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Electronic signatures

Ve stručnosti 06-12-2022

Electronic signatures have been in use for a while, but it is not always obvious which specific type of signature is required for which process, and when they cannot be used. Neither is it clear whether electronic signatures protect users' interests as well as their handwritten equivalents. In its 2014 regulation on electronic identification and trust services for electronic transactions in the internal market, the EU offered some answers on electronic signatures' legal effect, but did not harmonise ...

This study investigates the role of financial actors, such as banks and investors, in the EU Emissions Trading System and their role in determining price dynamics and volatility. It concludes that activities on the market should be further monitored and data availability and quality improved. While further regulation of market participants may become necessary in the future, it is, at this stage, more important to focus on improving the Market Stability Reserve (MSR).

The advance passenger information (API) system dates back to 2004, when the Council adopted Directive 2004/82/EC of 29 April 2004 on the obligation of carriers to communicate passenger data to improve border control and fight against irregular migration (the 'API Directive'). New data sharing schemes have since been developed to improve EU border control and migration management and, specifically, fight terrorism and serious crimes. Today, air carriers are required to transfer not only API but also ...

This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the FEMM Committee, assesses whether a gender dimension has been incorporated into the initiatives proposed under the Fit for 55 package and whether a gender-sensitive approach was used in its formulation. Examples are given of good practice for gender mainstreaming in energy and climate policy. Recommendations are made to close identified gender gaps in policies ...

This study investigates the role of financial actors, such as banks and investors, in the EU Emissions Trading System and their role in determining price dynamics and volatility. It concludes that activities on the market should be further monitored and data availability and quality improved. While further regulation of market participants may become necessary in the future, it is, at this stage, more important to focus on improving the Market Stability Reserve (MSR).

This briefing gives a comparative assessment of initiatives being undertaken in RRF Pillar 4 across a sample of four National Recovery and Resilience Plans (NRRPs) in Ireland, Italy, Poland and Portugal. In each of them, it covers three measures falling into the categories territorial infrastructure, targeting of specific territories, and adult and vocational training. Pillar 4 is covered as a cross-cutting theme that is picked up across a range of components, but there is substantial variation in ...

This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the Committee of Inquiry to investigate the use of Pegasus and equivalent surveillance spyware (PEGA), provides a description of the legal framework (including oversight and redress mechanisms) governing the use of Pegasus and equivalent spyware in a selection of Member States.

Both the EU and its Member States have signed the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, and use its definition of disability as a common reference at EU level; there is no other harmonised definition of disability in the EU. Although a wide variety of statistical surveys is available in terms of questions asked and population surveyed, a complete statistical assessment of disability in the EU does not yet exist. However, the annual Eurostat statistics on income and living conditions ...

Regulation on nature restoration

Briefing 02-12-2022

The IA examines the problem's nature and scale comprehensively. It offers a broad and realistic range of policy options and presents the stakeholders' views on the options transparently. It gives a qualitative and quantitative assessment of the economic, social and environmental impacts, referring to the evaluation of the EU biodiversity strategy to 2020 that ran in parallel to the IA, as well as an external support study, stakeholder consultations and various duly referenced data sources. It is ...

The volume of online child sexual abuse materials (CSAM) and frequency of grooming activities, increasingly targeting younger children, is rising sharply. On 11 May 2022, the European Commission adopted a proposal for mandatory legislation to combat what is an escalating problem. Reporting of suspected online child sexual abuse increased by 35 % in 2021 compared with 2020, representing a historical peak. Most of the activities detected were hosted in Europe. The Commission proposal would require ...