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Publicēšanas datums 26-02-2021

Support for democracy through EU external policy: New tools for growing challenges

26-02-2021

The crisis of democracy and the rise of authoritarianism across the globe, compounded by the coronavirus pandemic, highlight the importance of taking a more strategic and autonomous approach to supporting democracy worldwide – an objective often balanced against other external policy aims until now. Since the start of the current parliamentary term, the EU has reviewed its political guidance on democracy and human rights. It has adopted or is about to adopt important measures to strengthen support ...

The crisis of democracy and the rise of authoritarianism across the globe, compounded by the coronavirus pandemic, highlight the importance of taking a more strategic and autonomous approach to supporting democracy worldwide – an objective often balanced against other external policy aims until now. Since the start of the current parliamentary term, the EU has reviewed its political guidance on democracy and human rights. It has adopted or is about to adopt important measures to strengthen support for democracy (including better monitoring and enforcement of relevant provisions in trade arrangements). The adoption of the new multiannual financial framework (MFF) and of a new development aid instrument bringing together all former external aid instruments provides new opportunities for better implementing EU funding and better exploiting the EU's leverage as a major provider of development aid. Digital challenges and the narrowing space for civil societies are among the priorities to be addressed. The challenge of engaging more difficult partners, such as China and Russia, has inspired calls to broaden the scope of a values-based agenda to other economic relations, such as investments. These new measures complement an already broad and complex toolbox integrating various external policies. Using the enhanced powers in external affairs provided by the Treaty of Lisbon, the EU has set up extensive political and diplomatic dialogues to enhance partnerships beyond the more asymmetric, specific development assistance and trade leverage going back to the 1990s. While the EU has responded to violations of democratic norms by reducing aid and withdrawing trade preferences, it has consistently sought to build equal partnerships based on constructive and open dialogues, rather than use its economic and commercial traction in a coercive manner. This is an update of a Briefing from February 2018.

Women in politics in the EU: State of play

26-02-2021

One hundred years after women won the vote or were first elected to parliament in some EU countries, the data show that women continue to be under-represented in politics and public life, in the European Parliament, national parliaments and governments, and local assemblies. The arguments for gender balance in politics are numerous, and benefit not only women and female politicians, but also parties themselves and the rest of society. After all, women form half the population and need to be better ...

One hundred years after women won the vote or were first elected to parliament in some EU countries, the data show that women continue to be under-represented in politics and public life, in the European Parliament, national parliaments and governments, and local assemblies. The arguments for gender balance in politics are numerous, and benefit not only women and female politicians, but also parties themselves and the rest of society. After all, women form half the population and need to be better represented in power structures. However, there is now solid evidence both of obstacles and of the strategies that are effective when it comes to increasing women's participation and representation. Here, political parties and the media can be both barriers and important enablers. The EU has committed to achieving a gender balance in political representation and participation as a matter of justice, equality and democracy. Concrete recommendations have been made for achieving this goal, including specific action that could be taken by the EU institutions, national governments, political parties, civil society and the media. The ongoing coronavirus pandemic has shone a spotlight on the issue of women's leadership and its implications for gender equality. This is an update of a Briefing from March 2019, drafted by Rosamund Shreeves and Martina Prpic, PE 635.548.

The future of regional airports: Challenges and opportunities

26-02-2021

Regional airports are an important part of the aviation system in the European Union (EU). They are engines of socio-economic development and improve accessibility to certain locations, in particular those that are remote or not well served by other forms of transportation. They also have a vital role in terms of economic and social cohesion, stimulating tourism and employment, as well as facilitating access to essential services. In addition, they can help to reduce congestion at major hub airports ...

Regional airports are an important part of the aviation system in the European Union (EU). They are engines of socio-economic development and improve accessibility to certain locations, in particular those that are remote or not well served by other forms of transportation. They also have a vital role in terms of economic and social cohesion, stimulating tourism and employment, as well as facilitating access to essential services. In addition, they can help to reduce congestion at major hub airports. The Covid 19 pandemic has hit regional airports hard, especially those more dependent on passenger traffic, which has been more severely hit than cargo traffic. The situation is so difficult that without government support, many regional airports, which serve local communities, face the risk of insolvency. Meanwhile, the pandemic is putting airports under pressure to become more digital. Moreover, a greater focus on tackling climate change is driving various projects to make airports more sustainable. The recovery from the crisis is likely to take several years. It will depend on several factors, such as the duration and magnitude of the crisis, pace of vaccination and consumer confidence. The speed with which the economy recovers will also affect how long the recovery of air travel will take. All this requires support. The EU has taken steps to ensure that Member States can make full use of the flexibility allowed under State aid rules, to provide regional airports with support to overcome this unprecedented crisis. Since March 2020, the European Commission has approved numerous State aid schemes from which regional airports can benefit. The EU can also support airports through its Recovery and Resilience Facility, which aims at making Europe more sustainable, resilient and better prepared for the challenges and opportunities of the green and digital transitions.

Migrant seasonal workers in the European agricultural sector

26-02-2021

The EU fruit and vegetable sector is heavily dependent on a non-national labour force, either from other EU Member States or third countries. Germany, Italy, Spain, France and Poland, in particular, employ high numbers of migrant seasonal farm workers. While these numbers have been steadily increasing, they compensate only partly for the ongoing decline in national agricultural workforces. Migrant seasonal workers from the EU are entitled to fully equal treatment with nationals of the host country ...

The EU fruit and vegetable sector is heavily dependent on a non-national labour force, either from other EU Member States or third countries. Germany, Italy, Spain, France and Poland, in particular, employ high numbers of migrant seasonal farm workers. While these numbers have been steadily increasing, they compensate only partly for the ongoing decline in national agricultural workforces. Migrant seasonal workers from the EU are entitled to fully equal treatment with nationals of the host country under the fundamental right to the free movement of workers within the EU, whereas third-country nationals are covered by the Seasonal Workers Directive of 2014, which grants them equal treatment as regards terms of employment and some social benefits. EU Member States manage their own seasonal worker schemes depending on the needs of the domestic labour market, their ties with third countries and their broader immigration system. The reality of seasonal agricultural work is a harsh one, with generally poor working and living conditions. Undocumented migrants, but also legal ones, can fall victim to illegal gang-master practices or even modern forms of slavery. Exploitation of women occurs in certain regions. The coronavirus pandemic, which disrupted harvests in the spring of 2020 as seasonal workers faced travel restrictions, also highlighted their essential role in EU agriculture and laid bare their sometimes appalling working and living conditions. Reacting to this situation, the European Parliament adopted a resolution on the protection of seasonal workers in June 2020, calling on Member States to ensure proper implementation of the relevant EU legislation and on the European Commission to issue new specific guidelines and propose long-term solutions to fight abusive practices and protect victims. In July 2020, the Commission responded to this call by issuing new guidelines on the protection of seasonal workers in the context of the pandemic, announcing further action, including ongoing work with the European Labour Authority.

The impact of COVID-19 on the Internal Market

26-02-2021

This study assesses the impact of the COVID-19 crisis on the Internal Market and consumer protection, including the impact of measures introduced at national and EU level to mitigate the consequences of the pandemic. What further measures should be considered in order to reinforce the resilience of the EU's Internal Market in the face of future crises? This document was provided by the Policy Department for Economic, Scientific and Quality of Life Policies at the request of the committee on Internal ...

This study assesses the impact of the COVID-19 crisis on the Internal Market and consumer protection, including the impact of measures introduced at national and EU level to mitigate the consequences of the pandemic. What further measures should be considered in order to reinforce the resilience of the EU's Internal Market in the face of future crises? This document was provided by the Policy Department for Economic, Scientific and Quality of Life Policies at the request of the committee on Internal Market and Consumer Protection (IMCO).

Ārējais autors

J. Scott MARCUS et al.

Strengthening cooperation with the Council of Europe

26-02-2021

This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the AFCO Committee, assesses the possible strengthening of the cooperation of the European Union with the Council of Europe. It examines, on the one side, the participation of Council of Europe bodies in the EU Mechanism on Democracy, the Rule of Law and Fundamental Rights, and, on the other, the accession of the European Union to Council of Europe Treaties, and ...

This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the AFCO Committee, assesses the possible strengthening of the cooperation of the European Union with the Council of Europe. It examines, on the one side, the participation of Council of Europe bodies in the EU Mechanism on Democracy, the Rule of Law and Fundamental Rights, and, on the other, the accession of the European Union to Council of Europe Treaties, and particularly to the European Convention on Human Rights.

Ārējais autors

Luis María LOPEZ GUERRA, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid.

Special Advisers to the Commission (2014-2019)

26-02-2021

This study proposes an overview of the selection of Special Advisers to the European Commission, specifically during the period 2014-2019: the procedure followed, number of contracts, safeguards, contractual terms, budgetary implications, transparency, communication with the European Parliament. A review of literature, good practices and criteria for assessing the European Commission framework is provided. In conclusion this study makes recommendations on how to further strengthen it.

This study proposes an overview of the selection of Special Advisers to the European Commission, specifically during the period 2014-2019: the procedure followed, number of contracts, safeguards, contractual terms, budgetary implications, transparency, communication with the European Parliament. A review of literature, good practices and criteria for assessing the European Commission framework is provided. In conclusion this study makes recommendations on how to further strengthen it.

Ārējais autors

Dr Christoph DEMMKE, Chair Public Management at the University of Vaasa (FI) Margarita SANZ, Blomeyer & Sanz Roland BLOMEYER, Blomeyer & Sanz

Publicēšanas datums 25-02-2021

La ratification des traités internationaux, une perspective de droit comparé - Allemagne

25-02-2021

La présente étude fait partie d’un projet global d’analyse de la ratification des traités internationaux dans différents États dans une perspective de droit comparé. L’objet de cette étude est d’examiner la ratification des traités internationaux en droit allemand. Le régime juridique applicable et la procédure, sont spécialement étudiés afin d’avancer une estimation des délais nécessaires pour cette ratification. Après une introduction générale, cette étude examine d’abord les dispositions législatives ...

La présente étude fait partie d’un projet global d’analyse de la ratification des traités internationaux dans différents États dans une perspective de droit comparé. L’objet de cette étude est d’examiner la ratification des traités internationaux en droit allemand. Le régime juridique applicable et la procédure, sont spécialement étudiés afin d’avancer une estimation des délais nécessaires pour cette ratification. Après une introduction générale, cette étude examine d’abord les dispositions législatives et réglementaires régissant la procédure d’adoption des traités, ensuite la répartition des compétences entre les différents acteurs impliqués, et enfin les principales étapes de la procédure de conclusion des traités. Dans le cas de l’Allemagne, l’enjeu est la répartition des rôles entre le Gouvernement fédéral, le Président fédéral et le Parlement, auquel la Loi fondamentale accorde un droit d’approbation pour certains traités. De plus, l’organisation fédérale allemande doit être prise en compte, dans la mesure les Länder disposent d’une compétence propre en matière de conclusion de traités. Dans nombreux cas, les Länder sont d’ailleurs responsables de leur transposition en droit interne. La présente étude entend donner aux organes du Parlement européen un aperçu complet des processus de ratification des traités par les États et dans le cas présent l’Allemagne). Ainsi le Parlement pourra tenir compte des délais de ratification des traités futurs par ses partenaires, et organiser ses travaux en conséquence. Le présent document est la version en français de l’étude originairement publiée par la Bibliothèque de droit comparé en allemand en avril 2018. Cette version met à jour la version antérieure par le biais des notes du traducteur.

Ārējais autors

Prof. Dr Sebastian GRAF VON KIELMANSEGG

Current membership of the European Council

25-02-2021

The European Council consists of the 27 Heads of State or Government of the EU Member States, who are voting members, together with the President of the European Council and the President of the European Commission, who have no vote (Article 15(2) TEU). The chart shows the current members, the national office they hold and their political affiliation, as well as the year their membership of the institution began. This publication is updated periodically to reflect changes in the European Council's ...

The European Council consists of the 27 Heads of State or Government of the EU Member States, who are voting members, together with the President of the European Council and the President of the European Commission, who have no vote (Article 15(2) TEU). The chart shows the current members, the national office they hold and their political affiliation, as well as the year their membership of the institution began. This publication is updated periodically to reflect changes in the European Council's membership.

Research for CULT Committee - Cultural and creative sectors in post-COVID-19 Europe – crisis effects and policy recommendations

25-02-2021

Cultural and creative sectors (CCS) have been hit hard by the consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic. This study analyses the so far effects of the crisis on the CCS, as well as the policy responses that are formulated to support the sectors. Based on the analysis, policy recommendations are formulated to further improve the resilience of the CCS in Europe in the medium and longer term.

Cultural and creative sectors (CCS) have been hit hard by the consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic. This study analyses the so far effects of the crisis on the CCS, as well as the policy responses that are formulated to support the sectors. Based on the analysis, policy recommendations are formulated to further improve the resilience of the CCS in Europe in the medium and longer term.

Ārējais autors

IDEA Consult: Isabelle De Voldere, Martina Fraioli, Eveline Durinck Goethe-Institut: Antonia Blau, Sina Lebert Inforelais: Sylvia Amann Values of Culture&Creativity: Joost Heinsius

Gaidāmie notikumi

01-03-2021
Decarbonising European industry: hydrogen and other solutions (online event)
Darbseminārs -
STOA
01-03-2021
Hearing on Transport of live animals in third countries
Uzklausīšana -
ANIT
01-03-2021
Exchange of views with HR/VP Josep Borrell
Uzklausīšana -
INGE

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