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The way forward for better regulation in the EU – better focus, synergies, data and technology EN

04-08-2022 PE 736.129 JURI
Задълбочен анализ
Резюме : his in-depth analysis, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the JURI Committee, looks at the use of data for the purpose of regulatory assessment/evaluation. The author finds that data is needed to support evidence-based regulation, that information technologies, and in particular AI, can enable a more extensive and beneficial use of data, and that the use of data in ex-post evaluations can improve the regulatory process. The in-depth analysis offers policy recommendations.
Автори : Giovanni SARTOR

Inflation explained: What lies behind and what is ahead? EN

02-08-2022 PE 729.352
Резюме : Understanding inflation dynamics requires an understanding of the underlying concept and how it is measured. Inflation is defined as a process of continuously rising prices and falling purchasing power. In other words, a general and broad-based increase in the price of goods and services over an extended period. The main objective of central banks is to keep prices stable, to preserve the integrity and purchasing power of people's money. The most common inflation indicator measures the average change in the price of a basket of consumer goods and services over time. The closest approximation of what people intuitively understand by the term inflation is the change in their cost of living. The Harmonised Indicator for Consumer Prices (HICP), against which the European Central Bank (ECB) assesses the achievement of its price stability objective, is based on this concept. Strong inflation momentum for a broad set of goods and services in the consumer basket led to a record high inflation rate in June 2022, standing at 9.6 % in the EU and 8.6 % in the euro area, driven mainly by energy and food prices, which rose by 42 % and 8.9 % respectively. Inflation is expected to remain significantly above the euro area inflation target of 2 % for some time, due to continued geopolitical uncertainty and persistent supply bottlenecks. In its monetary policy meeting on 21 July, the ECB raised interest rates for the first time in over a decade by 0.5 percentage points and unveiled a new Transmission Protection Instrument. The latter would help the ECB to counter unwarranted, disorderly market dynamics and to make secondary market purchases of securities under certain conditions, thus preventing financial fragmentation within the currency bloc. At its meeting, the ECB also suspended forward guidance on the size of future rate rises in the interest of more flexibility. In conclusion, the latest ECB decision reflects increased efforts to bring inflation back to the 2 % target through a front-loaded policy rate hike, while putting in place an additional tool to counter unwarranted fragmentation. This is an update of a Briefing published in April 2022.

Regulation of intermediaries, including tax advisers, in the EU/Member States and best practices from inside and outside the EU EN

01-08-2022 PE 733.965 FISC
Резюме : his study provides an overview of the regulatory environment of tax intermediaries. It presents a comparative analysis of five selected countries (4 EU, 1 Non-EU). For each country, it provides an understanding of the landscape of the tax profession, the current regulatory framework and its impact on tax compliance and draws attention to some weaknesses across this regulatory space. It also highlights some proposed remedies and direction for further in-depth research in this area. This document was provided by the Policy Department for Economic, Scientific and Quality of Life Policies at the request of the Economic and Monetary Affairs' Subcommittee on Tax Matters (FISC).
Автори : Emer MULLIGAN (co-authors: Edidiong BASSEY, Dennis DE WIDT, Marco GREGGI, Dirk KIESEWETTER and Lynne OATS)

Single Resolution Board: Accountability arrangements (9th parliamentary term) EN

27-07-2022 PE 659.621 ECON
Резюме : This document provides an overview of public hearings and exchange of views with the Chair of the Single Resolution Board (SRB) in the ECON Committee since July 2019. It also provides an overview of all external papers requested by the ECON Committee by a standing panel of banking experts. Lastly, the annex contains an overview of the respective legal bases for these hearings as part of the accountability framework of the SRB. For an overview of public hearings during the 8th parliamentary term, please see here.
Автори : Marcel MAGNUS

Single Supervisory Mechanism: Accountability arrangements (9th parliamentary term) EN

27-07-2022 PE 659.623 ECON
Резюме : This document provides an overview of public hearings and exchange of views with the Chair of the European Central Bank (ECB) Supervisory Board in the ECON Committee since July 2019. It also provides an overview of all external papers requested by the ECON Committee by a standing panel of banking experts. Lastly, the annex contains an overview of the respective legal bases for these hearings as part of the accountability framework of the Single Supervisory Mechanism (SSM). For an overview of public hearings during the 8th parliamentary term, please see here.
Автори : Marcel MAGNUS

Removal of taxation-based obstacles and distortions in the Single Market in order to encourage cross border investment EN

26-07-2022 PE 733.964 FISC
Резюме : The coexistence of 27 different national tax systems in the European Union brings about significant obstacles to cross border business activity in the European Single Market. The objective of this study is to show the context and developments in European secondary law that have led to the current situation or, at least, have not yet resolved it. In addition, perspectives are shown as to how the described obstacles to cross border investment in the Internal Market can be countered both in the short and long term, both at the fundamental and also at the procedural or administrative level. This document was provided by the Policy Department for Economic, Scientific and Quality of Life Policies for the Subcommittee on Tax Matters (FISC).
Автори : Jost Henrich HECKEMEYER

Sustainability in the age of geopolitics EN

25-07-2022 PE 679.092
Резюме : In 2006, Jeffrey Sachs wrote that sustainability had replaced the Cold War as the dominant theme of global politics. He defined the 'geopolitics of sustainability' as a new approach to governance, which recognised the ecological underpinnings of war, terror and corruption, and sought to find solutions to these problems. Since then, sustainability has become a megatrend, intensively discussed in the media, the corporate world, and the expert community. Governments (particularly in the European Union) are steadily developing 'green transitions', planning decarbonisation and aiming for more digital and circular economies. Even so, military conflict may be regarded as a still greater trend than climate change, particularly after the Russian invasion of Ukraine. Global military spending continued to rise during the 2010s, and the number of armed conflicts increased. Russia's attack on Ukraine has had a dramatic impact and will have lasting consequences. The spectre of further escalation, and of war in other geopolitical hotspots, remains. Today, sustainability transitions are taking place in an age of military insecurity. When the concept of geopolitics of sustainability was developed in the 1980s, sustainable development was seen as an alternative to great power competition and Cold War politics. In the late 1990s and early 2000s, sustainability came to be seen as a corrective alternative to hyper-globalisation, rapid population growth and the depletion of planetary resources.

The UK's Northern Ireland Protocol Bill EN

25-07-2022 PE 733.607
Резюме : The government of the United Kingdom (UK) introduced the 'Northern Ireland Protocol bill' in the House of Commons on 13 June 2022. If enacted, the bill provides that certain provisions of the Northern Ireland Protocol would no longer 'have effect in the UK'. The main fields concerned are i) customs and movement of goods, ii) regulation of goods, iii) State aid, and iv) application of EU law. On 15 June, the EU relaunched the infringement procedure against the UK for failing to properly implement the Protocol that it had paused in 2021.

Implications of the Northern Ireland Assembly elections for EU-UK relations EN

25-07-2022 PE 733.608
Резюме : On 5 May 2022, voters elected the members of the Northern Ireland Assembly (NIA) in a challenging political context, due among other things to differences over the Northern Ireland Protocol. Indeed, the largest unionist party in Northern Ireland strongly opposes the Protocol, and has blocked the work of Northern Ireland's political institutions pending changes in its operation. The UK government has reiterated its readiness to 'unilaterally dis-apply' the Protocol and/or to suspend it – putting forward the Northern Ireland Protocol Bill to that effect in June – unless the EU agrees to its replacement. For its part, the EU continues to demand that the UK fully implements the Protocol it signed, and has proposed a number of practical solutions to the issues raised by stakeholders. In 2024, the NIA is due to vote on the continuing application of the Protocol.

India and food (in)security EN

25-07-2022 PE 733.609
Резюме : India, poised to become the most populous nation and the third-largest economy in the near future, faces major food security risks. In response, the country has sought to formulate a food security policy that also addresses climate change and the impact of Russia's war on Ukraine, while supporting its aspirations to be a major player in a multipolar world. Both the agricultural and farming issues India faces and the laws it adopts are relevant for global food security. India-EU relations, including in trade, also address food, climate and agricultural issues.
Автори : Bruno BILQUIN

European Day of Remembrance for Victims of all Totalitarian and Authoritarian Regimes EN

25-07-2022 PE 733.610
Резюме : On 2 April 2009, the European Parliament decided that 23 August each year should mark the European Day of Remembrance for Victims of All Totalitarian and Authoritarian Regimes. With the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact of 23 August 1939, Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union had divided Europe into spheres of interest. That agreement, with its secret protocols, preceded the German attack on Poland on 1 September 1939 and the Soviet occupation of eastern Poland, as well as the Soviet occupation and later annexation of the Baltic States, in June 1940.

The digital dimension of the National Recovery and Resilience Plans EN

25-07-2022 PE 733.606
Резюме : The Recovery and Resilience Facility (RRF) is the core element of the EU's largest and most innovative financing instrument, Next Generation EU (NGEU), created to help the EU's economies and societies recover from the global pandemic. The facility is structured around six pillars representing policy areas of European relevance, identified by the RRF Regulation as vital for strengthening the EU's resilience. The pillars define investment priorities and the scope of application of financing under the RRF. This briefing is dedicated to one of them – the digital transformation pillar – for which, along with the green transition, the RRF Regulation sets a specific spending target. The briefing aims to give an overview of why the digital transition is one of the key policies in focus under the RRF, what the RRF Regulation requires in that respect, and the approach taken by EU Member States. To receive funds from the RRF, Member States have drawn up individual national recovery and resilience plans (NRRPs), laying down a number of reforms and investments. Funds are released based on performance, upon successful implementation of relevant milestones and targets set out in the plans. Each national plan has to earmark at least 20 % of its resources for achieving digital targets. Digitalisation has been under way for a long time and the EU's response to this process, even before the pandemic, has been indicative of the high priority it gives to this policy area. The digital transition, one of the 'twin transitions', is not only considered key to a faster economic recovery, but also to enhanced security and resilience, and to the EU's achieving strategic autonomy. NGEU provides an opportunity, among other EU policy tools, to contribute to progress in that area. While the RRF's time scope is relatively limited, as investments are due to be completed by 2026, it falls within the recently declared EU Digital Decade 2020-2030. The NRRPs are aligned with the overarching priorities to achieve the EU's digital objectives by 2030. Digital investment is urgently needed across Europe, and a substantial investment gap in digital infrastructure and services has been estimated between the EU and its global competitors. Thus, funding for digital targets in the RRF is expected to complement funding from EU and national budgets and address this challenge.
Автори : Velina LILYANOVA

Association Agreements with Ukraine, Georgia and Moldova on the roads to EU Membership EN

25-07-2022 PE 730.340
Задълбочен анализ
Резюме : This paper has been produced by the Ex-post Evaluation Unit of the Directorate for Impact Assessment and European Added Value, within the European Parliamentary Research Service (EPRS) of the Secretariat of the European Parliament, as a regional evaluation in parallel to the EPRS 2022 Peace and Security Outlook. It has been drafted as a contribution to the Normandy World Peace Forum taking place in September 2022. The paper provides the background to EU relations with Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine and analyses the most recent reforms achieved through the implementation of the association agreements in each country, up to the date of their applications for membership. Through an overview of the requirements for accession and of the EU's experiences with enlargement, and within the new context of the reframing of the EU's relations with its neighbourhood, the paper assesses the potential steps each of these countries could take to advance on their roads to EU membership.

Auditing the quality of datasets used in algorithmic decision-making systems EN

25-07-2022 PE 729.541
Резюме : Biases are commonly considered one of the most detrimental effects of artificial intelligence (AI) use. The EU is therefore committed to reducing their incidence as much as possible. However, the existence of biases pre-dates the creation of AI tools. All human societies are biased – AI only reproduces what we are. Therefore, opposing this technology for this reason would simply hide discrimination and not prevent it. It is up to human supervision to use all available means – which are many – to mitigate its biases. It is likely that at some point in the future, recommendations made by an AI mechanism will contain less bias than those made by human beings. Unlike humans, AI can be reviewed and its flaws corrected on a consistent basis. Ultimately, AI could serve to build fairer, less biased societies. This study begins by providing an overview of biases in the context of artificial intelligence, and more specifically to machine-learning applications. The second part is devoted to the analysis of biases from a legal point of view. The analysis shows that shortcomings in this area call for the implementation of additional regulatory tools to adequately address the issue of bias. Finally, this study puts forward several policy options in response to the challenges identified.
Автори : DG, EPRS
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Ethical and societal challenges of the approaching technological storm EN

25-07-2022 PE 729.543
Резюме : Supported by the arrival of 5G and, soon 6G, digital technologies are evolving towards an artificial intelligence-driven internet of robotic and bionano things. The merging of artificial intelligence (AI) with other technologies such as the internet of things (IoT) gives rise to acronyms such as 'AIoT', 'IoRT' (IoT and robotics) and 'IoBNT' (IoT and bionano technology). Blockchain, augmented reality and virtual reality add even more technological options to the mix. Smart bodies, smart homes, smart industries, smart cities and smart governments lie ahead, with the promise of many benefits and opportunities. However, unprecedented amounts of personal data will be collected, and digital technologies will affect the most intimate aspects of our life more than ever, including in the realms of love and friendship. This study offers a bird's eye perspective of the key societal and ethical challenges we can expect as a result of this convergence, and policy options that can be considered to address them effectively.
Автори : DG, EPRS
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SSM Accountability: Lessons Learned for the Monetary Dialogues EN

25-07-2022 PE 699.545 ECON
Задълбочен анализ
Резюме : This study evaluates the European Parliament's accountability instruments in the Single Supervisory Mechanism (SSM) in light of their comparability to existing arrangements in monetary policy. The analysis shows that the Inter-Institutional Agreement with the European Central Bank in banking supervision did not result in a significantly different accountability relationship than the one between the two institutions in monetary policy. The results are based on interviews with Members of the European Parliament and an examination of questions asked in public hearings with the Chair of the Supervisory Board.
Автори : Adina AKBIK

EU economic developments and projections EN

20-07-2022 PE 645.716 ECON
Резюме : This briefing provides a summary of the recent economic developments in the EU Member States and gives an overview of relevant economic projections forecasted by major international and EU institutions

Research for REGI, CONT and BUDG Committees - Cohesion Policy Calendar (2021-2027 and 2014-2020 Programming Periods) EN

19-07-2022 PE 563.425 REGI BUDG CONT
Резюме : The implementation timetable for cohesion policy is defined largely by its legislative framework. In order to be able to plan parliamentary work and exercise systematic scrutiny of policy implementation and of the Commission’s work, it is essential to have an overview of the timing of different steps in policy implementation in the coming years. This type of briefing was first published (and subsequently updated) in 2014 covering the 2014-2020 programming period. This version includes the policy actions of the 2021-27 period, while still indicating the last steps of the 2014-20 period. It includes a detailed (but non-exhaustive) timetable of policy actions in 2022, together with an overview of major actions for the remainder of the programming period, from 2023. Policy actions related to budgetary and budgetary control aspects are coloured green (for the year 2022).
Автори : Diana HAASE

Country-Specific Recommendations for 2019, 2020, 2021 and 2022 EN

19-07-2022 PE 699.534 ECON
Резюме : This document presents: • The 2022 CSRs adopted by the Council, in the framework of the European Semester, on 17 June 2022 and • The 2021 fiscal recommendations adopted by the Council on 18 June 2021, • The 2020 CSRs adopted by the Council, in the framework of the European Semester, on 20 July 2020, • The 2019 Country-Specific Recommendations (CSRs) adopted by the Council on 9 July 2019, • The European Commission’s assessments of the implementation of the 2019, 2020 and 2021 CSRs based on its Country Reports published on 23 May 2022.

The Fundamental Rights of Irregular Migrant Workers in the EU EN

19-07-2022 PE 702.670 LIBE
Резюме : This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the LIBE Committee, aims to inform policy debates about how to protect more effectively the fundamental rights of irregular migrant workers in the EU. It analyses the nature and causes of the gaps between the fundamental rights protections enshrined in EU legal standards and the rights realised by irregular migrants working in EU Member States in practice, and it discusses strategies for how these ‘protection gaps’ can be reduced.
Автори : Clare FOX-RUHS, Martin RUHS

Research for PECH Committee: Costs and benefits of spatial protection measures as tools for fisheries management EN

19-07-2022 PE 733.087 PECH
Резюме : This study evaluates the costs and benefits on fisheries and aquaculture of three types of spatial protection measures: (i) Fish Stock Recovery Areas (FSRAs), (ii) Marine Protected Areas (MPAs), and areas designated as (iii) Other Effective area-based Conservation Measures (OECMs). The research assesses how far fisheries co-management approaches can potentially help to achieve the European Union targets. The study uses three case studies from France, Spain and Greece to collect data on the different types of spatial protection measures and assesses how the cost-benefit analysis framework can be applied for their evaluation.
Автори : MRAG: Stephen Mangi CHAI, Harry OWEN, Robert WAKEFORD, Stephen HODGSON, Hannah RICHARDSON, Imogen HAMER, Rupert STACY; Blue Bio Consulting: George V. TRIANTAPHYLLIDIS; Sakana Consultants: Sébastien METZ; University of Santiago de Compostela: Sebastian VILLASANTE, Pablo PITA.

Workshop Proceedings: EU customs control mechanisms and their possible improvement EN

15-07-2022 PE 734.922 BUDG CONT
Резюме : The Committee on Budgetary Control (CONT) held a workshop with the aim to get a better understanding about customs control practices in Member States and their possible improvements. This publication includes the full documentation of the workshop: programme, summary of the debate, background briefing, profiles of speakers and their presentations.
Автори : Diana HAASE

Outcome of the Madrid NATO Summit, June 2022 EN

14-07-2022 PE 733.604
Резюме : On 28-30 June 2022, NATO leaders met in Madrid and adopted a new strategic concept, rewriting their assessment of the threat environment in the light of Russia's war on Ukraine. NATO also overhauled its defence and deterrence posture, and officially invited Finland and Sweden to join the Alliance.

Italy's National Recovery and Resilience Plan: Latest state of play EN

14-07-2022 PE 698.847
Резюме : In absolute figures, Italy's Recovery and Resilience Plan is the largest national plan under the unprecedented EU response to the crisis triggered by the coronavirus pandemic. Italy has decided to use its entire national allocation under the Recovery and Resilience Facility (RRF), including its loan component (€122.6 billion). Totalling €191.5 billion, these resources represent 26.5 % of the entire RRF, equal to 10.7 % of the country's gross domestic product (GDP) in 2019 (the RRF being 5.2 % of EU-27 GDP in 2019). In June 2022, Italy's grant allocation was revised upwards slightly to €69 billion (+0.2 %). In addition, Italy has earmarked national resources worth €30.6 billion to further strengthen a vast programme of reforms and investments that aims to promote the recovery of the Italian economy, while addressing a number of structural weaknesses as well as pursuing major objectives such as the green transition and the digital transformation. Measures under the plan are to be completed by 2026. Italy has so far received 24 % of the resources (in the form of pre-financing and first payments for grants and loans); this is above the EU average. A further nine payments each for grants and loans will depend on progress made in implementing the plan. The European Parliament, which was a major advocate for the creation of a common EU recovery instrument, participates in interinstitutional fora for cooperation and discussion on its implementation and scrutinises the work of the European Commission. This briefing is one in a series covering all EU Member States. Fourth edition. The 'NGEU delivery' briefings are updated at key stages throughout the lifecycle of the plans.
Автори : Alessandro D'ALFONSO

EU carbon border adjustment mechanism: Implications for climate and competitiveness EN

14-07-2022 PE 698.889
Резюме : The EU has implemented the world's largest carbon-pricing system, the emissions trading system (ETS). While pricing emissions can encourage industrial decarbonisation, it also risks carbon leakage, whereby EU companies move their production abroad. To date, the EU has mitigated carbon leakage through free allocations to certain industries, but with rising climate ambition and higher carbon prices, the Commission seeks to phase out free allocations. In parallel, a novel carbon border adjustment mechanism (CBAM) would be introduced, requiring EU importers, as of 2026, to purchase certificates equivalent to the weekly EU carbon price. The CBAM would initially apply to imports in five emissions-intensive sectors deemed at greater risk of carbon leakage: cement, iron and steel, aluminium, fertilisers, and electricity. The CBAM charge would cover imports of these goods from all third countries, except those participating in the ETS or a linked mechanism. The CBAM aims to contribute to the EU's climate neutrality objectives, and encourage partner countries to decarbonise their production processes by levelling the playing field in carbon pricing between the EU and third-country producers; less developed countries could be supported in their climate transitions. Following publication of the Commission proposal on the CBAM in July 2021, Parliament referred the file to the Environment Committee. On 22 June 2022 the Parliament adopted its position, while on 15 March 2022 the Council had adopted its general approach. Third edition. The 'EU Legislation in Progress' briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure.

Data act EN

14-07-2022 PE 730.351
Резюме : This briefing provides an initial analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of the European Commission's impact assessment (IA) accompanying the Commission proposal for a regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on harmonised rules on fair access to and use of data (data act), submitted on 23 February 2022 and referred to the European Parliament's Committee on Industry, Research and Energy (ITRE). The IA explains that the data act 'complements the two other major instruments shaping the European single market for data': the Data Governance Act and the digital markets act. 'While the Data Governance Act focuses on trusted mechanisms for data sharing and the digital markets act on fair competition between gatekeepers and other market players, also in relation to the use of data, the data act would enable wider data use across the economy, notably by regulating the fundamental questions of who can use the data generated by connected products and related services, and what are the conditions for such use' (IA, p. 1). The initiative is among the new initiatives included in the Commission's 2021 work programme and in the working document accompanying the joint declaration on EU legislative priorities for 2022.

Implementation of the EU school scheme for fruit, vegetables and milk products: A mid-term review - European implementation assessment EN

14-07-2022 PE 730.339
Резюме : Starting with milk in the 1970s, the EU has a long history of supplying agricultural products to school children. With a dedicated EU school scheme for the 2017-2023 period, the EU is currently funding the distribution of fruit, vegetables, milk and milk products, and also educational and information measures. The main policy objective is to ensure that children's nutritional needs are met and healthy eating habits and lifestyles are established. The European Parliament is scrutinising the implementation of the school scheme with a report on the subject that will be considered by its Committee on Agriculture and Rural Development in the autumn of 2022. This European implementation assessment (EIA), produced by EPRS in support of the committee's work, shows that despite a significant level of flexibility in terms of national-level implementation, schools and suppliers face a good deal of red tape, and this is seen as the main factor reducing the scheme's effectiveness. The EPRS findings were based partly on a purpose-made school survey. It collected more than 14 000 individual contributions from schools (including directors, teachers and parents) located in all Member States. The good response clearly demonstrates the importance the school community attributes to the EU school scheme.
Автори : Ekaterina KARAMFILOVA, Talander Hugo JANSEN

Los principios de igualdad y no discriminación, una perspectiva de Derecho Comparado - Bélgica ES

14-07-2022 PE 733.602
Резюме : Este documento se integra en una serie de estudios que, desde una perspectiva de Derecho Comparado, tienen por objeto presentar los principios de igualdad y no discriminación en distintos ordenamientos. Tras examinar la normativa y la jurisprudencia de aplicación, se abordan el contenido, los límites y la posible evolución de dichos principios. El presente estudio tiene como objeto el caso de Bélgica. Este estudio hace en primer lugar un recorrido por la evolución del reconocimiento del principio de igualdad y no discriminación en Bélgica desde 1831. En segundo lugar, se realiza una exposición lo más completa posible de la legislación belga en materia de lucha contra la discriminación. En tercer lugar, el estudio aborda de una forma más selectiva la ambiciosa jurisprudencia del organismo que vela por el cumplimiento del principio de igualdad y no discriminación, el Tribunal Constitucional. En cuarto lugar, el estudio describe la inclusión en la legislación belga del concepto de “discriminación positiva”, que tiene su origen al otro lado del Atlántico. Por último, se ofrecen algunas reflexiones finales. El presente documento es la versión en español del estudio publicado originalmente por la Biblioteca de Derecho Comparado en francés en febrero de 2021. Está versión pone al día la versión anterior mediante las notas del editor.

Peace and Security in 2022: Overview of EU action and outlook for the future EN

14-07-2022 PE 733.605
Резюме : This is the fifth Peace and Security Outlook produced by the European Parliamentary Research Service (EPRS). The series analyses and explains the European Union's contribution to the promotion of peace and security internationally, through its various external policies. The study provides an overview of the issues and current state of play. It looks first at the concept of peace and the changing nature of the geopolitical environment as European security faces the most tangible military threat since the end of the Cold War. Russia's war on Ukraine compounds the challenges to peace and security already accentuated by the coronavirus crisis. The study follows the logic of the annual series, by focusing on the promotion of peace and security in the EU's external action. Linking the study to the Normandy Index, which measures threats to peace and democracy worldwide based on the EU Global Strategy, each chapter of the study analyses a specific threat to peace and presents an overview of EU action to counter the related risks. The areas discussed include violent conflict, proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, climate change, cyber-attacks, disinformation, and terrorism, among other issues. The EU's pursuit of peace is understood as a goal embodied in several EU policies, including development, democracy support, humanitarian assistance, security, and defence. The study concludes with an outlook for the future. A parallel study, published separately, focuses specifically on EU peace-building efforts in the Eastern Neighbourhood. The studies have been drafted as a contribution to the Normandy World Peace Forum scheduled for September 2022.
Автори : Ionel ZAMFIR, Eleni LAZAROU

Russia's war on Ukraine: Maritime logistics and connectivity EN

13-07-2022 PE 733.603
Резюме : Ukraine is one of the worlds' largest producers of grains and oilseed, and – for the export of these products to Africa, the Middle East and Europe – heavily dependent on its maritime transport and ports, currently blocked because of the war. Ukraine and Russia together typically export nearly 12 % of food calories globally. Before the war, Ukraine exported more than 90 % of its agricultural products, around 6 million tons per month, via the Black Sea. Alternative routes by road and rail only provide for a partial solution, while free navigation in open sea is an international right of sovereign states.

A common charger for electronic devices: Revision of the Radio Equipment Directive EN

13-07-2022 PE 698.819
Резюме : On 7 June 2022, the European Parliament and the Council reached a provisional agreement on the legislative proposal to amend the 2014 Radio Equipment Directive. The amended directive, proposed by the European Commission on 23 September 2021, is a first step towards mandating a common charger for mobile phones and other small portable devices, which will have to be equipped with a USB Type-C receptacle and will have to incorporate the USB Power Delivery communication protocol. A separate initiative on the eco-design of external power supplies is expected to ensure that the receptacle and the communication protocol for both ends of charger cables is harmonised. Consumers would have the option to buy devices with or without a charger (unbundling). Amendments to the proposal agreed by the co-legislators would require consumers and other end-users to be informed by a pictogram whether a charger is included with a device, while information on the charging capabilities and compatible charging devices would be provided on a label. The Commission will be required to request the creation of harmonised standards for wireless charging within two years of the adoption of the directive, and will have to regularly assess whether the common charger should be made mandatory for additional devices. The text agreed in trilogue now needs to be formally adopted by the Parliament in plenary and then by the Council. Fourth edition. The 'EU Legislation in Progress' briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure.
Автори : Nikolina SAJN

Aviation's contribution to European Union climate action: Revision of EU ETS as regards aviation EN

13-07-2022 PE 698.882
Резюме : As part of the 'Fit for 55' package, the Commission is proposing a revision to the EU's emissions trading system (ETS) as regards carbon dioxide emissions from aviation. The proposal seeks to ensure that the sector contributes to the EU's climate targets through increased auctioning of allowances, with an end to free allowances from 2027, and by applying the linear reduction of aviation allowances. The proposal will also integrate, into the revised ETS, the International Civil Aviation Organization's agreed global market-based Carbon Offsetting and Reduction Scheme for International Aviation (CORSIA) and apply it to international flights departing from or arriving at an airport inside the European Economic Area (EEA). For domestic flights in the Member States or flights within the EEA, the ETS would continue to apply. In the European Parliament, the file has been referred to the Committee on Environment, Public Health and Food Safety (ENVI), with Sunčana Glavak (EPP, Croatia) appointed rapporteur. Parliament adopted its position during the June I 2022 plenary session. The Council adopted its general approach during its meeting of 28 June 2022. Third edition. The 'EU Legislation in Progress' briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure.

Regional and local participation in the EU project: How the European Parliament is responding to citizens' expectations EN

13-07-2022 PE 733.597
Резюме : The Conference on the Future of Europe (CoFoE) has now concluded its work. Originally conceived in May 2019 from an idea France's President Emmanuel Macron put forward in his 'letter to the citizens of Europe', the CoFoE was intended to 'propose all the changes our political project needs, with an open mind, even to amending the Treaties', particularly on the basis of citizens' proposals. Citizens 'should play a leading and active part in setting our priorities and our level of ambition', as stated in European Commission President Ursula von der Leyen's political guidelines. From September 2021 to February 2022, eight hundred randomly selected citizens coming from all Member States met to debate and brainstorm about the future of the European project. In addition, citizens and organisations submitted their ideas and contributions to the broader discussion on the multilingual digital platform, where they also publicised events, seminars and conferences taking place around Europe. Over 17 000 ideas and 21 000 comments were submitted on the platform, and more than 6 000 events organised throughout Europe. The result of this unprecedented, colossal exercise in direct democracy involving EU citizens is a set of many (more than 170), sometimes ambitious, citizens' recommendations. This is the sixth briefing in a series looking at citizens' expectations in the context of the CoFoE.
Автори : Carmen-Cristina CIRLIG, Micaela DEL MONTE

Understanding Loss and Damage: Addressing the unavoidable impacts of climate change EN

13-07-2022 PE 733.598
Резюме : Many consequences of climate change are already hard to reverse, and extreme weather events will become more frequent in the future. That shows a need to discuss which climate impacts are difficult or impossible to adapt to, and a need to address losses and damages. All regions will be affected by climate change, but the extent of loss and damage will vary between locations. Although the concept of Loss and Damage (L&D) is not new, it is still quite vague and not well defined in climate policy. It has been discussed at many United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Conferences of Parties (COP), and some mechanisms to support countries facing losses and damages have been established. One of the biggest challenges with L&D is the framing of the concept itself. Developing and developed countries have differing views on its definition as well as its urgency, which has resulted in limited progress on the issue. A key issue on which stakeholders find it hard to agree is financing L&D. Developed country stakeholders tend to argue that L&D could be financed by existing climate funds, insurance schemes, humanitarian aid, or risk management, while many developing countries call for financial mechanisms directed specifically towards L&D. At the UNFCCC climate conference in Glasgow in November 2021 (COP26), the European Union was open to discussing L&D as a topic but hesitant about creating a dedicated L&D fund. The topic is expected to be one of the main focus areas on the agenda of the forthcoming COP27 in Egypt.

Schengen reform: Key challenges and proposals EN

13-07-2022 PE 733.599
Резюме : The Schengen area without internal borders has been under stress over the past decade owing to several successive crises, including the sudden arrival of large numbers of people across the EU's external borders, persistent threats to internal security, and the outbreak of the coronavirus pandemic. Although according to the Schengen rules the reintroduction of border controls at internal borders should be a temporary and exceptional measure, several Member States have maintained internal border controls uninterruptedly for more than six years. The massive and largely uncoordinated internal border controls and other restrictions to freedom of movement imposed at the beginning of the pandemic revealed several shortcomings in the Schengen systems. These shortcomings concern Schengen's normative framework (gaps in the legal framework), implementation and enforcement (at internal borders and in the management of external borders), and governance (including evaluation and strategic direction). Building on previous attempts to reform the Schengen system, and responding to renewed calls for reform, in December 2021 the European Commission presented a new Schengen strategy. This was accompanied by several proposals and measures aimed at revising the Schengen rules, enhancing police cooperation, reinforcing the management of external borders and strengthening the overall governance of Schengen. The European Parliament has repeatedly stressed the need to safeguard the Schengen area, urging the Member States to remove all unjustified controls at internal borders and asking the Commission to enforce the Schengen rules properly. In the context of the pandemic, Parliament called for a 'recovery plan' for Schengen and for 'truly European governance of the Schengen area'.
Автори : Costica DUMBRAVA

Culture and regional development EN

13-07-2022 PE 733.600
Резюме : Culture plays a fundamental role in human life. It is also an essential source of identity, at local, regional, national and European levels, while making a significant contribution to the EU economy. EU cultural policy relates to cultural heritage, i.e. cultural sites and museums, but also to the cultural and creative sector, for instance the audiovisual and design sectors. The EU supports culture through a variety of initiatives, including the European Capitals of Culture scheme. A number of EU programmes also offer funding for cultural projects, for instance the Creative Europe programme, Horizon Europe and New European Bauhaus. Several regional policy funds meanwhile provide support for cultural events, the regeneration of cultural sites, the preservation of cultural heritage, cultural tourism, and cultural and creative sector businesses. The COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant impact on the cultural and creative sector, as repeated lockdowns saw the closure of cultural institutions and infrastructure. As one of the worst affected sectors of the economy, the EU included culture in its coronavirus response investment initiatives and the REACT-EU (Recovery Assistance for Cohesion and the Territories of Europe) programme aimed at dealing with the consequences of the pandemic. Local and regional authorities have a role to play in supporting cultural life and participation in their communities. Arts and cultural facilities are usually associated with urban centres, though they also have potential in non-urban areas, small towns and rural communities. The presence of cultural sites increases the attractiveness of a region, while well-developed cultural and creative sectors help to enhance the regional economy. Culture can also play an important role in the regeneration of disadvantaged and post-industrial areas. The European Parliament has called for increased support for culture as part of the post-pandemic recovery efforts. As Europe emerges from the crisis, culture can help to strengthen regional development.
Автори : Magdalena PASIKOWSKA-SCHNASS, Agnieszka WIDUTO

NATO and European defence [What Think Tanks are thinking] EN

13-07-2022 PE 733.601
Резюме : The thirty NATO member states agreed on 29 June to invite Finland and Sweden to join the Western military alliance, accepting the Nordic countries' accession bids, which came after Russia launched its war on Ukraine nearly five months ago. The June NATO Summit in Madrid also endorsed a new Strategic Concept and branded the Russian Federation as 'the most significant and direct threat to Allies' security and to peace and stability in the Euro-Atlantic area'. NATO also agreed to boost significantly its defence capabilities and offer more support for Ukraine. This note gathers links to the recent publications and commentaries from many international think tanks on the NATO Summit and on European defence.

Genome-edited crops and 21st century food system challenges EN

13-07-2022 PE 690.194
Задълбочен анализ
Резюме : Genome editing is the targeted alteration of a few DNA letters within the existing genetic blueprint of an organism. By far the most widely used genome-editing tool is CRISPR-Cas. CRISPR-Cas genome-editing technology can be applied in a number of different ways. The genetic changes that are introduced by means of the SDN1 and SDN2 types of CRISPR-Cas technology do not differ from changes that can occur naturally or result from conventional breeding. While CRISPR-Cas technology is highly accurate, off-targets can occur. However, molecular characterisation of the genetic changes, combined with selection, can prevent plants with undesired changes from being introduced onto the market. Views on this new technology differ widely, but there is a clear need to discuss which type of regulatory governance is warranted for genome-edited crops.
Автори : DG, EPRS

'This is Europe' debate in the European Parliament: Speech by Kyriakos Mitsotakis, Prime Minister of Greece, on 5 July 2022 EN

12-07-2022 PE 730.349
Резюме : 'This is Europe' – an initiative proposed by the President of the European Parliament, Roberta Metsola – consists of a series of debates with EU leaders to discuss their visions for the future of the European Union. On 5 July 2022, the Prime Minister of Greece, Kyriakos Mitsotakis, was the fourth EU leader to address the Parliament since its Conference of Presidents endorsed the initiative on 28 April 2022. Mr Mitsotakis mentioned EU solidarity frequently, in terms of how it had helped Greece during the economic crisis, how Greece could contribute to energy security, and how the EU should support Greece when dealing with migration challenges and relations with Turkey, as well as of the effective impact of solidarity in dealing with the Covid 19 pandemic. Another key theme in the Prime Minister's speech was crisis, and how the EU can better deal with future challenges by learning lessons from its handling of previous crises. One of Mr Mitsotakis's concluding messages was that the EU needs an 'agenda for resilience and development' to respond to major challenges in defence, migration, banking union, energy, coordinated action based on the Recovery and Resilience Facility, the deepening of democracy, addressing fake news, and developing the EU's role in the Western Balkans.

Revising the Effort-sharing Regulation for 2021-2030: 'Fit for 55' package EN

12-07-2022 PE 698.812
Резюме : The EU's effort-sharing legislation covers greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in sectors not included in the EU emissions trading system. A wide range of sources account for these emissions, such as petrol and diesel used for road transport, energy used for heating and cooling in buildings, animal digestion and fertilisers used in agriculture, waste treatment, and small industries. To cut the emissions in these sectors, the EU effort-sharing legislation establishes binding targets and sets up annual emissions allocations for each Member State for the 2013-2020 and 2021-2030 periods. On 14 July 2021, the European Commission submitted a proposal on a regulation amending the binding annual emissions reductions by Member States from 2021 to 2030. It reviews the collective and national targets set up in the Effort-sharing Regulation (ESR). The proposal is part of the 'fit for 55' package, which aims to adapt EU climate and energy legislation to the new EU objective of an at least 55 % reduction in net GHG emissions by 2030 compared to 1990, in accordance with the recent European Climate Law. In order to contribute to the new climate ambition, sectors covered by the ESR should achieve a collective reduction of 40 % in their emissions by 2030 compared to 2005. The European Parliament adopted its position on 8 June 2022, while the Council agreed its general approach on 29 June 2022, enabling the launch of interinstitutional negotiations (trilogues). Third edition. The 'EU Legislation in Progress' briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure.
Автори : Dessislava YOUGOVA

Tenth NPT review conference: Nuclear weapons threat at an all-time high EN

12-07-2022 PE 733.594
Резюме : Nuclear weapons pose an existential threat to humanity. Russia's threat to use nuclear weapons in the context of its war on Ukraine has been a stark reminder that this threat is real. At present, nine states are known to have military nuclear programmes. Over recent years, tensions among nuclear-armed states have increased, leading to 'outright strategic rivalry and competition' among several of them. Moreover, experts are concerned that the 'fabric of international institutions, treaties, and norms that has historically contributed to predictable and more stable relationships among nuclear-armed States is deteriorating'. Experts also point to technological developments that heighten uncertainties and unpredictability in the strategic relationships among nuclear-armed states. In January 2021, the Science and Security Board of the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists set the doomsday clock to 100 seconds to midnight and warned that the world is 'sleepwalking its way through a newly unstable nuclear landscape'. In 1968, the five states that possessed nuclear weapons at the time signed the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), intended to lead to the eventual abolition of all nuclear weapons and control their proliferation. However, rather than fulfilling the pledge to disarm that they made when they signed the NPT, nuclear weapon states are investing massive sums in more modern nuclear weapons and delivery systems. Moreover, an additional four states have acquired nuclear weapons since the NPT came into force in 1970, and a fifth, Iran, is getting dangerously close to building its own nuclear bomb. The Tenth NPT Review Conference, scheduled to take place in New York from 1 26 August 2022, will review progress on the implementation of the treaty. The conference is taking place at a time of fundamental divides between NPT member states over key aspects of the treaty. Moreover, Russia's invasion of a non-nuclear weapon state and its reckless nuclear rhetoric pose particular challenges for the disarmament and non-proliferation objectives of the NPT. The EU remains fully committed to the NPT as the cornerstone of the global nuclear non-proliferation regime and the essential foundation for the pursuit of nuclear disarmament, and recently called on all parties to work towards a positive and substantive outcome of the conference.
Автори : Beatrix IMMENKAMP

Rules for exercising the Union's rights in implementing and enforcing EU UK agreements EN

12-07-2022 PE 733.595
Резюме : Both the Withdrawal Agreement (WA) and the Trade and Cooperation Agreement (TCA) between the EU and the UK allow a party to adopt measures in order to induce the other party to comply with a ruling delivered by an arbitral tribunal. Both agreements also allow the implementation of measures without having first to resort to the relevant dispute settlement mechanism, and the TCA provides for compensatory measures if a party has been found to have applied remedial measures that are inconsistent with the applicable provisions. The proposed legislation empowers the Commission to act by means of implementing acts for implementation and enforcement of the two agreements. First edition. The 'EU Legislation in Progress' briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure.

The EU chips act: Securing Europe's supply of semiconductors EN

12-07-2022 PE 733.596
Резюме : Semiconductors (or chips) are the engines of the digital transition. Their production relies on complex and vulnerable global supply chains. Against the backdrop of global chip shortages, of a global 'subsidy race' in the world's main producing regions, and of a renewed EU industrial policy, in February 2022 the Commission presented a proposal for an EU chips act aimed at reinforcing the whole EU chips value chain. The chips act is based on a three-pillar structure: pillar 1 aims to bolster large-scale technological capacity building and innovation in the EU chips ecosystem, improving the transition 'from lab to fab'; pillar 2 focuses on improving the EU's security of supply, by attracting investment and enhancing production capacities in the EU; pillar 3 aims to set up a monitoring and crisis response mechanism. In the event of supply crises, the Commission would be allowed to implement three types of emergency measures (request information from companies, request companies to accept and prioritise orders of crisis-relevant products, and carry out common purchasing on behalf of Member States). The proposal is now in the hands of the co-legislators. In the European Parliament, the Committee on Industry, Research and Energy (ITRE) is responsible for the file and plans to consider its rapporteur's draft report in autumn 2022. First edition. The 'EU Legislation in Progress' briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure.
Автори : Guillaume RAGONNAUD

Young people in the EU: Fit for the digital age EN

11-07-2022 PE 733.591
Резюме : In 2021, 95 % of young Europeans aged 16‑29 years reported using the internet every day. However, the share of young people with basic or above basic digital skills ranges from 93 % in Finland, 92 % in Malta, 89 % in Croatia and 87 % in Greece and the Netherlands, to just 49 % in Bulgaria and 46 % in Romania, with the EU average standing at 71 %. Some 76 % of all young people reported that they had performed basic computer tasks such as copying or moving a file or a folder, while slightly lower shares had downloaded or installed software or applications (70 %). However, more technical skills, such as writing code in a programming language, were much less widespread, as just 13 % of young people declared having ever done so, although this was more than twice the share recorded for the adult population (6 %).
Автори : Ivana KATSAROVA

Towards carbon neutrality through ambitious transformation of the EU energy system EN

11-07-2022 PE 730.346
Резюме : According to a recent European Parliamentary Research Service Cost of Non-Europe (CONE) report, ambitious and united European Union (EU) action in climate and energy policy could be very beneficial, bringing gains of up to 5.6 % of gross domestic product (GDP), equal to €1 trillion additional GDP per year in 2050, compared to a continuation of the status quo (see Figure 1). However, failure to arrive at a common approach, in particular by collectively addressing volatile energy prices and systemic risks emerging from EU dependency on external suppliers such as Russia, could result in the EU missing out on some, or the entirety, of these potential benefits. In this briefing we confirm that the EU has a key role to play to attenuate and eliminate the related risks and in making the transformation possible and successful. We also confirm that fragmentation driven by low ambition and muddling through, or even worst case scenarios of fragmentation, would result in relatively high negative impacts.

'Splinternets': Addressing the renewed debate on internet fragmentation EN

11-07-2022 PE 729.530
Резюме : Recent events have multiplied concerns about potential fragmentation of the internet into a multitude of non-interoperable and disconnected 'splinternets'. Composed of thousands of compatible autonomous systems, the internet is by definition technically divided. Yet, the internet was also designed to be an open and global technical infrastructure. The unity and openness of the internet appear to be under great pressure from political, commercial and technological developments. This report explores the implications of the EU's recent policies in this field as well as the opportunities and challenges for EU Member States and institutions in addressing internet fragmentation. It underlines how recent EU legislative proposals – on the digital services act, digital markets act, artificial intelligence act, and NIS 2 Directive – could help to address patterns of fragmentation, but also have limitations and potentially unintended consequences. Four possible strategies emerge: stay with the status quo, embrace fragmentation, resist patterns of divergence, or frame discussions as a matter of fundamental rights.
Автори : DG, EPRS
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Governing data and artificial intelligence for all: Models for sustainable and just data governance EN

11-07-2022 PE 729.533
Резюме : With a particular focus on artificial intelligence (AI), this study identifies and examines policy options for the EU's data governance framework that align with a data justice perspective. A data justice approach is one that centres on equity, recognition and representation of plural interests, and the creation and preservation of public goods as its principal goals. The analysis offers both an assessment of the EU data governance strategy overall and specific policy options for the AI act, the data governance act and the data act. Four benchmarks for good data governance are proposed, in line with the principles of justice: preserving and strengthening public infrastructure and public goods, inclusiveness, contestability and accountability, and global responsibility. Exploring examples of different governance models, we examine how these models and options intersect, and what lessons they offer for the EU case.
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Public hearing with Elke König, Chair of the Single Resolution Board - 13 July 2022 EN

11-07-2022 PE 699.515 ECON
Резюме : This note is prepared in view of an ordinary public hearing with the Chair of the Single Resolution Board (SRB), Elke König, which will take place on 13 July 2022. During the hearing, the Chair of the SRB will notably address the institution’s 2021 annual report, published on 27 June 2022. This briefing also addresses the Sberbank resolution case, developments on MREL build-up and in relation to the Banking Union, and it presents a summary of some recent institutional policy papers relevant for resolution.

Economic Dialogue and Exchange of Views with the President of the Council (ECOFIN) EN

11-07-2022 PE 699.546 ECON
Задълбочен анализ
Резюме : Zbyněk Stanjura, Minister of Finance of the Czech Republic, is participating in the ECON Committee in his capacity of President of the ECOFIN Council during the Czech Presidency (July-December 2022). In accordance with the Treaty of the Union, “Member States shall regard their economic policies as a matter of common concern and shall coordinate them within the Council”. This briefing provides an overview of the Czech Presidency priorities in ECON matters, including the Council’s work relating to the implementation of the European Semester for economic coordination, notably the application of the Recovery and Resilience Facility and deepening of the Economic and Monetary Union.

Plenary round-up – July 2022 EN

08-07-2022 PE 733.590
Резюме : The war in Ukraine was again an important point on the agenda of the July 2022 plenary session, with Members debating the conclusions of the European Council meeting that took place on 23 24 June 2022, as well as a long list of Council and Commission statements, including on facilitating exports of Ukrainian agricultural products, and on relations of the Russian government and diplomatic network with extremist, populist, anti-European and other European political parties. Parliament also debated statements on the Czech Presidency's programme of activities for the next six months, and a 'This is Europe' debate was held with the Prime Minister of Greece, Kyriakos Mitsokakis. Members addressed European Union initiatives to address inflation, implementation of the European Pillar of Social Rights, and taxing energy companies' windfall profits. Members rejected a motion to oppose the inclusion of nuclear and gas as environmentally sustainable economic activities in the EU taxonomy. A debate on the activities of the European Investment Bank took place in the presence of its President, Werner Hoyer. Members also considered the consequences of the recent heat waves and drought in the EU. Looking further afield, Members debated the United Kingdom's unilateral introduction of the Northern Ireland Protocol Bill and respect of international law, and the United States Supreme Court decision to overturn abortion rights. Debates took place on the treatment of refugees at the Spanish-Moroccan border, and on the post-Cotonou Agreement. Finally, Members debated and voted on a number of legislative files.

EU strategic autonomy 2013-2023: From concept to capacity EN

08-07-2022 PE 733.589
Резюме : EU strategic autonomy (EU-SA) refers to the capacity of the EU to act autonomously – that is, without being dependent on other countries – in strategically important policy areas. These can range from defence policy to the economy, and the capacity to uphold democratic values. In order to structure the debate on strategic autonomy into analytical categories, this briefing assumes that by and large there have been several phases to the debate about EU-SA, each with a different focus. From 2013 to 2016, it was mainly seen as an approach to security and defence matters. From 2017 to 2019, EU-SA was considered as a way to defend European interests in a hostile geopolitical environment, marked by Brexit, the Trump Presidency and China's growing assertiveness. In 2020, the Covid 19 pandemic shifted the focus to mitigating economic dependence on foreign supply chains. Since 2021, the scope of EU-SA has been widened to virtually all EU policy areas, including that of the EU's values, while the expression 'strategic autonomy' was paradoxically used less and was often replaced by similar concepts, such as 'open strategic autonomy', 'strategic sovereignty', 'capacity to act' and 'resilience'. This briefing uses 'strategic autonomy' and 'strategic sovereignty' as equal and interchangeable terms. Since the Russian invasion of Ukraine in February 2022, steps towards achieving EU-SA are being taken, while the concept nevertheless remains blurred by the variation in terminology. Achieving EU-SA will require a common vision, political will and capabilities to implement it, and a distinct role for the EU, between Member States and global players. Visual tools, such as the 360° strategic autonomy wheel (in Annex 1), can help to identify dependencies and understand complex interdependencies between policy areas. Political will was expressed in the European Council's Versailles Declaration of 11 March 2022, which aims at greater EU-SA in defence, energy supply and the economy. However, EU-SA can be constrained by Member States and non-EU (third) countries or international organisations that challenge the EU. This EU strategic autonomy monitor is the first in a series on the state of play in the debate and implementation of EU-SA. It will be complemented by thematic papers in the 'strategic autonomy 360°' series.
Автори : Mario DAMEN

Towards new rules on transparency and targeting of political advertising EN

08-07-2022 PE 733.592
Резюме : Political advertising is central to influencing how people vote, and may affect citizens' perceptions of the legitimacy of their own political system, particularly when published in the run-up to elections. Rules governing political advertising are therefore key to guaranteeing citizens' fundamental rights and the integrity of democratic processes. So, it is not without reason that regulating political propaganda during electoral periods is one of the common focal points of electoral law. However, traditional rules on campaigning may either be ineffective or difficult to enforce in an online environment where new techniques are used to target potential voters with tailored political messages based on large amounts of personal data revealing their sensibilities and vulnerabilities. To address the new challenges posed by online electoral campaigns, the European Commission presented a proposal that aims to build a harmonised set of rules on transparency and targeting of political advertising, and would apply to both online and offline political advertisements. The proposal is currently under discussion by the European Parliament and the Council through the ordinary legislative procedure. In the Parliament, the Committee on Internal Market and Consumer Protection (IMCO) is responsible for the file. The rapporteur presented his draft report to the committee on 16 June 2022. First edition. The 'EU Legislation in Progress' briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure.
Автори : Maria DIAZ CREGO

Securing the EU's supply of critical raw materials EN

07-07-2022 PE 733.586
Резюме : Critical raw materials are essential to sustain Europe's economic and environmental ambitions. As geoeconomic aggression and geopolitical tensions rise, the EU is re-thinking its reliance on certain imports. Can the EU secure its supply of critical materials?

Making solar a source of EU energy security EN

07-07-2022 PE 733.587
Резюме : In 2022, most global renewable power growth will consist of photovoltaic (PV) solar energy. In its 2021 industrial strategy, the European Commission acknowledged the need for a more strategic approach to renewable energies. As Member States seek to diversify away from Russian fossil fuels following the invasion of Ukraine, they should avoid exacerbating dependencies on solar panels manufactured in China.

Strengthening EU chip capabilities: How will the chips act reinforce Europe's semiconductor sector by 2030? EN

07-07-2022 PE 733.585
Резюме : The proposed European chips act, presented by the European Commission in February 2022, aims to mobilise €43 billion in 'policy-driven investment' for the EU's semiconductor sector by 2030. The Commission expects long-term private investment to exceed this. The plan serves to enable immediate EU coordination against supply disruptions, strengthen and scale up production and innovation throughout the EU semiconductor value chain, and further enhance the Union's technological leadership, practical applications and digital sovereignty in this crucial field. The global semiconductor value chain is characterised by chokepoints and critical dependencies, including on more advanced chips from Taiwan and South Korea, US intellectual property in chip design automation, Japanese wafers and Chinese chip assembly. Europe has strong capacities in research and equipment manufacturing, in addition to some production capacity of (less advanced) chips with larger transistors, often destined for the automotive sector, as well as (chemical) inputs. The future effectiveness of the EU chips act could benefit from further emphasis on certain key challenges to strengthen and safeguard Europe's position in the global chip value chain. Internally, reinforcing European chemical input and back-end manufacturing could be advanced by protecting European chemical suppliers against Chinese subsidies and by reshoring back-end facilities to Europe. Bilaterally, attracting and engaging in foreign semiconductor investment could see the use of relevant forums, partnerships and agreements, as well as relevant fast-track permits. Globally, enhancing foreign dependencies on the EU would require further reinforcement of existing European centres of excellence including in innovative research and equipment manufacturing. The EU chips act, if provided with the right resources, could help to improve the EU's position in the global semiconductor value chain significantly by 2030. Meanwhile, Intel's €33 billion investment and Taiwanese interest in European chip manufacturing are also cause for optimism.

Climate change [What Think Tanks are thinking] EN

07-07-2022 PE 733.588
Резюме : Russia’s war on Ukraine has reduced supplies of gas and oil to the European Union and other regions, increasing energy prices and complicating efforts to cut emissions of greenhouse gases. Faced with oil and gas shortages, some countries have started to fire up polluting coal power plants which had previously been shut down, or have postponed their planned closure. Burning coal or lignite emits much more carbon dioxide than using oil and gas to produce electricity. Scientists and analysts are urging swift, radical action on climate change, pointing to this and last year’s extreme weather – severe floods, fires, and more frequent hurricanes. Governments across the world are preparing for the next climate change conference, to be held in Sharm El-Sheikh at the end of 2022. The meeting is to provide more details of how countries plan to achieve the agreed goal of limiting global warming to 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels, as set out in the 2015 Paris Agreement. This note offers links to recent commentaries, studies and reports from international think tanks on climate issues. More papers on the topic can be found in a previous edition of ‘What Think Tanks are Thinking.

Workshop Environmental criminality in developing countries EN

07-07-2022 PE 702.565 DEVE
Резюме : The workshop explored the different ways to tackle environmental criminality in developing countries. Bringing together a wide range of international experts as well as local representatives from developing countries, the workshop sought to identify existing gaps in policy and legal responses, and generate debates about how the identified gaps can be filled. The first panel focused on the prevention and the fight against environmental crimes in developing countries. In doing so, it drew on lessons learned from different developing countries, including best practices and entry points for addressing environmental crimes. The second panel concentrated on the new EC proposal for a Directive on the protection of the environment through criminal law. It discussed possible ways of reinforcing the external dimension of this Directive with the objective of making it more suitable and effective to prevent, prosecute and punish environmental crimes committed in developing countries. The second panel also discussed the pertinence of including new categories of environmental crimes in the Directive and in particular the ‘ecocide’ crime. It further addressed the corporate criminal liability for crimes committed outside Europe by European companies and the need to extend the criminal territorial jurisdiction to prosecute these crimes. Other aspects highlighted included ways to reinforce the human rights perspective in the Directive, for instance by revisiting the concept of victims and highlighting the lack of collective action for victims to lodge complaints or their right to compensation. This report brings together the in-depth analysis prepared by experts for the workshop and a summary of the debate with Members, representatives of EU and international organisations, legal specialists, NGOs and environmental human rights defenders.
Автори : Ragnhild SOLLUND, Tanya WYATT ,

Research for TRAN Committee - The future of transport in the context of the Recovery Plan EN

07-07-2022 PE 733.090 TRAN
Резюме : This At a glance note sumarises the report that provides the European Parliament’s Committee on Transport and Tourism (TRAN) with an overview of the EU’s 29 transport sector priorities and the National Recovery and Resilience Plan’s (NRRP) funding to achieve those priorities. NRRP transport sector measures also contribute to the further development of nine TEN-T Core Network Corridors and achievement of TEN-T goals.
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Research for TRAN Committee: The future of transport in the context of the Recovery Plan EN

07-07-2022 PE 733.089 TRAN
Резюме : This Report provides the European Parliament’s Committee on Transport and Tourism (TRAN) with an overview of the EU’s 29 transport sector priorities and the National Recovery and Resilience Plan’s (NRRP) funding to achieve those priorities. NRRP transport sector measures also contribute to the further development of nine TEN-T Core Network Corridors and the achievement of TEN-T goals
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Strengthening Europol's mandate EN

06-07-2022 PE 690.645
Резюме : On 9 December 2020, along with its counter-terrorism agenda, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a regulation to reinforce the mandate of Europol, the EU law enforcement cooperation agency. The proposed regulation aims principally at rendering Europol's cooperation with private parties more effective; responding to the agency's 'big data challenge', by providing a legal basis for processing large and complex datasets, including personal data of data subjects not related to a crime; and reinforcing Europol's role in relation to research and innovation for law enforcement. The legislative proposal, which would amend the existing Europol Regulation (EU) 2016/794, is accompanied by another legislative proposal to modify Regulation (EU) 2018/1862 on the Schengen information system (SIS), to allow Europol to issue alerts in SIS under a new category. On 1 February 2022, the European Parliament and the Council reached a provisional agreement on the proposal for a regulation, which was formally adopted by each institution on 4 May and 24 May respectively, and signed into law on 8 June. The regulation entered into force on 28 June 2022. Third edition. The 'EU Legislation in Progress' briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure.
Автори : Carmen-Cristina CIRLIG

Establishing the Union secure connectivity programme for the period 2023-2027 EN

06-07-2022 PE 730.307
Резюме : This briefing provides an initial analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of the European Commission's impact assessment (IA) accompanying the above-mentioned proposal, adopted on 15 February 2022 and referred to the European Parliament's Committee on Industry, Research and Energy (ITRE). The proposal, which is included in the 2022 Commission work programme (see Annex I – New initiatives) and in the EU Legislative Priorities for 2022 (see the Commission's working document), seeks to establish a Union secure satellite communication system. This system would ensure highly secured connectivity and communication to the Union and Member States' governmental entities, also with a view to making sure that the EU remains connected in case of cyber-attacks, or in case of natural disasters leading to the breakdown of terrestrial communication networks (IA, pp. 10-11). In addition, the system would allow for connecting key infrastructure better, supporting crisis management, surveillance and potential mass-market broadband applications, and ensuring the provision of high-speed, flexible and resilient satellite communication services. The proposed regulation sets out the objectives of the programme, the rules governing the envisaged activities and its implementation, its infrastructure and services, the participants, the EU budget for the 2023-2027 period, the forms of Union funding and the rules for providing such funding.

Ensuring the safety of machines in the digital age: Revision of the Machinery Directive EN

06-07-2022 PE 733.576
Резюме : The current Machinery Directive (Directive 2006/42/EC) was designed to allow the free movement of machinery within the internal market, while ensuring a high level of protection of health and safety of users. To reduce the occurrence of accidents, it promotes inherently safe design and construction of machinery, and proper installation and maintenance. On 21 April 2021, the Commission put forward a proposal for a regulation on machinery products, part of a wider 'artificial intelligence package'. The need for an update stemmed in particular from recent developments in digital technologies, such as artificial intelligence, the internet of things, and robotics, which have raised new safety challenges. The proposed revision also intends to ensure more coherent interpretation of the scope and definitions, enhance safety for traditional technologies, reassess machines considered as 'high risk' and the conformity assessment procedures, reduce paper-based requirements for documentation, ensure coherence with other product safety legislation and avoid divergences in interpretation stemming from transposition. On 3 May 2022, Parliament's Committee on the Internal Market and Consumer Protection (IMCO) adopted its report, along with the decision to enter into interinstitutional negotiations, with the committee report as mandate. The plenary endorsed that decision on 20 May 2022, opening the way for the committee to start interinstitutional negotiations with the Council. First edition. The 'EU Legislation in Progress' briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure.
Автори : Guillaume RAGONNAUD

The EU Strategy for the Adriatic and Ionian region (EUSAIR) EN

06-07-2022 PE 733.584
Резюме : Launched in 2014, the EU strategy for the Adriatic and Ionian region (EUSAIR) is the third macro-regional strategy (MRS) to have been set after those for the Baltic Sea region and the Danube region. With the recent inclusion of North Macedonia and San Marino, the strategy now covers four EU Member States and six third countries, mostly from the Western Balkans, one of its goals being to facilitate the EU enlargement process of countries from this region. The EUSAIR is unique in that it is the only EU macro-regional strategy in which EU candidate and potential candidate countries outnumber the participating EU Member States. The Adriatic and Ionian region faces a number of challenges, including environmental degradation, inefficient transport connections and insufficiently close cross-border cooperation. To help address these challenges jointly, the strategy has been shaped around four pillars: blue growth; connecting the region; environmental quality; and sustainable tourism. As with other macro-regional strategies, the EUSAIR does not have its own budget. Its implementation therefore depends on the mobilisation of funds from other relevant sources (EU, national, regional and private) and on the well-coordinated use of available funding instruments at different levels, in particular the European structural and investment funds for EU countries and the Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance for non-EU ones. To fully harness this potential, the process of embedding the MRS priorities in the 2021-2027 national/regional EU funding programmes is key to its successful implementation. Recent years have seen a number of developments that could strengthen the EUSAIR. In particular, the post-2020 cohesion policy framework has introduced measures such as new thematic concentration requirements, Interreg-specific objectives and rules on the participation of MRS players, which can deliver more targeted funding, boost administrative capacity and increase political ownership and awareness. Yet, while MRS initiatives remain relatively unknown, their importance should not be under-estimated. The events of recent months in Ukraine have only served to highlight the benefits of cooperation between neighbouring countries. This Briefing updates one of October 2015 by Vasileios Margaras.
Автори : Enrico D'AMBROGIO, Christiaan VAN LIEROP

Europe's PegasusGate: Countering spyware abuse EN

06-07-2022 PE 729.397
Резюме : As civil society and media organisations expose EU Member States for using the Pegasus commercial spyware, one of the most high-profile spying scandals of recent years is coming to light in Europe. Member States' intelligence agencies have been accused of abusing highly sophisticated spyware to surveil opposition figures, journalists, lawyers, and high-ranking state officials. 'Having regard to the European Union's attachment to the values and principles of liberty, democracy and respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms and of the rule of law', the European Parliament has set up a committee of inquiry. This study (i) introduces the Pegasus product's features and trading practices, (ii) surveys Pegasus operations and reactions, (iii) identifies transversal and country-specific legal concerns, and (iv) sketches possible ways forward in the public and private sectors.
Автори : Hendrik Alexander MILDEBRATH

Cohesion Policy in Northernmost Regions of the EU EN

06-07-2022 PE 699.657 REGI
Резюме : Northern Sparsely Populated Areas (NSPAs) have high economic potentials. Proactive public policies are needed to unlock them by overcoming key demographic challenges, making it possible for companies to recruit skilled staff and enhancing the welfare and quality of life of their populations. The study describes measures implemented to this end under EU Cohesion Policy. It suggests that more integrated approaches could help address these challenges in a more effective way and preserve territorial cohesion within NSPA regions.
Автори : Erik Gløersen, Spatial Foresight GmbH

Simone Veil, European political pioneer EN

05-07-2022 PE 607.291
Резюме : Simone Veil, the first President of the directly elected European Parliament in 1979, and the first woman to hold the office, died on 30 June 2017, at the age of 89. A prominent French public figure beyond her years in office, she leaves an important and enduring legacy. This is an update of an 'At a glance' note from July 2017.
Автори : Philippe PERCHOC

The 2022 G7 Summit: Against the backdrop of Russia's war on Ukraine EN

05-07-2022 PE 733.575
Резюме : The 48th G7 Summit took place at Schloss Elmau, Germany, on 26-28 June 2022. Russia's war on Ukraine has heavily affected the G7's deliberations this year and created pressing new global challenges that were discussed both in the preparatory meetings and at the summit itself. The resulting communiqué focuses on supporting Ukraine, on reducing the impact of the war on the global economy, security of supply and prices of energy and food, climate challenges and the new G7 partnership for infrastructure and investment in developing countries.
Автори : Marcin SZCZEPANSKI

Reporting on SDG implementation: UN mechanisms and the EU approach EN

05-07-2022 PE 644.218
Резюме : Adopted in 2015 by the United Nations (UN), the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development – 'the blueprint to achieve a better and more sustainable future for all' – clearly links the 17 sustainable development goals (SDGs) that it introduced to a series of targets to be reached by 2030. The 2030 Agenda includes a detailed mechanism to monitor progress with regard to these targets. At the core of this mechanism are a number of quantified indicators for each target that are regularly revised by the UN and other international agencies. These agencies and the EU provide support to national statistical services across the world in collecting data for the SDG indicators in order to gather reliable and comparable datasets. These data feed the voluntary national reports that countries prepare to exchange good practices and advice on tackling the challenges they encounter in implementing their SDG strategies. High-level forums take stock of both progress and weaknesses in implementation, so as to ensure that everybody is on track in pursuing the SDGs. The EU has long experience in collecting consistent data from its Member States. The European Union Statistical Office (Eurostat) has created a set of sustainable development indicators that provide a good overview of progress within the EU. EU development cooperation services have devised a framework of indicators to assess how EU support contributes to other countries' implementation of the SDGs. However, the European Parliament and other stakeholders regret that the spill-over effect of EU policies on third countries remains a blind spot in the evaluation of the EU's contribution to the SDGs. Although technical in nature, SDG indicators and data also have a political dimension, as they clearly measure countries' and other stakeholders' achievements against their own commitments. This is an update of a Briefing published in December 2019.
Автори : Eric PICHON

Revision of the LULUCF Regulation: Strengthening the role of the land use, land-use change and forestry sector in climate action EN

05-07-2022 PE 698.843
Резюме : To align regulations and policies with the legally binding goals – delivering, by 2030, a 55 % net greenhouse gas emissions reduction compared to 1990, and reaching climate neutrality in Europe by 2050 – on 14 July the European Commission presented its first proposals under the 'fit for 55' package. One of these proposals involves amending Regulation (EU) 2018/841 on emissions and removals from land use, land-use change and forestry (the LULUCF Regulation). Among the main changes envisaged are to merge, as of 2030, the LULUCF sector with the non-CO2 agricultural sector in a new climate pillar, which would have to achieve climate neutrality by 2035. Moreover, by 2030, LULUCF carbon removals would have to increase to 310 million tonnes of CO2 equivalent (CO2e). For the post-2025 period, the Commission would set individual targets for each Member State. The proposal was referred to the European Parliament's Committee on Environment, Public Health and Food Safety (ENVI), which appointed Ville Niinistö (Greens/EFA, Finland) as rapporteur. ENVI adopted its report on 17 May 2022, and Parliament adopted its position in plenary on 8 June. The Environment Council adopted its general approach during its meeting of 28 June 2022. Third edition. The 'EU Legislation in Progress' briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure.

Review of the EU ETS: 'Fit for 55' package EN

05-07-2022 PE 698.890
Резюме : As part of the 'Fit for 55' package, the Commission presented a legislative proposal to review the EU Emissions Trading System (ETS). The aim of the review is to align the EU ETS Directive with the EU target set out in the European Climate Law to reduce net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 55 % by 2030, compared to 1990 levels. To this end, the amount of emission allowances would be reduced, fewer allowances would be allocated for free, and the ETS would be extended to maritime transport. This would reduce emissions in the ETS sectors by 61 % by 2030, compared to 2005. A separate new emissions trading system would be established for fuel distribution for road transport and buildings. The Innovation Fund and the Modernisation Fund would be enlarged, and Member States would be obliged to spend all of their ETS revenues on climate action. In the European Parliament, the proposal has been referred to the Committee on Environment, Public Health and Food Safety (ENVI), with Peter Liese (EPP, Germany) as rapporteur. The Parliament adopted its position in the June II 2022 session, and the Council adopted its general approach on 29 June 2022, enabling the launch of trilogue negotiations. Third edition. The 'EU Legislation in Progress' briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure.
Автори : Gregor ERBACH

CO2 emission standards for new cars and vans: 'Fit for 55' package EN

05-07-2022 PE 698.920
Резюме : On 14 July 2021, as part of the 'fit for 55' package, the Commission presented a legislative proposal for a revision of the Regulation setting CO2 emission performance standards for passenger cars and light commercial vehicles (vans). To raise the contribution of the road transport sector to the EU's climate targets, the proposal sets more ambitious 2030 targets for reducing the CO2 emissions of new cars and vans and allows only zero-emission vehicles from 2035. In the European Parliament, the proposal has been referred to the Committee on Environment, Public Health and Food Safety (ENVI), with Jan Huitema (Renew, the Netherlands) as rapporteur. The Parliament adopted its position during the June I 2022 plenary session, and the Council adopted its general approach on 29 June 2022, meaning trilogue negotiations can commence. Third edition. The 'EU Legislation in Progress' briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure.
Автори : Gregor ERBACH

Recovery and Resilience Plans: the involvement of stakeholders and their view EN

05-07-2022 PE 699.530 ECON
Задълбочен анализ
Резюме : This paper provides an overview of stakeholders’ activities at national, regional and local level, in relation to national Recovery and Resilience Plans (RRPs). The overview is based on two surveys, recently conducted. Furthermore, it presents the latest opinions and assessments by EU stakeholders and other relevant institutions and bodies on the implementation of these plans. This paper is a follow-up of previous EGOV publications on the involvement and views expressed by stakeholders in the context of the recovery and resilience plans.

Country-Specific Recommendations for 2022 - A comparison of Commission and Council texts EN

05-07-2022 PE 699.533 ECON
Резюме : This document compares the draft 2022 Country Specific Recommendations (CSRs) proposed by the Commission on 23 May 2022 with the 2022 CSRs adopted by the Council on 17 June 2022. The comparison is provided in order to facilitate the assessment of the "comply or explain" rule stipulated in Article 2-ab(2) of EU Regulation No 1175/2011: "The Council is expected to, as a rule, follow the recommendations and proposals of the Commission or explain its position publicly".

What if microbial protein could help reverse climate change? EN

04-07-2022 PE 729.539
Резюме : Demographic, socio-political and economic pressures have made eating meat an unsustainable practice for the long term. However, meat substitutes have proved unpopular, owing to social norms and a lack of trust; some alternatives also contribute heavily to climate change. Could microbial protein be a sustainable alternative to meat that not only solves these multidimensional pressures but also contributes actively to reversing climate change?

Peace, justice and strong institutions: EU support for implementing SDG 16 worldwide EN

04-07-2022 PE 646.156
Резюме : The 16th Sustainable Development Goal (SDG16) to 'Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels' represents a new milestone compared with the earlier millennium development goals. While several of its targets (such as peace, corruption-free institutions and freedom from violence) were once seen as prerequisites of sustainable development, the adoption of SDG16 marked the first time that they were globally recognised as development objectives in themselves. To achieve universal recognition, SDG16 leaves out explicit reference to internationally recognised political and civil rights norms, attracting some criticism. Its very general scope has also stirred controversy regarding the type of data required in order to assess progress rigorously. The state of play with regard to the implementation of SDG16 indicates that substantial progress is still needed in order to achieve the SDG targets by 2030. Violent conflicts continue to affect many parts of the world, societal violence remains widespread in many countries and violence against children in particular remains a pervasive phenomenon, especially in developing countries. The pandemic has erased much previous progress on the SDGs, and led to restrictions on freedoms and more limited government accountability. The war in Ukraine, meanwhile, with its negative spill-overs on other SDGs demonstrates once more the crucial role of peace. The EU has committed to contributing to the achievement of all the SDGs, and the specific targets of SDG16 have been given special recognition. From the Global Strategy to the 'new consensus on development', various policy documents acknowledge the crucial role of peace, democracy, human rights and the rule of law for sustainable development. The interconnection between the pursuit of these fundamental values and EU efforts to help developing countries achieve the SDGs is obvious in numerous measures undertaken in the framework of EU external action. The European Parliament is a strong champion for these values in the world. This is an update of a Briefing published in February 2020.
Автори : Ionel ZAMFIR

New EU scheme of generalised preferences EN

04-07-2022 PE 698.857
Резюме : On 21 September 2021, the Commission published its proposal for a new EU scheme of generalised preferences (GSP). Two of the current scheme's three components are due to expire at the end of 2023, which would deprive developing countries of a vital opportunity to trade under preferential terms with the EU. Therefore, renewing the scheme appears to be both a necessity and an opportunity to strengthen its conditionality in the light of lessons learned and the increased urgency for dealing with the climate. The Commission considers that the scheme has delivered on its objectives, and proposes some 'fine-tuning'. To ensure that its benefits remain broadly shared, it proposes changes to the economic vulnerability criteria for the special incentive strand of the scheme GSP+ and to the product graduation threshold for Standard GSP. Taking on board proposals from civil society, but also from the Parliament, the Commission proposes to extend negative conditionality to environmental and good governance conventions, and to improve monitoring and stakeholders' involvement overall. Civil society organisations and other stakeholders have put forward some more ambitious proposals, such as making the monitoring fully transparent and rewarding countries that fulfil jointly agreed benchmarks related to the conventions under the GSP with additional preferences. Second edition. The 'EU Legislation in Progress' briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure.
Автори : Ionel ZAMFIR

The political system of the Republic of Korea EN

04-07-2022 PE 733.582
Резюме : Following the division of the Korean peninsula into a southern and a northern part at the end of the Second World War, the Republic of Korea (South Korea) was established in its southern part in 1948. The 1950 attack by the communist regime established in the northern part provoked a three-year war, which completely devastated the peninsula. When an armistice was signed in 1953, the Republic of Korea was one of the poorest countries in the world. Its political system was marked by a very strong attitude of anti-communism, which manifested itself in the strict application of the 1948 National Security Law. Following the military coup of 1961, two successive presidents – Park and Chun – focused on the promotion of the country's economic development, while suppressing civil liberties and political freedoms. The end of authoritarianism in 1987 and the successful transition to a well-functioning democracy were marked by the rewriting of the Constitution and the democratic transfer of power to an opposition candidate in 1997-1998. The Constitution of the Sixth Republic gives a very strong role to the office of the president, who not only has the right to introduce bills but also has very extensive powers in cases of an emergency. The legislative branch of government is incarnated by the unicameral Parliament, the Korean National Assembly (NKA). Among its competences is the right to launch an impeachment motion against the president, a right the KNA successfully exercised in December 2016. The judicial power is held by the Supreme Court and the Constitutional Court, both of which in March 2017 upheld the impeachment, leading to the removal of President Park and new presidential elections. The rising importance of women in the National Assembly and the peaceful character of the 2016-2017 events are a sign of the maturity of Korea's democracy, but the role of the chaebol (industrial conglomerates) in particular remains a challenge to the smooth functioning of Korea's democratic order.
Автори : Ulrich JOCHHEIM

Energy poverty in the EU EN

04-07-2022 PE 733.583
Резюме : In 2020, about 36 million Europeans were unable to keep their homes adequately warm. Energy poverty is a multi-dimensional phenomenon, considered to be caused by a combination of low income, high energy expenses, and poor energy efficiency in buildings. The EU has been addressing this issue in various legislative and non-legislative initiatives, most recently in the context of its climate policies and energy transition. The Gas and Electricity Directives call for the protection of vulnerable consumers, and the Energy Efficiency and Energy Efficiency of Buildings Directives require measures to alleviate energy poverty alongside efficiency efforts. The 'renovation wave' initiative under the European Green Deal aims to boost structural renovation in private and public buildings, while the Social Climate Fund includes households in energy poverty among its main beneficiaries. The 2020 European Commission recommendation on the topic defines energy poverty as a situation in which households are unable to access essential energy services. It also provides a set of indicators relating for instance to the inability to keep a home adequately warm, arrears on utility bills, and a high share of income spent on energy bills. At the same time, no binding EU-level definition currently exists, and the proposed indicator set is not monitored systematically by Eurostat. A number of possible policy options exist to address energy poverty under energy policy, social policy, or a mix of various regulatory solutions. Specific measures range from price regulation and tax breaks, to limits on disconnection, to social tariffs, energy efficiency improvements, and energy savings. Against the backdrop of security of energy supply concerns, the expected further rise in energy prices, and the ongoing EU transition to climate neutrality, the issue of energy poverty will be a crucial one in the months and years to come.
Автори : Agnieszka WIDUTO

Recovery and Resilience Plans - public documents EN

04-07-2022 PE 689.471 ECON
Задълбочен анализ
Резюме : This document provides summarised and tabular information on the Recovery and Resilience Plans. It will be regularly updated.

The European Parliament and the break-up of the Soviet Union in 1991 EN

01-07-2022 PE 733.579
Резюме : Looking back on the implosion of the Soviet Union in late 1991, this Briefing reflects on the debate in the Parliament about its possible consequences at the time. It shows that a clear majority of MEPs initially remained keen on the transformation of the Soviet Union into some kind of 'new Union'. They were concerned both about the dire economic situation in several Soviet republics, and about the maintenance of effective control over the Soviet Union's huge nuclear arsenal. Since 1988 the EP, like the European Community in its entirety, had treated the case of the three Baltic republics as distinct. After all, Western countries had never recognised their illegal occupation and integration into the Soviet Union by Stalin. In contrast, the EP debates and resolutions hardly addressed the long-term future of the remaining post-Soviet space, including Ukraine and Moldova, which was not yet seen as a direct or primary concern of the Community at the time of the negotiations leading up to its transformation into the European Union with the Maastricht Treaty. As this Briefing also shows, however, some MEPs across the political divide were already expressing their deep concerns about the possible revival of Russian imperialism as a threat to its neighbours and a challenge to the European Community / European Union.