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Sanctions on the Russian digital sector: How effective are they? EN

03-02-2023 PE 739.320
Kort sammanfattning
Sammanfattning : The heavy sanctions imposed by the West on Russia over its war against Ukraine have had a considerable impact on the Russian digital sector. Russia has made efforts to circumvent the sanctions; counteracting these efforts requires consistent implementation and enforcement. Further coordination in this regard would increase the impact of existing sanctions and form a step towards ending the war.
Författare : MICHAEL ADAM

Plenary round-up – February I 2023 EN

03-02-2023 PE 739.322
Kort sammanfattning
Sammanfattning : Highlights of the February I 2023 plenary session included debates with the Council and the European Commission on preparation of the 3 February EU-Ukraine Summit, and a vote on a resolution addressing Ukraine's EU accession perspective, calling for increased military, economic and humanitarian support for Ukraine, and stressing the importance of preparing a comprehensive recovery package for the country. Members also heard about preparations for the special European Council meeting on 9 and 10 February, in particular the need to reform migration and asylum rules to develop sustainable solutions to migratory issues. Members also held debates on the need for an urgent update of the EU list of high-risk third countries for money laundering and terrorist financing, on Afghanistan, and on the situation of the former President of Georgia, Mikheil Saakashvili.
Författare : CLARE FERGUSON, KATARZYNA SOCHACKA

Malta's National Recovery and Resilience Plan: Latest state of play EN

03-02-2023 PE 729.312
Briefing
Sammanfattning : Malta's National Recovery and Resilience Plan (NRRP) has a total value of €344.9 million. However, under the EU's Recovery and Resilience Facility (RRF), which is at the core of the EU's Next Generation EU instrument, Malta is expected to receive around €316.4 million, slightly below the value of the plan, and entirely in grants. On 30 June 2022, the European Commission recalculated the maximum grant amounts for all Member States; this resulted in a cut for Malta and a new total of €258.3 million. Malta has not requested any loans so far. Under the RRF Regulation, the option to request loan support of up to 6.8 % of 2019 gross national income is available until 31 August 2023. Whereas in nominal terms, Malta has the second smallest allocation after Luxembourg, in terms of RRF grants per capita, it ranks higher: the value of Malta's grants under the RRF equals approximately 2.3 % of its 2019 gross domestic product (GDP), less than the average for the EU overall (in comparison, the RRF equals 5.2 % of EU-27 GDP in 2019). In December 2021, Malta received €41.1 million in pre-financing. A year later, on 19 December 2022, it submitted to the Commission the first payment request for a total of €52.3 million in grants. The Maltese plan takes into consideration the Council's 2019 and 2020 country-specific recommendations, and aligns with both national economic and investment plans and funding under EU cohesion policy programmes for the 2021-2027 period. The overall objective is to contribute to a sustainable, equitable, green and digital recovery. In particular, the plan aims to digitalise small and medium-sized enterprises and the public administration, promote sustainable public transport and electric vehicles, and step-up the fight against money laundering. It embraces the green and digital transitions – major common European challenges – and envisages 53.8 % of the total allocation for climate objectives, while 25.5 % will contribute to the digital target. The share of the allocation dedicated to the green transition makes Malta's NRRP one of the greenest. The European Parliament participates in interinstitutional forums for cooperation and discussion on the implementation of the RRF, and scrutinises the work of the European Commission. This briefing is one in a series covering all EU Member States. Second edition. The 'NGEU delivery' briefings are updated at key stages throughout the lifecycle of the plans.
Författare : Velina LILYANOVA

EU secure connectivity programme 2023-2027: Building a multi-orbital satellite constellation EN

03-02-2023 PE 729.442
Briefing
Sammanfattning : Satellite communication is a strategic asset for governments and civil society alike. Complementary to terrestrial networks, it can contribute to seamless digital communication, even when such networks are absent or disrupted. Today, the EU does not have a dedicated infrastructure (including space and ground segments) to offer satellite communication services to governments, the economy or civil society. Several EU global partners and competitors are investing in parallel in such capabilities. On 15 February 2022, the European Commission presented a proposal to improve the resilience of EU communication services by developing and operating a multi-orbital connectivity infrastructure (with both space and ground segments), based on a public-partnership model. Governmental services would be operational from 2025, and private services at a later stage. The European Parliament and the Council reached a provisional agreement on the proposal on 22 November 2022. Parliament must now vote on the draft legislative act as modified by that agreement before the regulation can become law. Third edition. The 'EU Legislation in Progress' briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure.
Författare : CLEMENT THIERRY EVROUX

European defence industry reinforcement through common procurement act (EDIRPA) EN

03-02-2023 PE 739.294
Briefing
Sammanfattning : On 19 July 2022, the Commission put forward a proposal for a regulation establishing the European defence industry reinforcement through common procurement act (EDIRPA). On 1 December 2022, the Council adopted its general approach. On 18 January 2023, the rapporteurs from the AFET and ITRE joint committee published their draft report. EDIRPA is a short-term joint defence procurement instrument worth €500 million. It seeks to address the most urgent and critical defence capability gaps and to incentivise Member States to procure defence products jointly. After it was given a practical mandate at the Versailles Summit in March 2022, the Commission presented a defence investment gap analysis in May 2022, proposing the EDIRPA as one of a number of means to address defence-related investment, capability and industrial gaps. Second edition. The 'EU Legislation in Progress' briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure.
Författare : SEBASTIAN CLAPP

Climate change [What Think Tanks are thinking] EN

03-02-2023 PE 739.321
Briefing
Sammanfattning : Last year’s UN Climate Change Conference, COP27, made some headway in efforts to fight climate change, but its overall progress was limited. The gathering agreed to create a loss-and-damage fund, to support poorer countries disproportionately affected by climate change while only being responsible for a small share of global greenhouse gas emissions. Governments at COP27 also called for reform of the International Monetary Fund and the multilateral development banks, to align global public finance with the goals of the Paris Agreement on climate. However, the meeting produced barely any new initiatives on climate mitigation, which are needed to take to keep alive the Paris 1.5°C temperature-reduction goal. The European Union is debating a response to the US Inflation Reduction Act, which provides for US$369 billion investment in energy security and combatting climate change, but may threaten to lure away from Europe some clean-tech corporate investment. This note offers links to recent commentaries, studies and reports from international think tanks on climate issues. More papers on the topic can be found in a previous edition of ‘What Think Tanks are Thinking.
Författare : Marcin CESLUK-GRAJEWSKI

Recovery and Resilience Plans: Payment requests and disbursements made so far EN

03-02-2023 PE 733.720 ECON
Briefing
Sammanfattning : This briefing presents, in tabular form, information available on submitted payment requests under the Recovery and Resilience Facility (RRF), and of Commission disbursements following approval of such requests. It will be regularly updated.
Författare : ADRIANA HAJNALK HECSER

Steering economic recovery in Europe. Lessons for governing the Recovery and Resilience Facility EN

03-02-2023 PE 699.556 ECON
Studie
Sammanfattning : The briefing assesses the interaction between the Recovery and Resilience Facility (RRF) and the European Semester by outlining coordination mechanisms between the two in the broader context of economic governance in the EU. Two main elements of this interaction are emphasised: coordination of investments and implementation capacities. The briefing argues that coordination of investment programmes remains fragmented in the EU, while the notion of policy capacities and experimentation should be given more strategic consideration in the Semester and RRF evaluation frameworks.
Författare : Mariana MAZZUCATO, Marco CARRERAS , Olga MIKHEEVA

Recovery and Resilience Dialogue with the European Commission - 6 February 2023 EN

02-02-2023 PE 733.759 ECON
Djupanalys
Sammanfattning : Executive Vice-President Dombrovskis and Commissioner Gentiloni have been invited to the eighth Recovery and Resilience Dialogue (RRD) under the Recovery and Resilience Facility Regulation. This briefing presents some developments relating to the implementation of Recovery and Resilience Facility (RRF) since the previous RRD that took place on 21 November 2022. It covers the latest positive assessments by the Commission of payment requests (i.e. Greece, Portugal and Malta), adoption of revised Recovery and Resilience Plans, including the adoption of the REPowerEU legal framework, recent developments relating to the rule of law conditionality, and financing aspects of the Facility.
Författare : MINNA OLLIKAINEN, András SCHWARCZ, FRANCISCO JAVIE PADILLA OLIVARES, SAMUEL DE LEMOS PEIXOTO, Marcel MAGNUS

A common charger for electronic devices: Revision of the Radio Equipment Directive EN

01-02-2023 PE 698.819
Briefing
Sammanfattning : On 23 November 2022, the European Parliament and the Council signed the directive amending the 2014 Radio Equipment Directive, with the aim of mandating a common charger for mobile phones and a number of other small portable devices. The amended directive, proposed by the European Commission on 23 September 2021, will require electronic devices to be equipped with a USB Type C receptacle and to incorporate the USB Power Delivery communication protocol. A separate initiative on the eco-design of external power supplies is expected to ensure that the receptacle and the communication protocol are used on both ends of charger cables. Consumers will have the option to buy devices with or without a charger (unbundling) and will be informed by a pictogram whether a charger is included with a device. Information on the charging capabilities and compatible charging devices will be provided on a label. By the end of 2024, the Commission will be required to request the creation of harmonised standards for wireless charging, and will have to regularly assess whether the common charger should be made mandatory for additional devices. The directive applies to all devices covered from 28 December 2024 and to laptops from 28 April 2026. Fifth edition. The 'EU Legislation in Progress' briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure.
Författare : Nikolina SAJN

Annual legislative planning in the EU EN

01-02-2023 PE 739.318
Briefing
Sammanfattning : Annual legislative programming in the EU involves the Commission, Parliament and Council. Although the right of legislative initiative remains monopolised by the Commission, the input of Parliament and the Council to EU legislative programming is increasingly acknowledged. Article 17(1) of the Treaty on European Union vests in the Commission competence with respect to annual programming. Thus, the central document for annual legislative and non-legislative policy programming is the Commission's annual work programme, adopted each year in October following political exchanges between the Commission, Parliament and Council. The legal framework for preparation of the work programme, including the role of Parliament in EU agenda-setting, is laid down in interinsititutional agreements: on relations between Parliament and the Commission, and on better law making. These state that the Commission should strive to include Parliament's suggestions in its legislative and non-legislative agenda. The agreements lay down a detailed framework for preparation of the Commission's annual work programme, with specific rules on the involvement of Parliament bodies – the committees, Conference of Presidents, Conference of Committee Chairs – and on the role of the Council in the process. Following the adoption of the Commission's annual work programme each October, the three institutions involved in the legislative process negotiate with a view to adopting a joint declaration in December on their jointly agreed legislative priorities. This briefing complements the overview of the Commission work programme, provided each year jointly by the Ex-Ante Impact Assessment and Ex-Post Evaluation Units of EPRS.
Författare : Rafał MAŃKO

Research for PECH Committee - Implementation and impact of key European Maritime and Fisheries Fund measures (EMFF) on the Common Fisheries Policy, and the post-2020 EMFF proposal EN

01-02-2023 PE 629.187 PECH
Studie
Sammanfattning : This Report is a research on the current performance of the shared management component of the European Maritime and Fisheries Fund (EMFF) and its impact on the Common Fisheries Policy. Based on quantitative data collection as well as on interviews with Managing Authorities of Member States and stakeholders, the Report also analyses the legislative proposal for the post-2020 EMFF and seeks to support the Members of the PECH Committee of the EU Parliament in their consideration.
Författare : CETMAR, Spain: Marta Ballesteros, Rosa Chapela, Jose L. Santiago, Mariola Norte-Navarro - COGEA, Italy: Anna Kęsicka, Alessandro Pititto, Ugo Abbagnano, Giuseppe Scordella

World Cancer Day 2023 EN

31-01-2023 PE 739.315
Kort sammanfattning
Sammanfattning : Cancer can affect everyone, regardless of age, gender or social status and puts immense pressure on European health systems. Fighting cancer is one of the priorities of the European Health Union. Delivering better long-term care for patients living with cancer also means reducing significant disparities, both between and within Member States. World Cancer Day, marked every year on 4 February, reminds us that cancer is a huge health threat to our society.
Författare : Laurence AMAND-EECKHOUT

Russia's war on Ukraine: Western-made tanks for Ukraine EN

31-01-2023 PE 739.316
Kort sammanfattning
Sammanfattning : Following Ukraine's repeated requests, and almost a year of hesitation and delicate negotiations, in January 2023, EU Member States, Norway, the UK and the US finally decided to send Western-made main battle tanks (MBTs) to Ukraine. This issue of whether to supply such tanks has been particularly contentious since the start of the war.
Författare : SEBASTIAN CLAPP

Revision of the trans-European transport network guidelines EN

31-01-2023 PE 729.314
Briefing
Sammanfattning : To support its economy, provide mobility for people and goods and ensure the connectivity of all regions, while also limiting negative impacts on climate and environment, the EU has been building a multimodal transport network across its territory: the trans-European transport network (TEN T). The TEN T policy is based on the 2013 Union guidelines defining the technical requirements for the planned transport infrastructure and network layout. TEN-T construction is also supported by EU funding, an example of which is the dedicated Connecting Europe Facility programme. In December 2021, after evaluating progress in TEN-T implementation, the European Commission put forward a proposal on the revised TEN T guidelines to ensure sustainable connectivity through a reliable and high-quality infrastructure network aligned with the objectives of the European Green Deal. In May 2022, the Commission published an amended version of this proposal, extending transport corridors to Ukraine and Moldova and withdrawing plans that included Russia and Belarus. The European Parliament's Committee on Transport and Tourism published its draft report on the proposal on 10 October 2022; the Council adopted its general approach on 5 December 2022. Second edition. The first edition, published in March 2022, was drafted by Marketa Pape. The 'EU Legislation in Progress' briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure.
Författare : Monika KISS

Towards new rules on transparency and targeting of political advertising EN

31-01-2023 PE 733.592
Briefing
Sammanfattning : Political advertising is central to informing and influencing how people vote, and may affect citizens' perceptions of the legitimacy of their own political system, particularly when published in the run-up to elections. Rules governing political advertising are therefore key to guaranteeing citizens' fundamental rights and the integrity of democratic processes. Rules governing political propaganda during electoral periods are naturally therefore a focal point of electoral law. Traditional rules on campaigning can however be ineffective or difficult to enforce in an online environment where new techniques are being used to target potential voters, with tailored political messages based on large amounts of personal data revealing their sensibilities. To address the new challenges posed by online electoral campaigns, the European Commission presented a proposal for a harmonised set of rules on the transparency and targeting of political advertising. These would apply to both online and offline political advertising. The proposal is currently under discussion in the European Parliament and the Council, under the ordinary legislative procedure. In the Parliament, the Committee on Internal Market and Consumer Protection (IMCO) is responsible for the file and adopted its report on 24 January 2023. The Parliament is expected to vote on the report during its February I plenary session. The Council adopted its mandate for negotiations with the Parliament on 13 December 2022. Second edition. The 'EU Legislation in Progress' briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure.
Författare : Maria DIAZ CREGO

Proposal amending the Solvency II Directive EN

31-01-2023 PE 739.314
Briefing
Sammanfattning : Directive 2009/138/EC – also known as Solvency II – sets out the prudential regulatory framework for the insurance sector in the EU. The framework aims to establish the single market for insurance services further, while strengthening policyholders' protection. On 22 September 2021, the European Commission tabled a proposal for a directive that would amend Solvency II in essentially three ways: i) lowering regulatory obligations on small and low-risk profile insurance companies, ii) taking into account long-term and climate change risks, and iii) enhancing group-level and cross-border supervision. In the European Parliament, the referral to the Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs (ECON) was announced in plenary on 22 November 2021. Rapporteur Markus Ferber (EPP, Germany) tabled his draft report on 6 June 2022. The vote in committee has not yet been scheduled. The Council agreed its position in June 2022. First edition. The 'EU Legislation in Progress' briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure.
Författare : ISSAM HALLAK

EU relations with Iran EN

31-01-2023 PE 739.317
Briefing
Sammanfattning : Even though the EU and Iran have worked together over the past 4 years to save the nuclear agreement known as the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA), relations between the two sides have reached a new low. The EU is concerned about the acceleration of Iran's nuclear programme in violation of the JCPOA and the country's reluctance to cooperate fully with the International Atomic Energy Agency. In addition, the Iranian authorities' violent crackdown on and execution of peaceful protesters has outraged Europeans – and their allies – and drawn new attention to human rights violations in the country. Iran's military support for Russia in the context of Russia's war against Ukraine has put the spotlight on Iran's conventional weapons capabilities. Moreover, Iran continues to stoke tensions in the Middle East, providing military, financial and political support to non-state actors in countries such as Iraq, Lebanon, Syria and Yemen, as well as the Gaza Strip. In response to these concerns, the EU has imposed restrictive measures on an increasing number of high-ranking Iranian individuals and entities under four EU sanctions regimes. Sanctions include an asset freeze and a prohibition on making funds and economic resources available to the listed individuals and entities; individuals are also banned from travelling to the EU. Nevertheless, in December 2022, EU Member States reaffirmed their commitment to, and continued support for, the full and effective implementation of a restored JCPOA. The European Parliament has adopted several resolutions critical of human rights violations in Iran, most recently in January 2023, and has called for the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps to be added to the EU terrorist list, while also expressing its continued support for the JCPOA. After Iran began to sanction certain of its Members in October 2022, Parliament decided in November 2022 that delegations and committees would no longer engage with the Iranian authorities.
Författare : Beatrix IMMENKAMP

Economic and Budgetary Outlook for the European Union 2023 EN

31-01-2023 PE 739.313
Studie
Sammanfattning : Offering an overview of the economic and budgetary situation in the European Union and beyond, and summarising the main economic indicators in the EU and euro area and their two-year trends, this study is the seventh in an annual series of 'Outlooks' produced by the European Parliamentary Research Service (EPRS). In seven chapters, the authors of the publication explain and analyse the annual EU budget and give an overview of its headings for 2023, all within the wider budgetary context of the EU's post-2020 multiannual financial framework and the Next Generation EU recovery instrument. This year's special 'economic focus' puts the spotlight on the EU's economic governance framework and its forthcoming revision, looking first at the current framework and then at the European Commission's proposal for its revision, and in particular, at how this framework could support greater investment levels across the EU.
Författare : KAROLINE KOWALD, MARIANNA PARI, Sidonia MAZUR, Alessandro D'ALFONSO, MARTIN HOFLMAYR, MARIN MILEUSNIC

Conservation of southern bluefin tuna: Transposing fisheries management measures EN

30-01-2023 PE 739.305
Kort sammanfattning
Sammanfattning : As a member of the Commission for the Conservation of Southern Bluefin Tuna (CCSBT), the European Union must transpose its measures so that they apply to vessels flying the flag of an EU Member State. During the February I plenary session, Parliament is due to vote on a provisional agreement with the Council to transpose the conservation and fisheries management measures adopted by this intergovernmental organisation.
Författare : FREDERIK SCHOLAERT

Regulating political advertising EN

30-01-2023 PE 739.311
Kort sammanfattning
Sammanfattning : During the February I plenary session, Parliament is expected to vote the report on the proposal to adopt a regulation on the transparency and targeting of political advertising. Put forward by the Commission as part of the November 2021 legislative package to reinforce democracy and ensure the integrity of elections, the report was adopted by the Committee on the Internal Market and Consumer Protection (IMCO) on 24 January 2023.
Författare : Maria DIAZ CREGO

A Union certification framework for carbon removals EN

30-01-2023 PE 739.312
Briefing
Sammanfattning : On 30 November 2022, as part of the European Green Deal, the Commission presented the legislative proposal for a Union certification framework for carbon removals. The initiative was first announced in the March 2020 new circular economy action plan and again highlighted in the climate target plan, as well as in the proposed 'fit for 55' revision of the regulation on land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF), as an essential tool to drive progress towards the 2050 climate neutrality target. The stated aim of the initiative is to ensure high-quality EU certified carbon removals, through a transparent and credible governance framework. In doing so, this would open up the possibility for further investments towards carbon removal activities and increased deployment. In Parliament, the file has been referred to the Committee on the Environment, Public Health and Food Safety (ENVI). First edition. The 'EU Legislation in Progress' briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure.
Författare : LISELOTTE JENSEN

Background information for the CONT public hearing on ‘Cohesion policy investments and Next Generation EU recovery fund: state of play of the monitoring and controls’ EN

30-01-2023 PE 741.528 CONT BUDG
Briefing
Sammanfattning : The Committee on Budgetary Control (CONT) held a public hearing on 23 January 2023, with the aim to analyse whether the delays with cohesion partnership agreements have affected the level of monitoring and controls of the spending in Member States. The topic of this public hearing was broad and encompassed concepts of two policy areas/instruments that are both unique and very complex in themselves. This briefing provided background information about key concepts and elements (including monitoring, reporting and control) that had been found to be relevant during the preparatory phase of the hearing, to facilitate the debate and help better understand both the similarities and the differences between these instruments.
Författare : Diana HAASE

Australia and New Zealand: Economic indicators and trade with EU EN

27-01-2023 PE 739.279
Kort sammanfattning
Sammanfattning : Our infographic provides an insight into the economic performance of Australia and New Zealand compared to the EU, and looks at the trade dynamics between the two blocs. Australia and New Zealand are among the most developed countries in the world. Although the COVID-19 pandemic interrupted economic growth in 2020, GDP per capita quickly recovered and reached all-time highs the following year. While low unemployment rates and stable currencies contribute to economic strength, rising public debt and increasing inflation affected the recovery process in 2021. Trade relations between the two blocs have been expanding over the past 15 years, mainly driven by exports of goods and services from the EU to Australia and New Zealand, while imports have been stagnating. Being third on the list of main trade partners, the EU accounts for 9 % of Australia and New Zealand's trade with the world, while the latter represents 1.2 % of the EU's total trade in goods.
Författare : GYORGYI MACSAI

Revision of the LULUCF Regulation: Strengthening the role of the land use, land-use change and forestry sector in climate action EN

27-01-2023 PE 698.843
Briefing
Sammanfattning : To align regulations and policies with the legally binding goals – delivering, by 2030, a 55 % net greenhouse gas emissions reduction compared to 1990, and reaching climate neutrality in Europe by 2050 – on 14 July the European Commission presented its first proposals under the 'fit for 55' package. One of these proposals involves amending Regulation (EU) 2018/841 on emissions and removals from land use, land-use change and forestry (the LULUCF Regulation). Among the main changes envisaged are to merge, as of 2030, the LULUCF sector with the non-CO2 agricultural sector in a new climate pillar, which would have to achieve climate neutrality by 2035. Moreover, by 2030, LULUCF carbon removals would have to increase to 310 million tonnes of CO2 equivalent (CO2e). For the post-2025 period, the Commission would set individual targets for each Member State. The proposal was referred to the European Parliament's Committee on Environment, Public Health and Food Safety (ENVI), which appointed Ville Niinistö (Greens/EFA, Finland) as rapporteur. The Parliament and the Council adopted their positions in June 2022, and a trilogue agreement on the proposal was reached on 11 November 2022. Fourth edition. The 'EU Legislation in Progress' briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure.
Författare : LISELOTTE JENSEN

Croatia's National Recovery and Resilience Plan: Latest state of play EN

27-01-2023 PE 733.580
Briefing
Sammanfattning : Croatia's National Recovery and Resilience Plan (NRRP) is an ambitious outline of reforms and investment designed to mitigate the pandemic's socio-economic fallout. Compared with the size of its economy, Croatia is the largest recipient of Recovery and Resilience Facility (RRF) funds, with a total financial allocation of €6 295 million, or 11.6 % of the country's gross domestic product (GDP). The allocation corresponds to 0.9 % of the total RRF volume, and is entirely grant-based. In June 2022, the grant allocation was revised downwards to €5 512 million (-12.5 %). The use of the loan component under the facility is currently not envisaged, but may be requested by 31 August 2023 at the latest. The measures in the plan aim to help Croatia overcome the socio-economic ramifications of both the pandemic and the two devastating earthquakes from 2020, while fostering the green and digital transition. The post-earthquake recovery measures, in particular, are among the NRRP's major objectives, and contribute to smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. Croatia has so far received 35.2 % of the resources in the form of pre-financing and the first two grant instalments, above the current EU average which stands at roughly 28 %. Implementation of the plan must be concluded by 2026. RRF funds, combined with others from the Next Generation EU instrument and the EU's multiannual financial frameworks (2014-2020 and 2021-2027), will put at Croatia's disposal roughly €30 000 million by the end of the decade, an unprecedented chance to boost socio-economic development. The European Parliament continues to ensure transparency and accountability through interinstitutional dialogues on RRF implementation, and scrutiny of the Commission's work. Second edition. The 'NGEU delivery' briefings are updated at key stages throughout the lifecycle of the plans.
Författare : MARIN MILEUSNIC

Tax transparency rules for crypto-asset transactions (DAC8) EN

27-01-2023 PE 739.310
Briefing
Sammanfattning : The crypto-asset sector, while still relatively new, has already changed the world of payments and investment forever. The fast-changing, mobile nature of the sector and its growing market prominence poses challenges, however, for tax authorities, which are not always able to track the capital gains made from trading crypto-assets. On 8 December 2022, the European Commission proposed to set up a reporting framework which would require crypto-asset service providers to report transactions made by EU clients. This would help tax authorities to track the trade of crypto-assets and the proceeds gained, thereby reducing the risk of tax fraud and evasion. The reporting framework would be set-up by amending the Directive on Administrative Cooperation (DAC), which is the main framework for other data exchanges between tax authorities. The proposal also puts forward a series of (smaller) changes to improve the existing exchange of tax-related information. The proposed directive is subject to a special legislative procedure, requiring unanimous support in the Council, following consultation of the European Parliament and the European Economic and Social Committee. First edition. The 'EU Legislation in Progress' briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure.
Författare : Pieter BAERT

Progress on the Banking Union? EN

27-01-2023 PE 733.718 ECON
Briefing
Sammanfattning : While the Eurogroup did not agree on concrete steps towards the completion of Banking Union, its June 2022 statement does entail some elements that the forthcoming Commission proposals could build upon, making improvements to the crisis management and deposit insurance framework that eventually bring the completion of the Banking Union closer.
Författare : Marcel MAGNUS, KRISTINA GRIGAITE, Kai Gereon SPITZER

Background information for the BUDG-CONT workshop on "The Role of the EU Budget in International Climate Finance" EN

27-01-2023 PE 742.134 CONT BUDG
Briefing
Sammanfattning : The Committees on Budget (BUDG) and Budgetary Control (CONT) are holding a workshop on the role of the EU budget in international climate finance with invitation to Members of the Committee on Environment, Public Health and Food Safety (ENVI). The workshop will cover a series of important questions regarding the financial instruments that are needed to reach the environmental goals that are set out in the Paris Agreement to which the European Union (EU) and all its Member States (MS) are signatories. More specifically, the question is raised how much has been committed so far financially and how much of this is the EU’s contribution. The key challenges in answering these questions are brought to light throughout the chapters. This briefing provides background information for Members of BUDG, CONT and ENVI about what is known to date about international climate finance and the role of the EU budget in this regard.
Författare : SOPHIE JHELISA EISENBERGER, MANUK SAHAKYAN

Changing defence posture in Japan EN

26-01-2023 PE 739.309
Kort sammanfattning
Sammanfattning : In December 2022, Japan announced important changes to its defence policy, including a strong rise in its defence expenditure in the period up to 2027. Although Japan had already introduced some changes to its foreign policy-making process under late Prime Minister Abe, the new security and defence strategies, together with the planned strong rise in defence spending – if implemented – would constitute the most drastic changes to Japan's post-war order since at least 1960 (US-Japan Security Treaty). Japan also intends to use its increased defence efforts as a means to deter potential Chinese aggression against Taiwan.
Författare : Ulrich JOCHHEIM

Spain's National Recovery and Resilience Plan: Latest state of play EN

26-01-2023 PE 698.878
Briefing
Sammanfattning : Spain's National Recovery and Resilience Plan (NRRP) is one of the biggest financed by the Next Generation EU (NGEU) recovery instrument. It contains the largest amount, in terms of grants, under the unprecedented EU response to the crisis caused by the coronavirus pandemic. Spain's national allocation for grants under the Recovery and Resilience Facility (RRF) amounts to €69.5 billion and represents 9.6 % of the entire RRF, or 5.6 % of the country's gross domestic product (GDP) in 2019 (the RRF being 5.2 % of EU-27 GDP in 2019). In June 2022, the grant allocation was revised upwards to €77.2 billion (+11.1 %). In addition, Spain's general state budgets plan investment of €27 billion, aligned with the NRRP. The RRF funding will be supplemented by €12.4 billion from the REACT-EU funds, mainly for investment in health and education, and by the structural funds set out in the 2021-2027 multiannual financial framework. Measures under the plan are to be completed by 2026. Spain has so far received 45 % of the resources in the form of pre-financing and the first two grant instalments, above the current EU average (28 %). The third payment request was sent to the Commission in November 2022 and its assessment is ongoing. The European Parliament advocated the creation of a common EU recovery instrument and is co-legislator for the adoption of the RRF. It participates in the interinstitutional forums for cooperation and discussion on its implementation and scrutinises the European Commission's work. This briefing is one in a series covering all EU Member States. The first edition was written by Miroslava Kostova Karaboytcheva. Third edition. The 'NGEU delivery' briefings are updated at key stages throughout the lifecycle of the plans.
Författare : MARIN MILEUSNIC

International trade [What Think Tanks are thinking] EN

26-01-2023 PE 739.308
Briefing
Sammanfattning : The European Union’s international trade has suffered from the COVID-19 pandemic, broken supply chains, the growth of protectionism in many regions and, most recently, from Russia’s war on Ukraine. The United States' trade policy towards China, which is aimed at curbing the authoritarian country’s growing power, has exacerbated the fragmentation of trade. The United States has adopted the Inflation Reduction Act, a massive green subsidy programme which analysts and politicians say may lower the competitiveness of some European clean-tech products. The EU is debating how to respond to the Act, including with the envisaged proposal of a Net-Zero Industry Act, setting a number of clean-tech objectives for 2030. The work of the new EU US Trade and Technology Council has so far made limited progress in resolving the trade spat. This note offers links to a series of recent commentaries and reports from major international think tanks and research institutes on international trade policy.
Författare : Marcin CESLUK-GRAJEWSKI

Updating liability rules for defective products EN

26-01-2023 PE 740.220
Briefing
Sammanfattning : Based on a 2018 (REFIT) evaluation, the IA defines the main problems, the objectives and the policy options to address them with a clear intervention logic. It is based on solid internal and external expertise and various consultations to compensate for a considerable (and acknowledged) lack of data. While it is transparent about methods, uncertainties and limitations, additional quantification and/or substantiation would have been useful in some areas, namely when it comes to potential impacts on SMEs. Overall, despite providing a limited range of options, the IA presents a satisfactory assessment of the options' expected economic, social and environmental impacts, by providing wide ranges of their potential magnitude rather than exact monetised impacts. It also explains the coherence of the preferred options with other existing and ongoing legislation in the area of liability and product safety.
Författare : Esther KRAMER

Die Grundsätze der Gleichheit und der Nichtdiskriminierung, eine rechtsvergleichende Perspektive - Spanien DE

26-01-2023 PE 739.307
Studie
Sammanfattning : Die vorliegende Studie ist Teil eines weiter gefassten Projekts, das als Grundlage für den integrierten und korrelierten Vergleich der Regelung des Grundsatzes der Gleichheit und Nichtdiskriminierung in den unterschiedlichen positiven Rechtsordnungen dienen soll. Auf den folgenden Seiten werden die in Spanien geltenden Rechtsvorschriften und die konstitutionelle Rechtsprechung analysiert. Parallel dazu wird die Dogmatik des Konzepts und der Natur dieses Rechts unter besonderer Berücksichtigung seiner Grenzen sowie positiver oder proaktiver bereichsspezifischer Maßnahmen untersucht. Auch wird den zahlreichen rechtlichen Herausforderungen nachgegangen sowie dem Problem der wahllosen Verbreitung bestimmter Maßnahmen positiver und umgekehrter Diskriminierung, die die allgemeine Geltung des Gleichheitsprinzips untergraben könnten. In der spanischen Verfassung von 1978 ist der Grundsatz der Gleichheit und Nichtdiskriminierung ein Grundstein des gesamten Verfassungsaufbaus, insbesondere im Bereich der Grundrechte und Grundfreiheiten. Das bedeutete, dass alle Ungleichheiten, die zum Zeitpunkt des Inkrafttretens der Verfassung vorhanden waren, als unvereinbar mit der neuen Werteordnung angesehen wurden. Es gibt mehrere verfassungsrechtliche Bestimmungen zum Gleichheitsprinzip. Erstens verankert Artikel 14 der Verfassung die Gleichheit aller Spanier vor dem Gesetz (formale Gleichheit) und schließt jede Art von Diskriminierung aus. Bestimmte Gründe, die als qualifizierte Arten von Ungleichbehandlung gelten, werden ausdrücklich erwähnt: Abstammung, Rasse, Geschlecht, Religion, Überzeugungen. Zweitens sieht Artikel 1 Absatz 1 der Verfassung die Gleichheit als einen der obersten Werte der spanischen Rechtsordnung vor. Schließlich ist in Artikel 9 Absatz 2 des Verfassungstextes in Verbindung mit der formalen Gleichheit die substanzielle Gleichheit zwingend vorgeschrieben. Die staatlichen Behörden werden beauftragt, alle Hindernisse, die einer wirksamen Umsetzung im Weg stehen könnten, zu beseitigen. Die Rechtsprechung des Verfassungsgerichts ist von enormer Bedeutung und Tragweite, da durch sie von Anfang an die Reichweite der Verfassung bis zum derzeitigen Geltungsbereich abgesteckt, die Verfassung ausgeführt und umfangreich geschützt wurde. Das vorliegende Dokument ist die deutsche Version einer Studie, die ursprünglich im Oktober 2020 in spanischer Sprache von der Bibliothek für Vergleichendes Recht veröffentlicht wurde. Diese Version aktualisiert die frühere Version durch Anmerkungen des Herausgebers (AdH).

THE EFFECT OF COMMUNICATION AND DISINFORMATION DURING THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC EN

26-01-2023 PE 740.063 COVI
Studie
Sammanfattning : This study analyses how governments, public health experts and other professionals communicated during the COVID-19 pandemic, and the impact of these communication strategies. It investigates COVID-19 misinformation and disinformation practices, and how these practices were addressed in the European Union by the Member States and the European Commission. It draws up recommendations to improve responses in the future, including by analysing the role of the Code of Practice on disinformation ad the expected impact of the Digital Services Act.
Författare : Cécile JACOB, VVA Brussels Pierre HAUSEMER, VVA Brussels Adam ZAGONI-BOGSCH, VVA Brussels Dr. Audra DIERS-LAWSON, Kristiania University College

New EU global health strategy: A recalibrated agenda EN

25-01-2023 PE 739.306
Briefing
Sammanfattning : On 30 November 2022, 12 years after the adoption of the first strategy on the EU's role in global health in 2010, the European Commission unveiled the EU global health strategy with the overarching goal of improving global health security and ensuring better health for all. The document takes stock of lessons learnt from the pandemic and guides EU action in an evolving landscape of threats and opportunities, including towards reasserting responsibility for attainment of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) – currently unfinished business. The strategy constitutes the external dimension of the European health union and is a cornerstone of the Global Gateway strategy. It not only relaunches the EU's global health agenda but also recalibrates the EU's approach to global health, by positioning it as an essential pillar of EU external policy, a critical geopolitical sector and a central aspect of EU strategic autonomy. The strategy suggests a framework leading up to 2030 and focusing on three policy priorities: better health throughout life; strengthened health systems and universal health coverage; and action to prevent and combat health threats. The strategy also outlines 20 guiding principles and concrete lines of action, and establishes a new monitoring framework. The strategy was widely welcomed by stakeholders; they generally approved the fact that, unlike its 2010 predecessor, it goes beyond portraying global health through the development policy lens. However, certain stakeholders raised concerns about the lack of focus on climate action and the lack of specific provisions on access and equity, for instance. The importance of ensuring appropriate financing, efficient implementation and monitoring were often underlined. Following the adoption of the strategy by the Commission, the Council is set to tailor the approach through the adoption of conclusions. These are likely to focus on the strategy's implementation and monitoring, and on matters of accountability. In parallel, the European Parliament is expected to take a stance on the strategy with a non-legislative resolution. The EU's finalised approach to global health will then require strong political leadership and efforts to maintain the momentum needed to deliver results.
Författare : GABIJA LECLERC

Parliamentary oversight of governments' response to the COVID-19 pandemic: Literature review EN

25-01-2023 PE 740.217 COVI
Studie
Sammanfattning : Conducted at the request of the European Parliament's Special Committee on the COVID 19 pandemic, this literature review examines the patterns in, consequences of and correlation between national approaches to parliamentary oversight of governments' responses to the COVID 19 pandemic in the EU27 and four other countries (Canada, Switzerland, the United Kingdom and the United States). The review begins by assessing parliaments' involvement during the early stages of the health crisis, when many countries were operating under emergency regimes or statutory frameworks that provided for rapid action. It then maps the parliaments' law-making and oversight role during the pandemic, demonstrating that they were not necessarily side-lined. The study goes on to assess successes and failures and, on that basis, factors in the resilience of parliamentary oversight. Mapping the widespread use of sunset and review clauses in emergency legislation, the study reflects on parliaments' cooperation with supreme audit institutions and independent fiscal institutions, which enhanced their budgetary oversight role during the pandemic. The literature review also identifies best practice regarding oversight during the COVID 19 pandemic and reforms that parliaments could pursue to strengthen their preparedness for future crises.
Författare : Irmgard ANGLMAYER, Susanna TENHUNEN

Pegasus and the EU’s external relations EN

25-01-2023 PE 741.475 PEGA
Studie
Sammanfattning : This study - commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the Committee of Inquiry to Investigate the Use of Pegasus and Equivalent Surveillance Spyware (PEGA) – analyses the proliferation of new and emerging technologies usedfor repression and social control. While these technologies still have the potential to positively enhance democratic values and human rights, repressive regimes actively deploy these tools for their own strategic advantage. In particular, the proliferation of commercial spyware, such as Pegasus software, is a big concern. The EU should place a much higher priority in countering government use of these tools.
Författare : Steven FELDSTEIN; Richard YOUNGS

Rule of law-related ‘super milestones’ in the recovery and resilience plans of Hungary and Poland EN

24-01-2023 PE 741.581 CONT BUDG
Briefing
Sammanfattning : On 12 December 2022, the Council adopted the Hungarian recovery and resilience plan (RRP) based on the Commission’s positive evaluation. Compared to the original plan, a whole new component of measures has been added (Component 9: Governance and Public Administration) containing 38 measures with 111 milestones and targets. Of these, 27 milestones are referred to as ‘super milestones’ without which no payment under the RRF will be allowed. These ‘super milestones’ include some of the Key Implementation Steps of the 17 remedial measures proposed by Hungary under the rule of law conditionality mechanism, some measures concerning judicial independence included in the ongoing Article 7 procedure, recent country-specific recommendations (CSRs) and the Rule of Law Reports, and also audit and control-related measures. The Polish RRP was adopted by the Council on 17 June 2022. It only contained two ‘super milestones’ that need to be fulfilled before the first payment request is submitted, both related to the judiciary.
Författare : András SCHWARCZ
Typ av handling

ANN01

Geographical indications for wine, spirit drinks and agricultural products EN

23-01-2023 PE 739.304
Briefing
Sammanfattning : On 18 October 2022, the European Parliament's rapporteur put forward a draft report on the Commission's proposal for a regulation on geographical indications for wine, spirit drinks and agricultural products, while the discussions continue in the Council on the working party level. The proposal, which the Commission adopted on 31 March 2022, would bring under a single legal document the provisions on the procedures for registering geographical indications (GIs) for wine, spirit drinks and agricultural products that are currently spread over three regulations. It would increase the powers and responsibilities of producer groups, lay down rules on sustainability undertakings, clarify rules on the use of GI products as ingredients, and improve the protection of GI products online. The Commission would be empowered to transfer its tasks regarding the management of geographical indications, including the scrutiny, opposition, cancellation and amendments procedures, to the European Union Intellectual Property Office (EUIPO). First edition. The 'EU Legislation in Progress' briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure.
Författare : Nikolina SAJN

Revision of Directive 2011/36/EU on preventing and combating trafficking in human beings and protecting its victims EN

23-01-2023 PE 740.213 LIBE FEMM
Briefing
Sammanfattning : Directive 2011/36/EU on preventing and combating trafficking in human beings and protecting its victims is the benchmark legislation on the fight against trafficking in human beings (human trafficking) at EU level. It is part of a broader policy framework that entails a range of measures aimed at the prevention and prosecution of trafficking in human beings, as well as protection from and establishment of partnerships against this practice. Despite progress in implementing those measures, trafficking in human beings remains a highly lucrative crime, affecting thousands of individuals, primarily women and girls who are trafficked for sexual exploitation. New digital technologies are widely used to reach out to potential victims and users. Traffickers remain largely unpunished, as do the users of services from victims of trafficking, despite the European Commission and the European Parliament repeatedly calling for the criminalisation of those knowingly using such services. Their impunity has raised increasing concerns about the effectiveness of the directive, and there have been calls for its revision to reinforce existing measures while addressing potential gaps and reducing disparities between EU Member States' systems. This implementation appraisal looks at the practical implementation of the directive in light of the expected Commission proposal for its revision.
Författare : MARIE-ASTRID HUEMER

The role of public investments in the EU economic governance framework EN

23-01-2023 PE 733.750 ECON
Djupanalys
Sammanfattning : A special treatment for certain types of investments, such as green investments, in the European fiscal framework may be justified on the ground that there are priority objectives such as the future health of the planet. An “investment clause”, less restrictive than the existing one, can be envisaged for projects that are co-financed, financed or guaranteed by the European Union or by European Union Institutions, such as the European Investment Bank.
Författare : Giampaolo GALLI

The RRF role in strengthening Active Labour Market Policies and Public Employment Services EN

23-01-2023 PE 733.741 ECON
Studie
Sammanfattning : This study analyses the measures addressing Pillar 4 (social and territorial cohesion) of the Recovery and Resilience Facility (RRF). It focuses on two policy domains: active labour market policies and public employment services. The study zooms in on the reforms and investments included in the RRF plans of three EU Member States (Italy, Spain and Croatia) and assesses their relevance, effectiveness and coherence.
Författare : F. Corti, T. Ruiz De La Ossa

Plenary round-up – January I 2023 EN

20-01-2023 PE 739.303
Kort sammanfattning
Sammanfattning : The highlights of the January I 2023 plenary session were debates on the conclusions of the European Council meeting of 15 December 2022 and the presentation of activities planned under the Swedish Presidency of the Council of the European Union. The session opened with a ceremony marking the 30th anniversary of the single market, followed by a debate with the Council and Commission on the matter. Debates were held on the surge of respiratory infections and the shortage of medication in Europe; on the need to increase transparency, integrity and accountability in the EU institutions; on terrorist threats posed by far-right extremist networks; on criminalisation of humanitarian assistance, as well as on the Global Gateway. Members also debated foreign affairs issues, including the EU's response to the appalling attack against civilians in Dnipro; strengthening action against the Putin regime and military support; and the establishment of a tribunal on the crime of aggression against Ukraine. The High Representative of the EU for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, Josep Borrell, spoke on the EU response to the protests and executions in Iran, and on strengthening the EU Latin America partnership. During question time, Members posed questions to Commissioner Janusz Wojciechowski on EU action to tackle food price inflation in Europe. Finally, Parliament elected Marc Angel (S&D, Luxembourg) to the post of Vice President of the European Parliament.
Författare : CLARE FERGUSON, KATARZYNA SOCHACKA

International Agreements in Progress: Modernisation of the trade pillar of the EU-Chile Association Agreement EN

20-01-2023 PE 630.278
Briefing
Sammanfattning : On 9 December 2022, 20 years after the signature of EU-Chile Association Agreement in 2002, the EU and Chile reached an agreement in principle on a new EU-Chile Advanced Framework Agreement, which comprises modernised trade and political and cooperation pillars. Negotiations were launched to modernise the 2002 Association Agreement, including its trade pillar in November 2017, based on a Council negotiating mandate, which was the first-ever to have been published to enhance transparency and inclusiveness prior to the start of negotiations. Although the trade pillar had operated smoothly and led to a significant expansion of bilateral trade in goods and services and investment, Chile and the EU agreed to broaden and deepen it to unlock untapped potential, break new ground and keep pace with new trade and investment patterns in a global competitive environment that has fundamentally changed with the growing global footprint of countries like China. The agreed text of the EU-Chile Advanced Framework Agreement will first undergo legal revision and be translated into the EU's official languages before it can be formally signed and ratified. Since the agreement comprises provisions falling under the EU's exclusive competence and shared competence with EU Member States, an EU-Chile interim free trade agreement will be extracted from the comprehensive agreement and undergo an EU-only ratification process, while the EU-Chile Advanced Framework Agreement as a whole will also have to be ratified by all EU Member States in accordance with their constitutional requirements. The former will expire, once the latter has entered into force. Second edition. The 'International Agreements in Progress' briefings are updated at key stages throughout the process, from initial discussions through to ratification.
Författare : Gisela GRIEGER

The EU’s energy markets [What Think Tanks are thinking] EN

20-01-2023 PE 739.302
Briefing
Sammanfattning : Energy prices have recently fallen in the European Union, easing slightly the energy crisis for consumers and businesses caused by Russia’s 11-month-long war on Ukraine. EU emergency measures, diversification of supplies and a benign winter have all helped to reduce energy costs, which skyrocketed after Russia curtailed fossil fuel exports with the aim of pressing the EU to reduce support for Ukraine, and in response to EU sanctions on Moscow. In December, EU governments agreed to cap gas prices, with a view to better shield European households and businesses from price spikes, which have fuelled inflation and undermined economic growth. On 17 January, European Commission President Ursula von der Leyen stated that she would propose a Net-Zero Industry Act, which envisages a number of clean tech objectives for 2030, as a response to the US's vast, green subsidy package, the 'Inflation Reduction Act'. Nevertheless, the difficulties in securing Europe's energy supply in the long term will not be easily overcome. This note gathers links to recent publications and commentaries from many international think tanks on the energy market. Earlier publication on the topic can be found in a previous edition of the ‘What Think Tanks are Thinking’ series.
Författare : Marcin CESLUK-GRAJEWSKI

Towards EU leadership in the space sector through open strategic autonomy - Cost of non-Europe EN

Studie
Sammanfattning : This 'cost of non-Europe' report looks at the potential benefits of efficient, ambitious and united EU-level action in the space sector. The report finds that to enable the European space sector to benefit from open strategic autonomy, and to ensure EU access to and use of space, including for its security, the EU must act decisively. Moving away from fragmentation could bring large benefits, amounting to at least €140 billion per year by 2050.
Författare : ALEKSANDRA HEFLICH, JEROME LEON SAULNIER, CLEMENT THIERRY EVROUX

Anti-money-laundering authority (AMLA): Countering money laundering and the financing of terrorism EN

19-01-2023 PE 733.645
Briefing
Sammanfattning : In July 2021, the European Commission tabled a proposal to establish a new EU authority to counter money laundering and the financing of terrorism (AMLA). This was part of a legislative package aimed at implementing the 2020 action plan for a comprehensive Union policy on preventing money laundering and the financing of terrorism. The AMLA would be the centre of an integrated system composed of the authority itself and the national authorities with an AML/CFT supervisory mandate. It would also support EU financial intelligence units (FIUs) and establish a cooperation mechanism among them. The Council achieved a partial political agreement on the proposal on 29 June 2022. In the European Parliament, the file was referred to the Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs (ECON) and the Committee on Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs (LIBE). The co-rapporteurs issued their joint report in May 2022. Second edition. The 'EU Legislation in Progress' briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure. The previous edition was written by Carla Stamegna.
Författare : Cécile REMEUR

Bulgaria's National Recovery and Resilience Plan: Latest state of play EN

19-01-2023 PE 733.662
Briefing
Sammanfattning : Under the Recovery and Resilience Facility (RRF), the unprecedented EU response to the crisis triggered by the pandemic, Bulgaria was initially allocated €6 267.3 million in grants. In accordance with Article 11(2) of Regulation (EU) 2021/241 (the RRF Regulation), on 30 June 2022, the European Commission recalculated the maximum grant amounts for all Member States; this resulted in a cut for Bulgaria of just over 9 % and a new total of €5 690 million. The country's national recovery and resilience plan (NRRP) has an estimated cost of €6 897.9, higher than the maximum financial contribution under the RRF, which is expected to be supplemented with national (and private) cofinancing. Under the RRF Regulation, Member States can request RRF loans until 31 August 2023, which Bulgaria has not yet done. Bulgaria's NRRP ranks as one of the largest (after Croatia) as a share of grants in relation to gross domestic product (GDP) – originally 10.2 % of its 2019 GDP, the RRF amounting to 5.2 % of EU-27 GDP in 2019. The RRF funding should be committed by the end of 2023, and paid out to Bulgaria by the end of 2026. Following the Council's approval of the plan, on 31 August 2022, Bulgaria submitted its first payment request, worth €1 369 billion. The Commission disbursed these resources on 16 December 2022. The NRRP aims to address the main challenges and systemic weaknesses of Bulgaria's economy. It builds on the national development programme BULGARIA 2030, which proposes solutions for growth and development in the medium term by setting out strategic objectives, such as accelerated economic development, demographic upswing and reduced inequalities. The NRR aims to extend the scope of reforms and investment while ensuring coherence with measures planned under EU cohesion policy. Bulgaria is one of the main beneficiaries of EU funds (measured as a share of GDP) over the 2021-2027 financing period, and complementarity with RRF resources is particularly relevant in several fields. 58.9 % of funds support climate objectives, making Bulgaria's NRRP one of the greenest, 25.8 % support digital objectives. Both minimum spending targets (green and digital) laid down in the RRF Regulation have thus been exceeded. The European Parliament participates in interinstitutional forums for cooperation and discussion on the implementation of the RRF, and scrutinises the Commission's work. This briefing is one in a series covering all EU Member States. Second edition. The 'NGEU delivery' briefings are updated at key stages throughout the lifecycle of the plans
Författare : Velina LILYANOVA, Alina DOBREVA

Ladino: Judeo-Spanish language and culture in Europe EN

19-01-2023 PE 739.299
Briefing
Sammanfattning : Europe has been home to Jews for thousands of years. They have contributed to the continent's artistic achievements and material prosperity despite discriminatory laws and recurring acts of persecution. With their 'final solution', the Nazis aimed to eradicate Jews from the continent and erase all trace of their culture, destroying synagogues, Jewish archives and works of art. Although the Nazis did not achieve their objective, they left ruins that bear architectural witness to Jewish presence on the continent, as well as decimated and traumatised Jewish communities. The courage of these communities to continue to bear witness to Jewish life and culture has been essential to the preservation of Ladino – a language condemned to death by the Nazis – and its culture, music and literature. The language itself testifies to the persecution of European Jews. The 1492 Expulsion Edict forced Jews living in Spain to either convert or leave. Most chose to leave, and took with them the language they had spoken in Spain – Judeo-Spanish, also known as Ladino. No longer connected to its Spanish roots, Ladino preserved the original structure of 15th century Spanish, together with Hebrew script and a vocabulary with Aramaic elements. The language evolved with the Sephardi Jews as they moved across North Africa, Europe and Türkiye, incorporating vocabulary from the local languages: Greek, Turkish, Arabic and Balkan languages. Ladino speakers who survived the Holocaust often left Europe and settled in Israel and the US. Although some linguists think the survival of Ladino – at least in Europe – is in doubt, a rise in on line interest in the language during the COVID-19 lockdowns suggests that the trend is reversible. The EU meanwhile has an important role to play in preserving this valuable element of its cultural and linguistic heritage.
Författare : Magdalena PASIKOWSKA-SCHNASS

EU-US climate and energy relations in light of the Inflation Reduction Act EN

19-01-2023 PE 739.300
Briefing
Sammanfattning : The war in Ukraine has put Europe's dependence on energy imports under the spotlight. The United States (US) has stepped in and pledged to increase its exports of liquefied natural gas (LNG) to Europe. While this helps address the shortfall in energy imports from Russia in the short term, it raises the question as to how far the EU wants to build an energy partnership with the US. Closely intertwined with the energy challenge is the fight against climate change. With the European Union (EU) committing to more ambitious policies within the framework of the Green Deal, it has an interest in international partners also raising their level of ambition. Here, too, the US is a key partner. As one of the world's largest CO2 emitters, the US also plays a key role in bringing the world closer to reaching the goals of the Paris Agreement. The US Inflation Reduction Act, a huge investment bill pouring billions of dollars into the American economy by favouring US-made clean energy and technology, brings these considerations together. The EU will have to consider how to integrate its climate, energy and industrial policies, so as to contribute towards climate goals and energy security while at the same time retaining the global competitiveness of its economy. This, in turn, has far-reaching repercussions for related policy areas such as international trade, as well as for the ongoing debate over the future of the EU's budget and its macroeconomic governance framework.
Författare : Lasse BOEHM

Revision of Council Directive 94/80/EC: Electoral rights of mobile Union citizens in municipal elections EN

19-01-2023 PE 739.301
Briefing
Sammanfattning : On 25 November 2021, the European Commission put forward a proposal to modify Council Directive 94/80/EC on the right of mobile EU citizens to vote and stand as candidates in municipal elections. The proposal tied in with the Commission President's priority for a new push for European democracy. The proposal was presented together with three others: a proposal to modify Directive 93/109/EC on EU citizens' right to vote and stand as candidates in elections to the European Parliament; a proposal on transparency and targeting of political advertising; and a proposal to revise EU Regulation No 1141/2014 on the funding of European political parties and foundations. Although Directive 94/80/EC gave EU citizens living in another Member State the right to vote and stand in municipal elections under the same legal provisions and procedures as citizens of that Member State, the procedures under which these rights are exercised are subject to national legislation and procedures, which vary between Member States. The Commission's proposal has been designed to address some of the concerns raised during the years since the directive entered into force and, in particular, the fact that despite the measures in place, mobile EU citizens still face difficulties in exercising their electoral rights in municipal elections. First edition. The 'EU legislation in progress' briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure.
Författare : DAVID ARMAND JACQUES GERA DE GROOT

The European Council in 2021 - Overview of dynamics, discussions and decisions EN

19-01-2023 PE 734.696
Studie
Sammanfattning : The COVID-19 pandemic dominated the agenda of the European Council in 2021, just as it had for much of 2020. Early in the year, the European Council struggled in a series of video-conferences to overcome problems besetting the procurement and distribution of vaccines throughout the EU. By mid 2021, as the situation improved and the pace of vaccination finally picked up, EU leaders welcomed the development of the digital COVID-19 certificate to facilitate intra-EU travel. Later in the year, as a new variant of COVID-19 emerged, EU leaders focused on efforts to overcome vaccine hesitancy. In the meantime, EU leaders confronted a series of other challenges, in areas ranging from economic affairs to climate change and the external dimension of migration. As for international affairs, EU leaders were preoccupied in 2021 with deteriorating EU-Russia relations; this was not unrelated to worrisome developments in Belarus. The improvement of transatlantic relations after the advent of a new US administration was one of the few bright spots in an otherwise gloomy year. Within the European Council, the most notable development was the departure of German Chancellor Angela Merkel after 16 years of membership.
Författare : ASTRID WORUM

2023 Recommendations on the economic policy of the Euro Area: A comparison of Commission and Council texts (the ‘comply or explain’ principle) EN

19-01-2023 PE 733.755 ECON
Briefing
Sammanfattning : This document compares the draft 2023 Recommendation for the economic policy of the Euro Area proposed by the European Commission on 22 November 2022 with the 2023 Euro Area recommendation approved by the Council (ECOFIN) on 17 February 2023.
Författare : DONELLA BOLDI, KRISTINA GRIGAITE

Health-related quality of life in people living with HIV EN

19-01-2023 PE 734.011 ENVI
Djupanalys
Sammanfattning : The evolution of HIV from a fatal to a long-term condition poses challenges for people living with HIV and for health and social care systems across the EU. This paper aims to help Members of the European Parliament and other interested stakeholders to obtain a better picture of the current situation in relation to HIV among people living with HIV in the EU, HIV-related stigma and issues which impact on health-related quality of life for people living with HIV.
Författare : ECDC European Centre for Disease Control

Economic Dialogue and Exchange of Views with the President of the Council (ECOFIN) - ECON on 24 January 2023 EN

19-01-2023 PE 733.751 ECON
Djupanalys
Sammanfattning : Elisabeth Svantesson, Minister of Finance of the Sweden, is participating in the ECON Committee in her capacity of President of the ECOFIN Council during the Swedish Presidency (January-June 2023). In accordance with the Treaty of the Union, “Member States shall regard their economic policies as a matter of common concern and shall coordinate them within the Council”. This document provides an overview of the Swedish Presidency priorities in ECON matters, including the Council’s work relating to the implementation of the European Semester for economic coordination, notably the application of the Recovery and Resilience Facility, and other policy streams relevant to the EU single market and the deepening of the Economic and Monetary Union, including the review debate on the EU economic governance framework.
Författare : SAMUEL DE LEMOS PEIXOTO, Marcel MAGNUS, OVIDIU IONUT TURCU, KRISTINA GRIGAITE, Kai Gereon SPITZER, PIA HANNA MOLITOR

Understanding EU data protection policy EN

18-01-2023 PE 698.898
Briefing
Sammanfattning : The datafication of everyday life and data scandals have made the protection of personal information an increasingly important social, legal and political matter for the EU. In recent years, awareness of data rights and enforcement expectations have both grown considerably. The right to privacy and the right to protection of personal data are both enshrined in the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the EU and in the EU Treaties. The entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty in 2009 gave the Charter the same legal value as the Treaties and abolished the pillar structure, providing a stronger basis for a more effective and comprehensive EU data protection regime. In 2012, the European Commission launched an ambitious reform to modernise the EU data protection framework. In 2016, the co-legislators adopted the EU's most prominent data protection legislation – the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) – and the Law Enforcement Directive. The framework overhaul also included adopting an updated Regulation on Data Protection in the EU institutions and reforming the e-Privacy Directive – still under negotiation between the co legislators. The European Parliament has played a key role in these reforms, both as co-legislator and author of own-initiative reports and resolutions seeking to guarantee a high level of data protection for EU citizens. The European Court of Justice plays a crucial role in developing the EU data protection framework through case law. In the coming years, challenges in the area of data protection will include balancing the compliance and data needs of emerging technologies, equipping data protection authorities with sufficient resources to fulfil their tasks, combating child sexual abuse material online without compromising privacy, taming digital surveillance and further clarifying requirements of valid consent. This is a further updated edition of a briefing of January 2022, which updated an earlier briefing by Sofija Voronova, of May 2020.
Författare : Hendrik Alexander MILDEBRATH

Research for CULT Committee - The European Universities Initiative: first lessons, main challenges and perspectives EN

18-01-2023 PE 733.106 CULT
Kort sammanfattning
Sammanfattning : This At a glance note summarises the study evaluating the selection procedures and assesses the experiences of the first years of the European Universities Initiative started in 2019. Since then, 44 European Universities alliances were created, with 340 participating higher education institutions. The study also drafts three scenarios to map future developments. Recommendations to the EP aim to strengthen the sustainability of the EUAs, create better regulatory conditions and improve the learning processes.
Författare : University of Twente-CHEPS: Daniela CRACIUN, Frans KAISER, Andrea KOTTMANN, Barend van der MEULEN Expert support: 3s, Milica POPOVIC, Stefan HUMPL
Tillhörande dokument

Research for REGI, CONT and BUDG Committees - Cohesion Policy Calendar (2021-2027 and 2014-2020 Programming Periods) January 2023 update EN

18-01-2023 PE 563.425 REGI BUDG CONT
Briefing
Sammanfattning : The implementation timetable for cohesion policy is defined largely by its legislative framework. In order to be able to plan parliamentary work and exercise systematic scrutiny of policy implementation and of the Commission’s work, it is essential to have an overview of the timing of different steps in policy implementation in the coming years. This type of briefing was first published (and subsequently updated) in 2014 covering the 2014-2020 programming period. This version includes the policy actions of the 2021-27 period, while still indicating the last steps of the 2014-20 period. It includes a detailed (but non-exhaustive) timetable of policy actions in 2023, together with an overview of major actions for the remainder of the programming period, from 2023. Given its contribution to cohesion in the European Union, policy actions under the Recovery and Resilience Facility are now included in the calendar. Policy actions related to budgetary and budgetary control aspects are coloured green (for the year 2023).
Författare : Diana HAASE

Addressing the challenges of the digital transition in national Recovery and Resilience Plans EN

18-01-2023 PE 733.739 ECON
Studie
Sammanfattning : This paper analyses the digital pillar of the national RRPs to identify the key initiatives, examine the distribution of resources, assess the current state of implementation and define the main challenges in reaching the overall objectives.
Författare : S. DA EMPOLI A. MARCOBELLI L. PRINCIPALI E. STARNONI

A targeted golden rule for public investments? EN

18-01-2023 PE 733.740 ECON
Studie
Sammanfattning : The Communication by the European Commission to reform the Economic Governance Framework offers welcome headspace for public investment, while avoiding the de jure adoption of a ‘targeted Golden Rule’ as this could conflict with national accounting conventions. However, even with this reform, EU-strategic goals for public investment risk to be missed once the Recovery and Resilience Facility (RRF) runs out. Making a RRF-like instrument a permanent feature of the EU’s fiscal landscape could be a way forward.
Författare : Paul Van den Noord

E-commerce and the EU Green Deal - Analysis of the environmental footprint of online sales in the context of the circular economy EN

16-01-2023 PE 740.061 IMCO
Kort sammanfattning
Sammanfattning : The rise of online sales and marketplaces poses new challenges to product safety, consumer protection, and unfair business practices. At the same time, e-commerce has the potential to facilitate more sustainable production processes and consumption patterns and ensure more circularity. This study provides information on the role of e-commerce in implementing the European Green Deal and makes recommendations for future action. This document was provided by the Policy Department for Economic, Scientific and Quality of Life Policies at the request of the committee on Internal Market and Consumer Protection (IMCO).
Författare : Luena COLLINI, VVA Brussels Dr. Pierre HAUSEMER, VVA Brussels Ivan BOSCH CHEN, VVA Brussels Jelena VITIC, VVA Brussels J. Scott MARCUS, Bruegel Marie LE MOUEL, Bruegel Marina DUMONT, Pre-sustainability Emilia INGEMARSDOTTER, Pre-sustainability Luca ZAMPORI, Pre-sustainability

EU economic developments and projections EN

16-01-2023 PE 645.716 ECON
Briefing
Sammanfattning : This briefing provides a summary of the recent economic developments in the EU Member States and gives an overview of relevant economic projections forecasted by major international and EU institutions.
Författare : SAMUEL DE LEMOS PEIXOTO, KRISTINA GRIGAITE

Research for CULT Committee - The European Universities Initiative: first lessons, main challenges and perspectives EN

16-01-2023 PE 733.105 CULT
Studie
Sammanfattning : In 2019 the European Universities Initiative started. Since then, 44 European Universities alliances were created, with 340 participating higher education institutions. This study evaluates the selection procedures and assesses the experiences of the first years. It also drafts three scenarios to map future developments. Recommendations to the EP aim to strengthen the sustainability of the EUAs, create better regulatory conditions and improve the learning processes.
Författare : University of Twente-CHEPS, Daniela CRACIUN, Frans KAISER, Andrea KOTTMANN, Barend van der MEULEN Expert support: 3s, Milica POPOVIC, Stefan HUMPL
Tillhörande dokument

EU Mapping: Overview of Internal Market and Consumer Protection related legislation EN

16-01-2023 PE 740.062 IMCO
Studie
Sammanfattning : This paper provides a graphic overview on core legislation in the area of the Internal Market and Consumer Protection. The presentation essentially covers the areas within the responsibility of the Committee on Internal Market and Consumer Protection, but also displays neighbouring areas of other Committees' competences which are closely connected to and impacting on IMCO's work. This document was provided by the Policy Department for Economic, Scientific and Quality of Life Policies and the Secretariat of the Committee on Internal Market and Consumer Protection (IMCO) at the request of the Committee on Internal Market and Consumer Protection.
Författare : ELENA MAINARDI, MICHAL CZAPLICKI, BARBARA MARTINELLO, DAVID ASHTON, KADRI BRUGEL, Bozica MATIC, Atanaska KOLEVA, DIANE BOURLON DE ROUVRE, GAETANO DE SALVO, SOULTANA DIMOU, MARKO ĆAVARA, JANA CIBIKOVA, SIGNE WINTHER JENSEN, MATHIAS WOSYKA, AGNIESZKA MONIKA WOLSKA, CATHAL LYNCH

Annual report on implementation of the common foreign and security policy, 2022 EN

13-01-2023 PE 739.295
Kort sammanfattning
Sammanfattning : The common foreign and security policy (CFSP) contributes to the EU's objectives of preserving peace; strengthening international security; promoting international cooperation; and developing and consolidating democracy, the rule of law, respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. The 2022 annual report on the implementation of the CFSP adopted by the Committee for Foreign Affairs (AFET) highlights the need for stronger, more ambitious, credible, strategic and unified EU action on the world stage. It furthermore stresses that the EU should autonomously set its own objectives and develop and deploy capabilities to pursue them. The Parliament is scheduled to debate and vote on the report during its January 2023 plenary session.
Författare : BRANISLAV STANICEK

Question time: Food price inflation in Europe EN

13-01-2023 PE 739.298
Kort sammanfattning
Sammanfattning : Food prices in the EU have risen dramatically over the past two years. The chain of disruptions caused by the COVID 19 pandemic, extreme weather events and the Russian invasion of Ukraine in 2022 have led to severe shortages in the agri-food chain, resulting in higher consumer prices. The latest European Parliament Eurobarometer survey shows that the cost of living continues to be the main concern for European citizens. During the January I plenary session, Members of the European Parliament will have the opportunity to question the European Commission on measures taken to contain food price inflation.
Författare : Antonio ALBALADEJO ROMAN

Protection of workers from the risks related to exposure to asbestos at work EN

13-01-2023 PE 734.709 ENVI EMPL
Briefing
Sammanfattning : The IA provides a well-evidenced description of the problem and its scale and sufficiently substantiates the need to lower the current EU occupational exposure level for asbestos. However, the IA could have explained the evaluation findings in more detail and clarified the problem drivers further. The IA clearly explains the scientific opinion of the Committee for Risk Assessment (RAC), according to which there is no safe exposure level and therefore the RAC did not recommend any specific OEL. The IA describes different OEL options, but does not explain to what extent the options differ, for example, in terms of risk management measures. The IA justifies the preferred option for example by the efficiency aspects (cost/benefit ratio). In the effectiveness analysis, the IA finds that the preferred option is the best one, as it is supported by employers' and government interest groups, and therefore 'offers the best balance between prevention and practical implementation'. It would have benefited the analysis if the IA had explained this argument in more detail, given the different views of the social partners. The Commission has carried out an SME test, as nearly all the companies involved in the asbestos work are small companies. According to the estimates, in the construction sector, which represents 99 % of the companies involved in work with asbestos, the costs would remain largely proportionate. The IA explains the analytical methods used, as well as the limitations and uncertainties of the analysis.
Författare : ULLA-MARI TUOMINEN

The Global Gateway: Taking stock after its first year EN

13-01-2023 PE 739.296
Briefing
Sammanfattning : The global investment gap between high-income and low- and middle-income countries has been widening in recent years, even more so in the aftermath of the double crisis caused by the pandemic and Russia's invasion of Ukraine. This divergence and underfunding are also negatively affecting global connectivity, which requires substantial financial resources for both its expansion and its maintenance. This is important for recovery from the current crisis, as the modern world is based on multifaceted links between communities, economies and countries, and connectivity is known to contribute to economic growth, supply chain efficiency and resilience to shocks. Since 2015, the EU has been making efforts to narrow this investment gap and support global connectivity, not least to counter the influence of China's Belt and Road Initiative. However, experts considered EU assistance and investments to be fragmented, leading to inefficiencies, gaps and overlaps. Taking into account this and the growing importance of connectivity, made clear by the pandemic, the EU launched its Global Gateway strategy on 1 December 2021. Its worldwide scope is not limited to selected regions or countries. The strategy promises to mobilise up to €300 billion in investment to boost smart, clean and secure digital, energy and transport links and strengthen health, education and research systems across the world. Perhaps the most significant initiative so far has been the launch of the first regional Global Gateway Africa-Europe Investment Package in February 2022. Other deliverables include the signing of international agreements and the inauguration of the first infrastructure projects. Many think tanks and experts have welcomed the Global Gateway as an attempt to boost efficiency, coherence and strategic drive in the EU's connectivity and investment policies. Opinions are divided, however, on whether sufficient funding can be mobilised and it remains to be seen if the Team Europe approach, bringing together the EU, financial institutions and Member States, will deliver.
Författare : Marcin SZCZEPANSKI

30 years of the European single market EN

13-01-2023 PE 739.297
Briefing
Sammanfattning : The European single market celebrates its 30th anniversary this year. On 1 January 1993, the then 12 Member States abolished border controls between each other, launching free movement of people, goods, services and capital. This infographic celebrates the single market's anniversary, looking at the history of the European Union (EU) in terms of macro-economic indicators as the number of Member States has grown. It shows exports of goods, services and investments; movement of people within the EU to live, study or work; and the digital single market, covering e-commerce sales of enterprises and online purchases by individuals. The final section looks at the EU in the world. Although we are celebrating the 30th anniversary of the single market, the idea of a unified Europe began in the 1950s with the founding of the Communities. But to secure the single market, many steps were required. The timeline below highlights the major milestones needed to achieve the single market.
Författare : Giulio SABBATI

Stepping up the EU’s efforts to tackle corruption – Cost of non-Europe Report EN

13-01-2023 PE 734.687
Studie
Sammanfattning : Corruption poses a significant threat in the European Union and can contribute towards an erosion of democracy and the rule of law, especially during times of crisis. The European Union can do more to tackle corruption and curb its negative impacts on society. This report presents a quantitative analysis of the potential gains from further EU action to tackle corruption, estimating that it could generate up to €58.5 billion per year. Other gains could also be expected in terms of reinforcing democracy and promoting international credibility and long-term growth.
Författare : LENKA JANCOVA, MEENAKSHI FERNANDES

Policy Departments’ Monthly Highlights - January 2023 EN

Kort sammanfattning
Sammanfattning : The Monthly Highlights publication provides an overview, at a glance, of the on-going work of the policy departments, including a selection of the latest and forthcoming publications, and a list of future events.

Addressing the challenges of smart, sustainable and inclusive growth in national Recovery and Resilience Plans EN

13-01-2023 PE 699.554 ECON
Studie
Sammanfattning : This briefing paper provides an initial analysis of selected measures proposed by Germany, France, Italy and Poland in their respective Recovery and Resilience Plans (RRPs), and focuses on the areas of competitiveness, business environment/entrepreneurship, and (re)industrialisation. As the analysis has shown, targets and milestones set for the majority of the analysed measures seem to be realistic and enhance the probability of completing the planned projects on time; they are also tailored to the needs of specific EU MS.
Författare : Delia AGOSTINELLI, Agnieszka KULESA, Barbara SURDYKOWSKA, Michalina WACŁAW

Digital rights and principles EN

12-01-2023 PE 739.292
Kort sammanfattning
Sammanfattning : As digital tools and services are now integral to daily life, the protection of human rights in the digital context has become a top priority, and international organisations are stepping-up their efforts to that end. One EU contribution has been the adoption of the European Declaration on Digital Rights and Principles.
Författare : POLONA CAR

Solidarity in EU asylum policy EN

12-01-2023 PE 649.344
Briefing
Sammanfattning : The arrival of refugees and irregular migrants in the EU in unprecedented numbers in 2015 exposed a number of deficiencies in the EU's external border, asylum and migration policy, and sparked EU action through various legal and policy instruments. Today, even though the EU has been relatively successful in securing its external borders, curbing irregular migrant arrivals and increasing cooperation with third countries, Member States are still reluctant to show solidarity and do more to share responsibility for asylum-seekers. Turmoil in Africa and the Middle East, and now the war in Ukraine, are forcing more and more people to flee violence and seek a safe haven in Europe. At times spontaneously, Member States have reacted to these crises and showed open solidarity, as with regard to the Ukrainian citizens fleeing the war. At other times their reaction has been more ambivalent: take for instance the ripples of discord caused by the disembarkation in November 2022 of migrants rescued from the Mediterranean by four private vessels, which once again clearly demonstrated the need for a more stable and predictable mechanism to manage irregular migration. International cooperation and solidarity are key in helping to manage migration to and between states. Under international law, states have certain legal obligations to assist and protect the refugees they accept on their territory, but the legal duties of other states as regards providing help and sharing that responsibility are less clearly codified. At EU level, the principle of solidarity is set out in several articles, including Article 80 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). However, EU law does not define the notions of 'solidarity' or 'fair sharing of responsibilities' for refugees or asylum-seekers. This has prompted EU institutions, academics and other stakeholders to propose different ways to render solidarity more operational; these include sharing out relevant tasks and pooling resources at EU level, and providing financial and other forms of compensation for frontline Member States. The continued failure to reform the EU asylum system, as well as the implementation of temporary solidarity measures based on ad hoc solutions, has exposed a crisis of solidarity that has yet to be resolved. This updates and expands on a March 2020 EPRS briefing written by Anja Radjenovic.
Författare : Micaela DEL MONTE, Anita ORAV

'Unshell' – Rules to prevent the misuse of shell entities for tax purposes EN

12-01-2023 PE 733.648
Briefing
Sammanfattning : While shell companies – company entities that have no or minimal economic activity – can serve useful commercial and business functions, they are sometimes abused by companies or individuals for aggressive tax planning or tax evasion. To ensure sustainable public finances under the exceptional circumstances imposed by the COVID-19 pandemic, in December 2021 the European Commission presented a directive on preventing shell companies from misusing their structure for tax purposes ('Unshell'). The proposal introduces a 'filtering' system for EU company entities, which will have to pass a series of gateways, relating to income, staff and premises, to ensure there is sufficient 'substance' to the entity. Those entities that are deemed to be lacking in substance are presumed to be 'shell companies' and, if they are unable to rebut this presumption through additional evidence regarding the commercial, non-tax rationale of the entity, they will lose any tax advantages granted through bilateral tax treaties or EU directives, thereby discouraging their use. The directive requires unanimity in the Council for its adoption, following consultation of the European Parliament. While negotiations in the Council are ongoing, the Parliament will vote on its report in January 2023. Second edition. The 'EU Legislation in Progress' briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure.
Författare : Pieter BAERT

Latest on Russia’s war on Ukraine [What Think Tanks are thinking] EN

12-01-2023 PE 739.293
Briefing
Sammanfattning : As Russia’s war on Ukraine has entered into its 11th month, Moscow’s forces have launched fierce attacks in the east of the country, hoping for gains after a series of retreats in the second half of 2022. In some of the most intense fighting since the invasion, Russia’s onslaught focused on the salt-mining town of Soledar, a stepping-stone in Moscow's push to capture the entire Donbas region. In the preceding weeks, Russia has been bombing Ukraine’s critical infrastructure, depriving many areas and people of electricity, heating and water supplies. Ukraine is preparing to receive Patriot air defence missiles from the United States and Germany. Ukrainian troops were due soon to arrive in the United States to begin training on this advanced defence system. Meanwhile, the EU has agreed to introduce a price cap for Russian oil at US$60 per barrel. This note gathers links to the recent publications and commentaries from many international think tanks on Russia’s war on Ukraine. Earlier analyses of the war can be found in a previous edition of the ‘What Think Tanks are Thinking’ series.
Författare : Marcin CESLUK-GRAJEWSKI

Unshell – Rules to prevent misuse of shell entities for tax purposes EN

11-01-2023 PE 739.284
Kort sammanfattning
Sammanfattning : Shell companies – or 'shells' – are entities that have no or minimal economic activity. While they can sometimes serve useful commercial functions, they can also be abused for the purposes of aggressive tax planning or tax evasion. The Commission's 'Unshell' proposal is designed to prevent EU shell companies from benefiting from tax advantages. Parliament will discuss and vote on a report on the subject during its January I 2023 plenary.
Författare : Pieter BAERT

Strengthening EU rules on waste shipments EN

11-01-2023 PE 739.283
Kort sammanfattning
Sammanfattning : During its January I plenary session, Parliament will vote on the report adopted by its Committee on the Environment, Public Health and Food Safety (ENVI) on a Commission proposal to revise EU rules on shipments of waste. The report as voted would then form Parliament's position for trilogue negotiations with the Council.
Författare : Vivienne HALLEUX

Thirtieth anniversary of the single market (1993-2023) EN

11-01-2023 PE 739.282
Kort sammanfattning
Sammanfattning : On 16 January, during its plenary session, Parliament will celebrate the 30th anniversary of the single market. As well the ceremony, Parliament is to vote on a motion for a resolution, adopted by the Committee on the Internal Market and Consumer Protection on 12 December 2022. In its 2023 work programme, the Commission announced a communication on 'the single market at 30', to be issued early in the first quarter of the year.
Författare : Guillaume RAGONNAUD