEMM
Étude
Résumé : La présente étude a été réalisée pour le département thématique des droits des citoyens et des affaires constitutionnelles du Parlement européen à la demande de la commission FEMM. Elle se penche sur les traumatismes portés par les femmes réfugiées ou demandeuses d’asile à leur arrivée dans leur pays d’accueil. S’appuyant sur un vaste examen de la littérature scientifique, des rapports des organisations internationales, des sites internet, de la presse, et sur des entretiens avec des experts du domaine, elle met en évidence les besoins différents de ces rescapées ainsi que les obstacles structurels, culturels et psychologiques auxquels elles se heurtent lors de leur réinstallation dans l’Union européenne. Elle préconise de mettre en place des dispositifs coordonnés tenant compte du genre et de la culture des personnes concernées, une compétence collégiale de l’Union dans la gestion de la crise des réfugiés et différents niveaux d’accompagnement autour d’une démarche intersectionnelle.
Auteurs : Dr Konstantina DAVAKI
Type de document

Résumé exécutif

Combating Gender based Violence: Cyber Violence EN

17-03-2021 PE 662.621 FEMM
Étude
Résumé : With the rise of new technology and social media gender-based cyber violence is a constantly growing threat with impacts at individual, social and economic levels, on women and girls and on society as generally. Action taken so far has been inadequate, and the cross-border nature of gender-based cyber violence has yet to be properly addressed either. This European added value assessment (EAVA) complements the European Parliament’s own initiative legislative report on Combating Gender based Violence: Cyber Violence (2020/2035(INL)). The costs to individuals and society are substantial and shown to be in the order of €49.0 to €89.3 billion. A combination of legal and non-legal policy options would generate the greatest European added value, promote the fundamental rights of victims, reduce costs imposed on individuals and society, and support law enforcement and people working with victims.
Auteurs : Cecilia NAVARRA, NIOMBO LOMBA, MEENAKSHI FERNANDES

Women's rights and well-being in a post-Covid world: Internet of things (IoT) and related abuses, new ways of working, teleworking, tele-learning, unpaid care and housework, women in leadership and decision-making process EN

02-03-2021 PE 690.358 FEMM
Briefing
Résumé : On the International Women’s Day, let us recall the context in which the current event is taking place. Just about a year ago, the World Health Organisation proclaimed the COVID 19 as the global pandemics. In the scope of several weeks, it has affected all the countries in the world and persists until this day, in spite of the existence of vaccines. Hence, further societal developments are uncertain and more changes within it are to be expected. In the sections below, the Policy Department tries to address the selected sectors of society affecting women and girls by changes resulting from the effects of the COVID 19 pandemics.
Auteurs : JOHANNES HEEZEN, Martina SCHONARD, INA SOKOLSKA, KATARZYNA MAGDALENA KARPINSKA

L’écart entre les hommes et les femmes dans l’administration et les postes de direction de la fonction publique au sein de l’Union

02-03-2021 PE 689.276 FEMM
Étude
Résumé : Cette étude a été commandée par le département thématique des droits des citoyens et des affaires constitutionnelles du Parlement européen à la demande de la commission FEMM. Elle analyse l’état de l’écart entre les hommes et les femmes dans le secteur, l’administration et la sphère publics au sein de l’Union et des États membres et recense des mesures stratégiques aptes à favoriser la résorption de cet écart.
Auteurs : Clara COTRONEO, Olivia BROWN, Iwona KARWOT - European Institute of Public Administration
Type de document

Résumé exécutif

Policy Departments’ Monthly Highlights - January 2021 EN

En bref
Résumé : The Monthly Highlights publication provides an overview, at a glance, of the on-going work of the policy departments, including a selection of the latest and forthcoming publications, and a list of future events.

Travail précaire du point de vue de l’égalité entre les genres et de l’intersectionnalité, et moyens de le combattre

30-11-2020 PE 662.491 FEMM
Étude
Résumé : Aux fins de cette étude, on entend par «travail précaire» un emploi qui satisfait au moins à l’un des critères suivants: salaire très bas, temps de travail très réduit ou faible sécurité de l’emploi. Ce dernier critère est interprété au sens large comme englobant non seulement les contrats temporaires, mais aussi les emplois comportant peu de possibilités de formation et d’évolution de carrière ou dépourvus de représentation collective, de droits à la protection sociale ou de prestations liées à l’emploi. L’intersectionnalité - la manière dont le sexe et le genre se recoupent avec d’autres caractéristiques ou identités personnelles - et la manière dont ces intersections contribuent à des expériences uniques de discrimination sont intégrées dans la définition du travail précaire figurant dans la présente étude. La discrimination sous la forme d’«inégalités croisées» fondées sur l’âge, le pays d’origine, le handicap, le niveau d’éducation ou l’orientation sexuelle est un facteur déterminant de l’exposition au travail précaire et de l’expérience qu’une personne en fera. Bien que les hommes soient clairement touchés par le travail précaire, ce sont les femmes qui sont particulièrement vulnérables à ce phénomène.
Auteurs : Camille FIADZO, Virginia DALLA POZZA, Laura TODARO (VVA); Claire DUPONT (Milieu); Kari HADJIVASSILIOU (The Tavistock Institute).

La situation des parents isolés dans l’Union européenne

05-11-2020 PE 659.870 FEMM
Étude
Résumé : Cette étude, commandée par le département thématique des droits des citoyens et des affaires constitutionnelles du Parlement européen, à la demande de la commission FEMM, décrit l’évolution de la situation des parents isolés dans l’Union européenne (en s’appuyant également sur des données islandaises et norvégiennes). Elle analyse les ressources et la situation professionnelle de ces personnes, ainsi que les politiques sociales les concernant, et formule des recommandations pour améliorer leur situation, en tenant compte de la pandémie de COVID-19 et de ses conséquences.
Auteurs : Rense NIEUWENHUIS
Type de document

Résumé exécutif

Access to Abortion Services for Women in the EU - Croatia EN

30-10-2020 PE 659.923 FEMM
Analyse approfondie
Résumé : An In-depth Analysis commissioned by the European Parliament's Policy Department for Citizens' Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the FEMM Committee. The paper is divided into six parts. The first part of the paper defines what is meant by the term sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) according to the most important international and regional human rights instruments. The second part analyses the legal framework of the EU Member States regarding access to abortion services while the third part focuses on the problems caused by the COVID - 19 pandemic in access to abortion. The fourth part deals with the problems caused by the pandemic in the two countries with the most restrictive abortion regimes in the EU, Poland and Malta. The fifth part of the paper sheds light on the importance of civil society in the protection of women's SRHR. Finally, the sixth part of the paper assesses the importance of the solutions adopted in the protection of access to abortion services during the COVID -19 pandemic. In this context, telemedicine for early medical abortions is particularly important.
Auteurs : Martina SCHONARD

Tackling violence against women and domestic violence in Europe – The added value of the Istanbul Convention and remaining challenges EN

30-10-2020 PE 658.648 FEMM
Étude
Résumé : This study was commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the FEMM Committee. It aims to understand the implementation of the Convention, its added value, arguments against the ratification of the Convention, and the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on violence against women (VAW) and domestic violence (DV). The 27 EU Member States are included in the study, together with Turkey, which offers a comparator of the impact of the ratification of the Convention by a non-EU country.
Auteurs : Nathalie MEURENS, Hayley D’SOUZA, Saredo MOHAMED, Nazia CHOWDHURY, Stelios CHARITAKIS, Kate, REGAN, ICF Prof. Dr Els LEYE, Ghent University/Consultant

Access to Abortion Services for Women in the EU - Slovakia EN

23-10-2020 PE 659.922 FEMM
Analyse approfondie
Résumé : This paper, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the FEMM Committee, provides basic information on access to abortion services in Slovakia. The legal status of abortions in the country is under permanent pressure despite the legally binding decision by the Constitutional Court back in 2007 which safeguarded women´s right to free choice. Eleven proposals to restrict abortion have been presented in the National Parliament, in the last two years. Medical abortion is not available in the country, and together with conscientious objection applied in health services and current COVID-19 pandemics access to abortion services is further limited.
Auteurs : Martina SCHONARD

Commitments made at the hearings of the Commissioners-designate - von der Leyen Commission 2019-2024 EN

En bref
Résumé : This document provides links to all Briefings produced by the Policy Departments of the Directorate-General for Internal Policies and of the Directorate-General for External Policies of the European Parliament, with salient points and essential commitments made by the Vice-Presidents and Commissioners-designates at their respective hearings before the European Parliament, in September-November 2019 and in October 2020. For an exhaustive list of all commitments made and positions taken by the candidates, the full verbatim report of each public hearing is available on the dedicated hearings website of the European Parliament, as are the written questions and answers.

Evaluating the EU’s Response to the US Global Gag Rule EN

30-09-2020 PE 621.927 FEMM
Étude
Résumé : This study commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the FEMM Committee, maps out the challenges the European Union faces in promoting sexual and reproductive health and rights and the prevention of gender based violence in its external action, especially in providing aid to developing countries against the backdrop of US Global Gag Rules.
Auteurs : Clara COTRONEO, Petra JENEY, European Institute of Public Administration

The gendered impact of the Covid-19 crisis and post-crisis period EN

30-09-2020 PE 658.227 FEMM
Étude
Résumé : Outbreaks affect men, women and other genders differentially. This can be both the direct infections with a pathogen, or the secondary effects of public health response policies. COVID-19 is no exception, and the gendered impacts thus far and in the future are numerous. This study outlines some of the key gendered effects thus far and suggestions for how these may extend into the post-crisis period based on currently available data on COVID and longer-term effects of previous outbreaks. This includes the lack of sex-disaggregated data, the role of healthcare workers and care workers, domestic violence, the impact of quarantine on feminised sectors of the economy, the additional unpaid labour on women as a result of lockdown, access to maternity, sexual and reproductive health services. This study commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the FEMM Committee.
Auteurs : Clare WENHAM, Department of Health Policy, London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE), London, United Kingdom

Policy Departments' Monthly Highlights - July 2020 EN

En bref
Résumé : The Monthly Highlights publication provides an overview, at a glance, of the on-going work of the policy departments, including a selection of the latest and forthcoming publications, and a list of future events.

Éducation et emploi des femmes dans les sciences, les technologies et l’économie numérique, y compris l’IA et son influence sur l’égalité hommes-femmes

15-04-2020 PE 651.042 FEMM
Étude
Résumé : Cette étude, commandée par le département politique pour les droits des citoyens et les affaires constitutionnelles du Parlement européen à la demande de la commission FEMM, apporte la preuve qu’il existe toujours des préjugés et des inégalités entre les femmes et les hommes dans les sciences, les technologies, l’ingénierie et les mathématiques (STIM) et dans le secteur numérique (comme les technologies numériques, l’informatique, les technologies de l’information, les technologies de l’information et de la communication, l’intelligence artificielle et la cybersécurité). Ce document, préparé à la demande de la commission FEMM (Département politique pour les droits des citoyens et les affaires constitutionnelles, Direction générale des politiques internes), vise à offrir une analyse documentaire de l’évolution de la situation actuelle en matière d’éducation et d’emploi des femmes dans les STIM et le secteur numérique. À cet effet, il est procédé à une mise en parallèle des trajectoires de l’enseignement primaire jusqu’à l’emploi, pour tenter de recenser les obstacles et freins à la parité des sexes. En conclusion, des pistes sont avancées en ce qui concerne des travaux de recherche, des initiatives et des politiques futurs de nature à renforcer la position des femmes dans ces filières.
Auteurs : Prof. Dr. Zacharias C. Zacharia, Research in Science and Technology Education Group, Department of Educational Sciences, University of Cyprus Dr. Tasos Hovardas, Research in Science and Technology Education Group, University of Cyprus; Dr. Nikoletta Xenofontos, Research in Science and Technology Education Group, University of Cyprus Ms Ivoni Pavlou, Research in Science and Technology Education Group, University of Cyprus;Ms Maria Irakleous, Research in Science and Technology Education Group, University of Cyprus

La violence à l’égard des femmes: violence psychologique et contrôle coercitif

16-03-2020 PE 650.336 FEMM
Étude
Résumé : Cette étude, commandée par le département politique pour les droits des citoyens et les affaires constitutionnelles du Parlement européen à la demande de la commission FEMM, examine s’il existe une criminalisation de la violence psychologique à l’égard des femmes dans certains États membres de l’Union sélectionnés, les modalités de collecte des données concernant cette forme particulière de violence à caractère sexiste et l’incidence éventuelle sur les droits de garde et de visite des auteurs.
Auteurs : Petra JENEY, European Institution of Public Administration, in collaboration with Clara COTRONEO, Igor DIZDAREVIC, Virgil-Ivan CUCU, Tomasz KRAMER, Juan Diego RAMÍREZ-CÁRDENAS DÍAZ, Roberta RIBEIRO OERTEL, European Institution of Public Administration

Inter-parliamentary Committee Meeting - 5 March 2020 EN

14-02-2020 PE 649.073 FEMM
Briefing
Résumé : This briefing was requested by the FEMM Committee for an Inter-parliamentary Committee Meeting to be held on 5 March 2020 in connection with International Women's Day on 8 March 2020. This thematic briefing concentrates on women and the economy, violence against women, women and climate change, and the backlash against women's rights and gender equality.
Auteurs : JOHANNES HEEZEN

Policy Departments' Monthly Highlights - February 2020 EN

En bref
Résumé : The Monthly Highlights publication provides an overview, at a glance, of the on-going work of the policy departments, including a selection of the latest and forthcoming publications, and a list of future events.

FEMM Delegation to Croatia EN

15-01-2020 PE 621.935 FEMM
Briefing
Résumé : Briefing made up by the Policy Department for Citizens' Rights and Constitutional Affairs of the EP to the attention of the FEMM Committee's delegation to Croatia in January 2020.
Auteurs : Martina SCHONARD

Policy Departments' Monthly Highlights - December 2019 EN

En bref
Résumé : The Monthly Highlights publication provides an overview, at a glance, of the on-going work of the policy departments, including a selection of the latest and forthcoming publications, and a list of future events.
Résumé : Le présent document est une compilation des points essentiels évoqués par les vice-présidents et commissaires désignés ainsi que des principaux engagements pris par ceux-ci au cours de leurs auditions respectives devant le Parlement européen. Il vise à constituer un outil pratique et concis de suivi des efforts et des actions de la future Commission. Pour obtenir une liste complète de l’ensemble des engagements pris et des positions adoptées par les candidats, le compte rendu in extenso de chaque audition publique est disponible sur la page web consacrée aux auditions du Parlement européen menées en 2019, de même que les questions et les réponses écrites. Le présent document comprend un addenda contenant les engagements pris lors des auditions d’octobre 2020.

Commitments made at the hearing of Helena DALLI, Commissioner-designate - Equality EN

22-11-2019 PE 621.919 EMPL FEMM
Briefing
Résumé : The commissioner-designate, Helena Dalli, appeared before the European Parliament on 02 October 2019 to answer questions from MEPs in the Committee on Women's Rights and Gender Equality, Committee on Employment and Social Affairs and Committee on Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs. During the hearing, she made a number of commitments which are highlighted in this document. These commitments refer to her portfolio, as described in the mission letter sent to her by Ursula von der Leyen, President-elect of the European Commission, including: - Fight against discrimination; - Rights of Persons with Disability; - European Gender Strategy; - Work–Life Balance Directive; - International Partnerships:Empowering women and girls; - Cooperating with the European Parliament and with other Commissioners.
Auteurs : Martina SCHONARD, Susanne KRAATZ

FEMM-DEVE ad hoc Delegation to Nairobi - 12-14 November 2019 EN

08-11-2019 PE 621.925 FEMM
Briefing
Résumé : This year marks the 25th anniversary of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo, where 179 governments adopted a landmark Programme of Action which set out to empower women and girls for their sake, and for the benefit of their families, communities and nations. It also marks the 50th anniversary of the founding of the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA). A At the ICPD, diverse views on human rights, population, sexual and reproductive health, gender equality and sustainable development merged into a global consensus that placed individual dignity and human rights, including the right to plan one’s family, at the heart of development. A quarter of a century later, some progress has been achieved. There has been a 25 per cent increase in global contraceptive prevalence rate around the world. Adolescent births have declined, and the global maternal mortality ratio has fallen. But progress has been slow and uneven. Hundreds of millions of women around the world are still not using modern contraceptives to prevent unwanted pregnancies, and global targets on reducing maternal deaths have not been met. For a more comprenhesive account of the progress made and the remaining challenges ahead, please consult the report Unfinished business - the pursuit of rights and choices for all.
Auteurs : Martina SCHONARD

Policy Departments' Monthly Highlights - October 2019 EN

En bref
Résumé : The Monthly Highlights publication provides an overview, at a glance, of the on-going work of the policy departments, including a selection of the latest and forthcoming publications, and a list of future events.