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What if we chose new metaphors for artificial intelligence?

08-06-2021

Artificial intelligence (AI) policy debates are replete with metaphors. Even the term ‘AI’ relies upon a metaphor for the human quality of intelligence, and its development is regularly described as a ‘race’. While metaphors are useful in highlighting some features of their subject, they are so powerful that it can be difficult to imagine or discuss their subject in other terms. Here, we explore some challenges presented by the central metaphor of ‘intelligence’, examine how AI metaphors emphasise ...

Artificial intelligence (AI) policy debates are replete with metaphors. Even the term ‘AI’ relies upon a metaphor for the human quality of intelligence, and its development is regularly described as a ‘race’. While metaphors are useful in highlighting some features of their subject, they are so powerful that it can be difficult to imagine or discuss their subject in other terms. Here, we explore some challenges presented by the central metaphor of ‘intelligence’, examine how AI metaphors emphasise competition at the cost of cooperation, and ask whether new metaphors could help us to articulate ambitious visions for AI, and new criteria for success.

Establecimiento del instrumento de apoyo financiero para equipo de control aduanero

02-06-2021

Durante el período parcial de sesiones de junio I de 2021, está previsto que el Parlamento Europeo debata y vote en segunda lectura el acuerdo provisional alcanzado en las negociaciones interinstitucionales sobre la propuesta de Reglamento del Parlamento Europeo y del Consejo por el que se establece el instrumento de apoyo financiero para equipo de control aduanero, como parte del Fondo para la Gestión Integrada de las Fronteras.

Durante el período parcial de sesiones de junio I de 2021, está previsto que el Parlamento Europeo debata y vote en segunda lectura el acuerdo provisional alcanzado en las negociaciones interinstitucionales sobre la propuesta de Reglamento del Parlamento Europeo y del Consejo por el que se establece el instrumento de apoyo financiero para equipo de control aduanero, como parte del Fondo para la Gestión Integrada de las Fronteras.

What if objects around us flocked together and became intelligent?

01-06-2021

- Artificial Intelligence: the real driving force of IoT. - Artificial Intelligence of Things (AIoT) incorporates all the possibilities of AI and IoT, but also all ethical and legal concerns. - Potential advantages and possibilities for EU of Artificial Intelligence of Things.

- Artificial Intelligence: the real driving force of IoT. - Artificial Intelligence of Things (AIoT) incorporates all the possibilities of AI and IoT, but also all ethical and legal concerns. - Potential advantages and possibilities for EU of Artificial Intelligence of Things.

Vulnerable consumers

21-05-2021

Compared to the average consumer, who is considered to be able to make rational choices to find the best deals and benefit from competitive markets, vulnerable consumers are not considered to be able to do so for a variety of reasons. There are two main approaches to identifying vulnerable consumers. One emphasises those individual characteristics of the consumer that increase the (theoretical) risk of becoming vulnerable, such as low socio-economic status, low education level, not being able to ...

Compared to the average consumer, who is considered to be able to make rational choices to find the best deals and benefit from competitive markets, vulnerable consumers are not considered to be able to do so for a variety of reasons. There are two main approaches to identifying vulnerable consumers. One emphasises those individual characteristics of the consumer that increase the (theoretical) risk of becoming vulnerable, such as low socio-economic status, low education level, not being able to speak a particular language, or a minority status. The other suggests that all consumers can become vulnerable due to the interplay between their individual characteristics, the circumstances and the economic market. According to this view, consumers can move in and out of vulnerability, depending on their individual state. The European Commission's 2018 consumer survey found that 43 % of EU citizens believed themselves to be vulnerable as consumers. The image of vulnerable consumers in European Union (EU) law is narrower than that found in the academic literature. They are defined in the Unfair Commercial Practices Directive, which requires additional protection for consumers who are 'particularly vulnerable due to their mental or physical infirmity, age or credulity'. This definition has been subject to much criticism, as it does not take the different variables that can make consumers vulnerable into account. Provisions protecting vulnerable consumers can be found in other horizontal consumer legislation, as well as legislation on specific sectors, for instance in the field of energy, finance and food legislation. The development of e commerce and artificial intelligence have also been raising concerns about consumer vulnerability. For instance, the European consumer organisation BEUC is asking for a rethink of the concepts of 'average' and 'vulnerable' consumers, as some practices online, which combine collection of data with manipulating consumers, are making all consumers vulnerable and therefore require all consumers to be equally protected. The European Parliament has long advocated a wider concept in defining vulnerable consumers, and stronger protection for them, including in the energy, finance and digital sectors.

Research for ANIT Committee: Particular welfare needs in animal transport: unweaned animals and pregnant females

20-05-2021

This study provides a technical overview and policy recommendations of the welfare need during transport of unweaned animals and pregnant females. During long journeys unweaned calves may experience negative welfare consequences such as prolonged hunger and thirst, resting problems, thermal stress and diseases. Further research is needed to develop appropriate methods to determine the gestational age during late pregnancy when the date of insemination or matting is unavailable, as well as to establish ...

This study provides a technical overview and policy recommendations of the welfare need during transport of unweaned animals and pregnant females. During long journeys unweaned calves may experience negative welfare consequences such as prolonged hunger and thirst, resting problems, thermal stress and diseases. Further research is needed to develop appropriate methods to determine the gestational age during late pregnancy when the date of insemination or matting is unavailable, as well as to establish the gestational age at which females are at particular risk of suffering poor welfare during transport.

Autor externo

1 Animal Welfare Program, Institute for Food and Agriculture Research and Technology (IRTA) Veïnat de Síes, 17121 Girona, Spain; 2Ruminant Production, Institute for Food and Agriculture Research and Technology (IRTA), Caldes de Montbui, 08140 Barcelona, Spain.

Research for ANIT Committee: Animal welfare on sea vessels and criteria for approval of livestock authorisation

20-05-2021

This research project was commissioned by the European Parliament’s Committee of Inquiry on the Protection of Animals during Transport (ANIT). The paper provides an analysis of the legal framework for the transport of animals on livestock vessels and related operations. Shortcomings of the system currently in place are identified, examples of good practices worldwide are described, and case studies are presented. Policy recommendations and short-term goals for the EU Commission and Members States ...

This research project was commissioned by the European Parliament’s Committee of Inquiry on the Protection of Animals during Transport (ANIT). The paper provides an analysis of the legal framework for the transport of animals on livestock vessels and related operations. Shortcomings of the system currently in place are identified, examples of good practices worldwide are described, and case studies are presented. Policy recommendations and short-term goals for the EU Commission and Members States are outlined.

Autor externo

Main Authors: Maria BOADA – SAÑA, Katarzyna KULIKOWSKA Second Authors: Iris BAUMGÄRTNER, Magdalena ROMAŃSKA, Tea DRONIJC Contributors: Nina ENGWALD, Francesca PORTA, Gerit WEIDINGER Revisor: Xavier MANTECA

What if consumers could use devices to sequence DNA?

11-05-2021

Sequencing and analysis of the human genome – all the genetic information stored in our DNA – provide us with understanding about a person's ancestry, health and other traits. Thanks to DNA sequencing, medicine and the life sciences are able to predict and cure diseases. As DNA sequencing technologies continuously improve and become less costly, what if we all soon possessed our personal, smart DNA sequencers and apps to analyse our DNA?

Sequencing and analysis of the human genome – all the genetic information stored in our DNA – provide us with understanding about a person's ancestry, health and other traits. Thanks to DNA sequencing, medicine and the life sciences are able to predict and cure diseases. As DNA sequencing technologies continuously improve and become less costly, what if we all soon possessed our personal, smart DNA sequencers and apps to analyse our DNA?

The Role of AI in the European Green Deal

30-04-2021

AI can be deployed for a wide range of applications to promote the goals of the European Green Deal. However, adverse environmental impacts of AI could jeopardise the attainment of these goals. The report describes environmental potentials, clarifies characteristics and causes of environmental risks, and outlines initiatives and best practices for environmental policies. It illustrates the need for regulatory action to align design and deployment of AI with the goals of the European Green Deal and ...

AI can be deployed for a wide range of applications to promote the goals of the European Green Deal. However, adverse environmental impacts of AI could jeopardise the attainment of these goals. The report describes environmental potentials, clarifies characteristics and causes of environmental risks, and outlines initiatives and best practices for environmental policies. It illustrates the need for regulatory action to align design and deployment of AI with the goals of the European Green Deal and concludes with specific recommendations.

Autor externo

Gailhofer/Herold/Schemmel/Scherf/Urrutia/Köhler/Braungardt

The EU Toy Safety Directive

29-04-2021

The Toy Safety Directive (TSD) aims to ensure a high level of health and safety with respect to toys for children under 14 years of age and to guarantee the free movement of toys in the EU by means of provisions for manufacturers, importers, distributors of toys sold in the EU and national market surveillance authorities. More than 10 years after its adoption in 2009, the European Commission is considering a revision of the directive in the context of the chemicals strategy for sustainability. Although ...

The Toy Safety Directive (TSD) aims to ensure a high level of health and safety with respect to toys for children under 14 years of age and to guarantee the free movement of toys in the EU by means of provisions for manufacturers, importers, distributors of toys sold in the EU and national market surveillance authorities. More than 10 years after its adoption in 2009, the European Commission is considering a revision of the directive in the context of the chemicals strategy for sustainability. Although the exact scope of this revision has still to be decided, the European Commission highlighted areas for further improvement in a recent evaluation of the directive. The Commission's evaluation focused on: a general lack of monitoring data to assess the TSD's effectiveness; limit values for some chemical substances; and the question of whether limit values should apply not only to toys for children under 36 months, but also to children of all ages. In addition, the evaluation looked into the issue of market surveillance and enforcement, where resources appear be missing and discussed the difficulties for manufacturers to comply with the 'small parts requirement' for toys intended for children under 36 months. This briefing has been produced by the European Parliamentary Research Service (EPRS) to assist the European Parliament's Committee on the Internal Market and Consumer Protection in its work on the implementation report on the Toy Safety Directive. The briefing aims to provide a succinct overview of publicly available material on the implementation, application and effectiveness to date of the Toy Safety Directive, drawing on input from EU institutions and bodies and from external organisations.

Derechos y obligaciones de los viajeros de ferrocarril en la Unión

21-04-2021

En la Unión, el Reglamento (CE) n.º 1371/2007 regula los derechos y las obligaciones de los viajeros de ferrocarril, y fija un nivel armonizado de información, asistencia e indemnización. En septiembre de 2017, la Comisión Europea adoptó una nueva propuesta, destinada a lograr un mejor equilibrio entre el refuerzo de los derechos de los pasajeros y la reducción de la carga para las empresas ferroviarias. El Parlamento Europeo tiene previsto someter a votación en segunda lectura durante el período ...

En la Unión, el Reglamento (CE) n.º 1371/2007 regula los derechos y las obligaciones de los viajeros de ferrocarril, y fija un nivel armonizado de información, asistencia e indemnización. En septiembre de 2017, la Comisión Europea adoptó una nueva propuesta, destinada a lograr un mejor equilibrio entre el refuerzo de los derechos de los pasajeros y la reducción de la carga para las empresas ferroviarias. El Parlamento Europeo tiene previsto someter a votación en segunda lectura durante el período parcial de sesiones de abril el texto acordado resultante de las negociaciones interinstitucionales.

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