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Russia's War on Ukraine: Sanctions targeting Belarus EN

18-05-2022 PE 729.428
Kokkuvõte : Belarus's involvement in Russia's invasion of Ukraine has triggered EU sanctions targeting over 700 individuals and 50 entities, as well as critical economic sectors and products in this country. The new measures, namely the trade bans on potassium chloride, have affected both the Belarusian economy and EU and global food supplies.
Autorid : Jakub PRZETACZNIK

Russia's war on Ukraine: The situation of children in and outside Ukraine EN

18-05-2022 PE 729.429
Kokkuvõte : Russia's invasion of Ukraine has forced hundreds of thousands of people to flee the country and seek shelter, mostly in neighbouring EU countries, namely Poland, Romania, Hungary, Slovakia, Czechia and Moldova. Children and women are bearing the most adverse consequences of the war. According to UNICEF, almost half of those fleeing are minors and in need of enhanced protection, as they run a bigger risk of falling victim to trafficking and exploitation. In response to the plight of Ukraine's civilian population, which is being subjected to shelling and violence, the international humanitarian community has quickly mobilised efforts and resources to provide support. As the humanitarian situation deteriorates, children are particularly vulnerable. Children are at high risk of falling through the cracks of the system, going missing or being subjected to violence. This includes children in institutions, unaccompanied minors, children nearing the age of transition to adulthood, children from Roma or other minority groups or who are asylum-seekers, refugees or migrants and were residing in Ukraine and were stateless before leaving their countries of origin. In and outside of Ukraine, children are in urgent need of protection, including access to psychosocial and social support, health, nutrition, education and housing, protection against trafficking, sexual and labour exploitation and abuse. The European Parliament, as well as its Coordinator on Children's Rights, have been active in defending the rights of the children fleeing the war in Ukraine since its beginning. This briefing updates and expands on an 'At a glance' note written by Maria Margarita Mentzelopoulou and Micaela Del Monte in March 2022.
Autorid : Micaela DEL MONTE, Maria-Margarita MENTZELOPOULOU

Rules on export and import authorisations and transit measures for firearms EN

17-05-2022 PE 699.507 LIBE INTA
Kokkuvõte : Regulation (EU) No 258/2012 lays down procedural rules at EU level for export, import and transit of firearms, their parts and components and ammunition. Its overall strategic objective is to reduce the risk of illicit trafficking in firearms for civilian use by ensuring coherence across EU Member States with regard to rules on external trade. The regulation is part of an overall legal and operational framework intended to prevent, detect, investigate and prosecute firearms trafficking. In this regard, the regulation implements Article 10 of the United Nations (UN) Firearms Protocol, a key international agreement adopted in 2001 and ratified by the EU, to ensure firearms traceability. Neither the legislative proposal reviewing the regulation, mentioned in the 2021 Commission work programme, nor the impact assessment are available yet. However, the 2017 Commission evaluation of the regulation had already found scope to address a number of shortcomings. Based on this evaluation, the Commission established that these shortcomings were mainly derived from a lack of clarity in certain parts of the regulation, and legal mismatches generating security risks. The review of Regulation (EU) No 258/2012 also aims to align the regulation's scope with that of Directive (EU) 2021/555 (the 'Firearms Directive'), already revised, and Council Common Position 2008/944/CFSP (as amended), in order to close the gaps between diverging procedures – in particular, gaps concerning diverging import procedures for convertible alarm and signal weapons, and semi-finished unmarked essential components – which cause the smuggling of these weapons and components to prevail.

The latest on Russia's war on Ukraine [What Think Tanks are thinking] EN

17-05-2022 PE 729.427
Kokkuvõte : Russian President Vladimir Putin used his speech at the annual Victory Day over Nazi Germany, on 9 May, to mobilise support among the country's citizens for its 11-week-old war on Ukraine, claiming that Moscow had to defend itself against imminent attack. Recently, Russia has shifted its military efforts towards the east and south-east of Ukraine, as well as to the bombing of critical infrastructure, after it failed to capture Kyiv, the capital. In some areas abandoned by the Russian forces, Ukrainian troops and journalists found many dead civilians and other evidence of war crimes. The United States and European Union countries have increased military aid to Ukraine. Finland and Sweden are to apply for membership of the NATO military alliance. Russia has cut gas deliveries to Bulgaria and Poland, escalating its conflict with the EU, which in turn is pondering an embargo on imports of Russian energy to deprive Moscow of funds needed to finance the war, on top of a wide range of existing sanctions. This note gathers links to the recent publications and commentaries from many international think tanks on Russia's war on Ukraine, its implications for the two countries, for the European Union and for the world. Earlier analyses of the implications of the war can be found in a previous edition of the 'What Think Tanks are Thinking' series.

Economic repercussions of Russia’s war on Ukraine – Weekly Digest 17 May 2022 EN

17-05-2022 PE 699.539 ECON
Kokkuvõte : This paper provides a summary of recent economic, financial and budgetary measures and developments following President Vladimir Putin’s decision of 24 February to start a military attack against Ukraine. It includes recent information relating to the EU sanctions regime, recent economic estimates and policies supporting economic and financial resilience, including the coordination of national economic and fiscal measures. It also highlights policy recommendations made in the public domain to mitigate any adverse economic, financial and social effects and to support economic recovery in the EU and the Euro Area.

European education area: Better education for all EN

16-05-2022 PE 729.416
Kokkuvõte : Education is not only a right, but also a foundation for personal fulfilment and a stepping stone to employability and active citizenship. In her political guidelines, European Commission President Ursula von der Leyen pledged to make the European education area a reality by 2025. Parliament will take the discussion further during its May II plenary session, with questions to the Commission and Council on the topic.
Autorid : Ivana KATSAROVA

The Commission's 2021 rule of law report EN

16-05-2022 PE 729.417
Kokkuvõte : The annual rule of law reports, launched by the European Commission in September 2020, are a monitoring tool which allows the Commission to collect data concerning the state of the rule of law in each of the 27 EU Member States. The second rule of law report was published in July 2021, and a third one is expected in 2022. During the May II plenary session, Parliament is expected to adopt a resolution on the second annual rule of law report.
Autorid : Rafał MAŃKO

2021 Report on Albania EN

16-05-2022 PE 729.418
Kokkuvõte : Albania has been an EU candidate country since June 2014. The Council decided on 25 March 2020 to open accession negotiations, after the country had made some progress towards meeting the political criteria and the five key priorities that need to be fulfilled to become an EU Member State; the European Council endorsed this decision the following day. However, negotiations have not yet started, and Albania is advancing towards EU membership at a very slow pace. The main obstacles remain flaws in the functioning of its judiciary, in the fight against corruption, and in safeguarding media freedoms and minority rights. Parliament's position on the European Commission's 2021 annual report on Albania is scheduled for a plenary vote in May.

2021 Report on North Macedonia EN

16-05-2022 PE 729.420
Kokkuvõte : North Macedonia was the first western Balkan country to conclude a stabilisation and association agreement with the EU in 2004; just one year later, it became a candidate country. However, disputes with Greece blocked any progress in accession negotiations until 2019. Pending bilateral issues with Bulgaria still need to be resolved as a matter of priority to unlock the negotiations. Parliament's position on the European Commission's 2021 report on the country is expected to be voted during the May II plenary session.

Global minimum level of taxation for multinational enterprises in the EU EN

16-05-2022 PE 729.423
Kokkuvõte : Adapting tax systems to globalisation and digitalisation has been the subject of discussions and reforms in international forums and the EU over recent decades. One of the aims is to make sure large multinational enterprises (MNEs) pay a minimum level of tax on the income arising in each jurisdiction in which they operate. At global level, an agreement was found last October within the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) inclusive framework. A December 2021 European Commission proposal for a directive would implement the internationally agreed standard to ensure minimum effective taxation of MNEs. The report on the proposal by the European Parliament's Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs is scheduled for a plenary vote in May.
Autorid : Cécile REMEUR

Corporate sustainability due diligence: Could value chains integrate human rights and environmental concerns? EN

16-05-2022 PE 729.424
Kokkuvõte : Companies can play a key role in building a sustainable economy and society, and in furthering environmental goals. At the same time, their global value chains may pose risks to human rights and the environment. Civil society, governments and companies are increasingly aware of the issue. A growing number of EU companies have taken initiatives to deploy due diligence processes, often using the existing international voluntary standards on responsible business conduct. Some Member States have started developing their own legal frameworks on corporate due diligence. To avoid fragmentation and to provide legal certainty to business and citizens, the Commission has proposed a directive laying down rules on corporate due diligence obligations (including on climate change), directors' duties, civil liability and protection of persons reporting breaches. Supervisory authorities designated by the Member States would be in charge of enforcing the new directive. It would be aligned with international standards on human rights and environmental protection. The Parliament had already called on the Commission to introduce mandatory due diligence legislation in a legislative-initiative resolution of March 2021. It will now examine the Commission proposal following the ordinary legislative procedure. First edition. The 'EU Legislation in Progress' briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure.

Proposal to amend Directive (EU) 2019/1153: Single access point to bank account registries EN

16-05-2022 PE 729.425
Kokkuvõte : Financial information is vital for the investigation of serious crime and for the freezing of the proceeds of crime, but EU investigators often lack the tools for effective investigation, especially when dealing with cross-border crime. The proposed amendment to Directive (EU) 2019/1153 would allow designated competent authorities responsible for the prevention, investigation, detection or prosecution of criminal offences to access and search Member States’ centralised bank account registers through a single access point. This would enable them to establish almost immediately whether an individual holds bank accounts in other Member States and identify to which Member States they should make a formal request for additional information. First edition. The 'EU Legislation in Progress' briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure.

The rights of LGBTI people in the European Union EN

16-05-2022 PE 729.426
Kokkuvõte : The prohibition of discrimination and the protection of human rights are important elements of the EU legal order. Nevertheless, discrimination against lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex (LGBTI) people persists throughout the EU and takes various forms, including verbal abuse and physical violence. Sexual orientation is now recognised in EU law as grounds of discrimination. However, the scope of the provisions dealing with this issue is limited and does not cover social protection, health care, education or access to goods and services, leaving LGBTI people particularly vulnerable in these areas. Moreover, EU competence does not extend to recognition of marital or family status. In this area, national regulations vary, with some Member States offering same-sex couples the right to marry, others allowing alternative forms of registration, and yet others not providing any legal status for same-sex couples. Same-sex couples may or may not have the right to adopt children and to access assisted reproduction. These divergent legal statuses have implications, for instance, for partners from two Member States with different standards who want to formalise/legalise their relationship, or for same-sex couples and their families wishing to move to another Member State. Combating discrimination has become part of EU internal and external policies, and is the subject of numerous resolutions of the European Parliament. However, action in this area remains problematic when it touches on issues pertaining to areas traditionally the preserve of Member States, such as marital status and family law. This is a further updated version of a briefing the previous edition of which was from May 2021.

Russia's war on Ukraine: The situation of Roma people fleeing Ukraine EN

13-05-2022 PE 729.411
Kokkuvõte : Russia's invasion of Ukraine has forced millions of people, amongst whom Ukrainian Roma, to seek shelter in neighbouring countries. Roma fleeing Ukraine often face discrimination, segregation, deprivation and prejudice.
Autorid : Marie LECERF

Preparing for 'RepowerEU': Action for more secure, more affordable and cleaner energy EN

13-05-2022 PE 729.421
Kokkuvõte : Following Russia's invasion of Ukraine, the EU is considering how it can rapidly reduce its dependence on Russian fossil fuels. The European Parliament has called for an embargo on Russian coal, oil and gas. The European Commission's 'RePowerEU' plan will mark out the next steps.
Autorid : Agnieszka WIDUTO

Russia's war on Ukraine: EU trade policy EN

13-05-2022 PE 729.422
Kokkuvõte : The EU has joined partners at the World Trade Organization in imposing import and export bans and other trade restrictions to punish Russian and Belarussian elites and degrade Russia's military and industrial capacity. Now it is proposing to support Ukraine by temporarily scrapping all tariffs and quotas on Ukrainian imports.
Autorid : Matthew PARRY

Screening of third-country nationals at the EU's external borders EN

12-05-2022 PE 659.346
Kokkuvõte : In September 2020, the Commission put forward a new pact on migration and asylum, setting out a comprehensive approach to European Union (EU) migration policies that links external borders, asylum, return systems, the Schengen area of free movement and the external dimension of migration. The pact includes a proposal for a new regulation on the screening of third-country nationals at external borders aiming to clarify and streamline the rules on dealing with third-country nationals who are not authorised to enter or stay in the EU. The proposal would introduce a pre-entry screening procedure allowing national authorities at external borders to channel irregular third-country nationals to the appropriate procedure, i.e. asylum or return procedures. The screening would start with preliminary health and vulnerability checks and finish with the transmission of a debriefing form to the appropriate authorities. The proposal would provide for the establishment, by each Member State, of an independent monitoring mechanism for fundamental rights. Second edition. The 'EU Legislation in Progress' briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure.
Autorid : Costica DUMBRAVA

Review of the regulation on fluorinated greenhouse gases EN

12-05-2022 PE 730.323
Kokkuvõte : Fluorinated gases ('F-gases') are potent greenhouse gases (GHGs), with a global warming potential (GWP) up to 25 000 times higher than that of CO2. Used in a wide range of appliances – such as refrigerators, air conditioners, foams and fire extinguishers – F-gas emissions occur throughout appliances' life cycles. Today, F-gas emissions amount to 2.5 % of the EU's total GHG emissions, levels having doubled between 1990 and 2014, in contrast to those of other GHG emissions, which fell. The steep increase was due mainly to the substitution of ozone-depleting substances (ODS) – to be phased out under the 1987 Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer – with F-gases in areas where ODS were prohibited under the protocol. Since 2006, the EU has taken action to reverse the increasing trend of F-gas emissions. At present, Regulation (EU) No 517/2014 on fluorinated greenhouse gases (the 'current F-gas Regulation') is one of the EU's main instruments to fight F-gas emissions, contributing to the EU's wider efforts to combat climate change by, in particular, introducing an EU-wide phase-down scheme for hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs). The EU is also committed to reducing F-gas emissions at international level, notably under the 2015 Paris Agreement and the 2019 Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol. Between 2015 and 2019, F-gas emissions in the EU decreased steadily. However, in light of the EU's increased climate ambition, as set out in the 2019 European Green Deal (EGD) and the 2021 European Climate Law, the Commission decided to review the F-gas Regulation, as one of the policy reforms under the 'fit-for-55' package. To this end it launched an ex-post evaluation. Under the ex-post evaluation presented on 5 April 2022, together with the proposal for a new F-gas Regulation, the Commission found that, while the regulation had worked relatively well, there were several shortcomings relating to the regulation itself and to its implementation (regarding, for instance, illegal HFC imports and insufficient monitoring).

Le droit à la santé, une perspective de droit comparé - Suisse FR

12-05-2022 PE 729.419
Kokkuvõte : Ce document s’intègre dans une série d’études qui, avec une perspective de droit comparé, visent à faire une présentation du droit à la santé dans différents ordres juridiques. Après avoir expliqué la réglementation et la jurisprudence d’application, le contenu, les limites et la possible évolution de ce droit sont examinés. La présente étude a pour objet le cas de la Suisse. Elle présente les tensions idéologiques qui peuvent naître de la rencontre de l’impératif de santé publique d’une part et d’une conception résolument libérale de l’État, qui érige la responsabilité individuelle en valeur cardinale, et l’obstacle qu’elles représentent pour l’émergence et la consécration législative d’un droit à la santé. L’abondante jurisprudence rendue par les tribunaux suisses, dont la portée est parfois très politique, offre toutefois quelques pistes solides pour envisager une telle perspective.
Autorid : EPRS, Comparative Law

Review of Directive 2002/65/EC on distance marketing of consumer financial services EN

11-05-2022 PE 699.505 INTA
Kokkuvõte : Adopted in 2002, Directive 2002/65/EC on Distance Marketing of Consumer Financial Services introduced a legal framework for governing the distance marketing of financial services, such as banking, loans, insurance and investment. Back then, when relevant legislation was limited at Member State level, the directive aimed to improve consumer protection rules for financial services sold at a distance and to consolidate the internal market by aligning rules in this area. Since its adoption, however, the legal framework and digital landscape for retail financial services has evolved significantly. A 2020 Commission ex-post evaluation of the directive highlighted that it has been effective in strengthening consumer protection and largely remains relevant through its safety-net function. However, the overlap of its provisions with product-specific and horizontal EU legislation, as well as changes to the financial services market have decreased the EU added value and relevance of the directive over time. In addition, digitalisation is found to have amplified some of its practical weaknesses. Subsequently, a review of the directive was included among the REFIT initiatives of the Commission's 2020 work programme, and an inception impact assessment was published in May 2021.

Towards a new regulatory framework for European population statistics EN

11-05-2022 PE 730.309 REGI LIBE EMPL ECON
Kokkuvõte : Census data and demographic statistics are of great relevance for policy-making at the European, national, regional and local levels. At a time where the European Union (EU) is undergoing major demographic changes, driven by an ageing population, low fertility rates and increased migration flows, demand for accurate and timely population statistics rises. In parallel, owing to progress in digitalisation, statistical data collection methods are shifting from traditional population censuses and surveys towards the use of administrative data. Such register-based data collection methods bear great potential in terms of improved data frequency, granularity and burden reduction. The modernisation of European population statistics is one of the action points included in the European statistical programme 2021-2027, and part of a wider programme to modernise social statistics. Under the current regulatory framework, Eurostat collects population data under a number of separate legal acts, covering demographic, census and migration data. One of them, Regulation (EU) No 1260/2013 on European demographic statistics, is set to expire in 2028. According to the 2022 Commission work programme, the Commission will present a legislative proposal on population statistics in the second quarter of 2022. The new proposal should integrate, in a single legal act, annual demographic and migration statistics and decennial census data, as well as regional and geo-referenced population data. It should provide for timelier, more coherent and more specific population statistics that reflect migration more adequately and facilitate the use of administrative data sources.
Autorid : Irmgard ANGLMAYER

EU response to economic coercion by third countries EN

11-05-2022 PE 730.326 AFET IMCO INTA
Kokkuvõte : This initiative focuses specifically on the issue of economic coercion and the EU's possible response, aiming to preserve the EU's open strategic autonomy and policy-making space. The IA clearly defines the problem, its underlying causes, and the objectives to address it. The creation of a new legal instrument to deter and counteract economic coercion is the only type of option retained for analysis. This presumably follows on from the political commitment made in early 2021 (although this is not stated explicitly in the IA). This option was broken down into several policy options based on possible parameters used for the design of the instrument. The IA is substantiated by academic work, stakeholders' contributions and examples. The majority of stakeholders support a new policy instrument and their input contributed to the design of the proposed instrument. The IA focuses mostly on economic impacts, while social and environmental impacts are assessed briefly. Important benefits are expected from the instrument. Costs are expected only from its use, in particular from the application of countermeasures. The IA focuses on a qualitative assessment of impacts linked to the instrument's creation and existence, acknowledging that the impacts linked to the instrument's use are difficult to estimate at the design stage. Adequate monitoring and evaluation of the use of the instrument and of progress made against the objectives will therefore be important aspects that would have benefited from further detail in terms of indicators and provisions. The proposal generally reflects the preferred option of the IA, although some elements differ from the IA, such as the objectives and definition of economic coercion.

Monetary policy issues in the context of the war in Ukrain EN

11-05-2022 PE 703.361 ECON
Kokkuvõte : On 24 February 2022, Russia launched an invasion of Ukraine. The war itself, as well as related sanctions and countersanctions are expected to have a significant impact on the euro area economy. This paper summarises the recent monetary policy decisions of the European Central Bank (ECB)'s Governing Council and outlines some policy issues and challenges that might arise in the context of the war, related to price stability, financial stability, climate and energy policies, ECB/Eurosystem staff projections and public trust in the ECB.
Autorid : Drazen RAKIC

Research for REGI Committee: EU tools to respond to natural disasters EN

11-05-2022 PE 699.637 REGI
Kokkuvõte : This study provides an analysis and assessment of EU tools to respond to natural disasters. Particular attention is paid to the European Union Solidarity Fund and the potential synergies and overlaps with other EU instruments including the Emergency Aid Reserve, the EU Civil Protection Mechanism as well as Cohesion Policy. Also, the recent modifications to the EUSF including the extension to address major public health emergencies as well as the modifications linked to the 2021-2027 programming period are examined. Based on this assessment, policy recommendations are put forward.
Autorid : Marek KOŁODZIEJSKI

Research for TRAN Committee: Pricing instruments on transport emissions EN

11-05-2022 PE 699.641 TRAN
Kokkuvõte : This briefing provides an overview of pricing instruments on road transport CO2 emissions. It presents the current use of these instruments in the EU, the main EU legal framework in this field including the expected developments, and the impacts these instruments may have on the road transport sector and society in general.
Autorid : Arno SCHROTEN, Julius KIRÁLY, Peter SCHOLTEN

United Kingdom: Economic indicators and trade with EU EN

10-05-2022 PE 646.160
Kokkuvõte : The UK was a European Union Member State from 1973 until 31 January 2020. For reasons of comparability and consistency, the historical data for the 'EU-27' in this infographic covers all current Member States, regardless of whether they were Member States at the time concerned.

1962-2022: The EU common agricultural policy at 60 EN

10-05-2022 PE 729.414
Kokkuvõte : This year marks both the 60th anniversary of the EU's common agricultural policy (CAP) and a crucial turning point in its way of functioning, with a new delivery model in place that will kick in from 2023. The timeline below highlights major legislative and policy developments that have shaped the CAP over the past six decades.
Autorid : Rachele ROSSI

Democracy and authoritarianism: Perspectives from the 2021 ESPAS Conference EN

10-05-2022 PE 729.415
Kokkuvõte : 'Speak up for democracy.' That was one of the conclusions of a wide-ranging discussion on threats to democracy at the 2021 ESPAS conference. Insecurity about rapid changes has undermined trust, and inequalities – also across generations – have been further accelerated by the pandemic. Remedies discussed include stronger civic education, efforts to reinforce the social contract and improve social cohesion, and measures to protect the integrity of elections. There were also calls to strengthen the democratic acquis of the European Union, in which the European Parliament has a central role.

Revision of the Eurovignette Directive EN

10-05-2022 PE 614.625
Kokkuvõte : The European Parliament and the Council as co-legislators have adopted changes to Directive 1999/62/EC on the charging of heavy goods vehicles for the use of certain infrastructure (known as the Eurovignette Directive). Vignettes for heavy goods vehicles will have to be phased out across the core trans-European transport network from 2030 and replaced by distance-based charges (tolls). With a number of other changes, this should help make road pricing fairer and more efficient. The European Commission put forward a legislative proposal to amend the directive in May 2017, as part of its first 'mobility package' seeking to modernise mobility and transport. The aim of the proposal was to move away from a time-based model of charging (vignettes) to a distance-based one – that better reflects the polluter-pays and user-pays principles – and to include other vehicles. In Parliament, the Committee on Transport and Tourism (TRAN) took the lead. Parliament adopted its first-reading position in October 2018, without agreement with the Council. After the 2019 European elections, Giuseppe Ferrandino (S&D, Italy) took over as rapporteur. The Council adopted its position in December 2020. Interinstitutional negotiations in the first half of 2021 paved the way for an agreement, subsequently approved formally by both the Council and the Parliament. Sixth edition of a briefing originally drafted by Ariane Debyser and updated by Damiano Scordamaglia. The 'EU Legislation in Progress' briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure.
Autorid : Marketa PAPE

External policy tools to address modern slavery and forced labour EN

10-05-2022 PE 653.664 DROI
Kokkuvõte : The paper presents the findings of a study on external policy measures adopted by the European Union and like-minded partners to address modern slavery in third countries. The study is intended to support the European Parliament in monitoring EU external action and initiating the refinement of existing or the adoption of new external policy instruments relating to forced labour and modern slavery The study provides a review of the different external policy tools available to the EU to contribute to the eradication of modern slavery and forced labour in third countries, and assesses factors contributing to, and inhibiting, the effectiveness of these measures in practice. The analysis covers key areas of concern for external policy related to modern slavery within the domains of trade, development, and foreign policy. It further provides an overarching framework of considerations and approaches for the European Union in designing, implementing, and evaluating policy and programming related to modern slavery..
Autorid : Katarina SCHWARZ, Ergul CELIKSOY, Joanna SMĘTEK, Ewelina WOLOSIK, Katarzyna LUBIANIEC, Agnieszka MAKULEC, Todd LANDMAN

Illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing EN

06-05-2022 PE 614.599
Kokkuvõte : The IUU Regulation (1005/2008) is the core of the EU’s legal framework for action against global IUU fishing. Its primary objective is to prevent, deter and eliminate the trade of IUU-caught products into the EU. One of its key components is a multiple-step procedure for dealing with non-EU countries considered uncooperative in the fight against IUU fishing. Sixth edition. This infographic further updates an earlier one, the previous edition of which was in March 2021. For more information on IUU fishing and the EU's IUU Regulation 1005/2008, see EPRS briefing: PE 614.598.
Autorid : Irina POPESCU

Russia's war on Ukraine: The risk of trafficking of human beings EN

06-05-2022 PE 729.410
Kokkuvõte : The Russian invasion of Ukraine has forced millions of people to flee the country or move to safety within Ukraine's borders, resulting in one of the largest European humanitarian crises in recent times. The chaos generated by the conflict has exponentially increased the risk of human trafficking and exploitation, especially of the most vulnerable persons.
Autorid : Maria-Margarita MENTZELOPOULOU

Russia's war on Ukraine: The situation of LGBTI people EN

06-05-2022 PE 729.412
Kokkuvõte : More than two months into the Russian aggression against Ukraine, there is no sign of it ending – on the contrary, the news show the conflict and the atrocities committed on Ukrainian soil intensifying. The war has pushed millions of people to flee the country, or they have been displaced within Ukraine's borders, resulting in one of the largest European humanitarian crises in recent times. With each passing day, the chaos engendered by the war increases the risk of violence and exploitation exponentially, in particular for the most vulnerable, including women, children, Roma people, and members of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersexual (LGBTI) community.

Plenary round-up - May I 2022 EN

06-05-2022 PE 729.413
Kokkuvõte : Russia's war on Ukraine was again at the top of the agenda for the May I 2022 plenary session in Strasbourg. Members held three important debates related to the war: on the social and economic consequences for the EU and reinforcing the EU’s capacity to act, on EU preparedness against cyber-attacks following Russia's invasion of Ukraine, and on the impact on the EU transport and tourism sectors. Parliament debated Commission and Council statements on threats to the safety of journalists and media freedom, marking the annual World Press Freedom Day, on ongoing hearings under Article 7(1) TEU regarding Poland and Hungary, on the state of play of EU-Moldova cooperation, on building a wall on the Poland–Belarus border in the Białowieża primeval forest, and on threats to stability, security and democracy in western Africa and the Sahel. The follow up of the Conference on the Future of Europe was also debated. Following on from recent reforms to the structure of the plenary agenda, and in particular the return of question time with the Commission, Members discussed Europe’s energy autonomy – the strategic importance of renewables and energy interconnections and efficiency – with Commissioner Kadri Simson. A debate entitled 'This is Europe' was held with the Prime Minister of Italy, Mario Draghi, and other Heads of State or Government are expected to take part in future plenary sessions. Among the other debates held were those on the discharge for the 2020 budget, the EU action plan for organic agriculture, distortive foreign subsidies, the 2021 annual report on competition policy, and on artificial intelligence in a digital age.

Right to health, a comparative law perspective - United States of America EN

06-05-2022 PE 729.407
Kokkuvõte : This study forms part of a larger comparative law project which seeks to present the right to health in a broad range of legal systems around the world. After analysing the legislation in force and the most relevant case law, the content, limits, and possible evolution of this right are examined. The subject of this study is the United States federal legal system. The United States does not recognize a right to health. Governments are responsible for providing a healthy environment for individuals who are in their custody, such as prisoners, but there is no overall recognized right. The United States is a party to certain international conventions, such as the constitution of the World Health Organization and the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination; however, these instruments play no real role in determining U.S. domestic health policy. Instead, domestic policy is grounded upon the federal system, which assigns certain duties to the central government and the state governments. In addition, individuals have strong rights under the U.S. Constitution, which governments must respect. Courts must balance these rights against the needs of the public.
Autorid : EPRS, Comparative Law

Research for CULT Committee: Esports - Policy Recommendations EN

06-05-2022 PE 699.636 CULT
Kokkuvõte : KEY FINDINGS This Policy Recommendation Briefing is based on the study on “Esports - Background Analysis”. • A suitable and functioning strategy requires a shared understanding/definition of what esports is. It is important to differentiate esports from traditional sports. This can have an impact on the system of traditional sports as well. • Esports is constantly and rapidly evolving, making it necessary to address it as soon as possible. Creating a working group regarding a holistic esports strategy is highly recommendable. • The EU needs to foster interdisciplinary research on esports to gain a better understanding of the industry and on how to utilise esports for the European community. This knowledge can help to solve digital challenges in general. • The creation of a dedicated research centre for esports at the European level is required. • Esports-specific laws are needed just as they are in traditional sports. • The issue of where the regulatory authority concerning esports lies (or should lie) should be resolved. In traditional sports, this tends to be local, but esports is much more international and heterogeneous. • Esports stands for digital communication and innovation. In esports, Europe as a whole is more important than the individual Member States. Therefore, esports can be utilised for the creation of a (digital) European identity.
Autorid : Tobias M. SCHOLZ, Nepomuk NOTHELFER (Esports Research Network)

Economic dialogue with Ireland 11 May 2022 EN

06-05-2022 PE 699.538 ECON
Kokkuvõte : This note presents selected information on the current status of the EU economic governance procedures and related relevant information in view of an Economic Dialogue with Pascal Donohoe, Minister of Finance of Ireland, in the ECON committee of the European Parliament. The invitation for a dialogue is in accordance with the EU economic governance framework.

Pegasus and surveillance spyware EN

06-05-2022 PE 732.268 PEGA
Kokkuvõte : This In-Depth Analysis, drafted by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs for the Committee of Inquiry to investigate the use of Pegasus and equivalent surveillance spyware, looks into the confirmed or suspected use of the Pegasus spyware and other similar cyber-surveillance instruments in the EU and its Member States or targeting EU citizens or residents, EU reactions and previous activities on issues related to surveillance.

Research for CULT Committee: Esports - Background Analysis EN

06-05-2022 PE 699.635 CULT
Kokkuvõte : Esports has become an integral part of the digital society. Esports is a fast paced and heterogenic phenomenon and a cross-sectional topic linking gaming, entertainment and media, culture and art, education, business, diversity and inclusion, and sports. In this background analysis, the authors explain what esports is, what the different ecosystems look like and what the opportunities and challenges are. Esports can be utilised as an integral tool to shape the modern digital society and act as a key element of a digital European identity.
Autorid : Tobias M. SCHOLZ, Nepomuk NOTHELFER (Esports Research Network)

Portugal's National Recovery and Resilience Plan: Latest state of play EN

05-05-2022 PE 729.408
Kokkuvõte : Portugal is set to receive €16.6 billion in both non-repayable support and loans from the Recovery and Resilience Facility (RRF), the unprecedented EU response to the crisis triggered by the coronavirus pandemic. This amount corresponds to 2.3 % of the entire RRF, and to 7.8 % of Portugal's 2019 gross domestic product (GDP). There is a strong focus on the country's social, economic and environmental resilience, with measures targeting culture, housing, health, broad social responses, and forest and water management. Measures relating to climate transition – including key actions on industry decarbonisation and energy efficiency of buildings – reach just over 38 % of the allocation. The digital transition focus area of the Portuguese National Recovery and Resilience Plan (NRRP) amounts to just over 22 % of the allocation, with measures and reforms aimed at public administration and finances, education, and businesses. Following the Council's approval of the Commission's positive assessment of the plan, Portugal received €2.2 billion pre-financing in August 2021. Further payments, in 10 instalments for grants and seven for loans, will depend on progress in implementing the plan. In January 2022, Portugal submitted a first payment request worth €1.16 billion in grant and loan instalments (€0.55 billion in grants and €0.61 billion in loans). The Commission made a positive preliminary assessment of Portugal's payment request. The European Parliament is a major supporter of the creation of a common EU recovery instrument, and takes part in interinstitutional settings to cooperate, discuss and scrutinise implementation of the European Commission's work. This briefing is one in a series covering all EU Member States.

Luxembourg's National Recovery and Resilience Plan: Latest state of play EN

05-05-2022 PE 729.409
Kokkuvõte : Luxembourg's National Recovery and Resilience Plan (NRRP) is set to be financed by the Recovery and Resilience Facility (RRF) with a total of €93.4 million, consisting of grants alone. While under Article 14 of Regulation (EU) 2021/241 (RRF Regulation) Member States can request RRF loans until 31 August 2023, Luxembourg has not yet done so. The €93.4 million requested is slightly less than the maximum RRF contribution available to the country (around €93.5 million). Luxembourg's RRF allocation is not only the smallest in absolute figures, but also the lowest as a share of grants in relation to both gross domestic product (GDP) (0.15 % of GDP in 2019) and per capita (with €158 per citizen). The Luxembourgish NRRP includes measures for a total estimated value of €183.1 million: the RRF's €93.4 million cover 51 % of the costs, while the remainder will benefit from national (around 46 %) and other EU co-financing (the remaining 3 %). The plan aims to address Luxembourg's structural issues, aggravated by the pandemic. The measures included complement and build on priorities laid out in the national economic stimulus package from May 2020 (i.e. the Neistart Lëtzebuerg programme). The central objective is to support social cohesion and the promotion of a modern and attractive economic environment, while responding to climate and environmental challenges. With 60.9 % of the funds allocated to climate objectives and 31.6 % to the digital transition – well above the RRF Regulation's minimum targets – the NRRP will contribute to common European efforts in these areas. The climate and environmental policy guidelines in the NRRP are consistent with Luxembourg's integrated national energy and climate plan (NECP) for 2021-2030. The Luxembourgish NRRP's components relating to skills, health, housing and governance also support cohesion and growth potential significantly in the long term. The European Parliament participates in interinstitutional forums for cooperation and discussion on the implementation of the RRF, and scrutinises the work of the European Commission. This briefing is one in a series covering all EU Member States.
Autorid : Velina LILYANOVA

A reimbursement system based on a fixed lump sum - Is it the right tool for the EU Framework Programme for research? EN

05-05-2022 PE 697.218
Kokkuvõte : Should the EU Framework Programmes for research use the recently piloted lump-sum (LS) system instead of traditional, expense-based reimbursement? The idea behind LS is that payments are made based on obtained results according to the agreed project plan. It aims to simplify the system by removing cost reporting, and helping to shift the focus from financial management to the technical and scientific content of projects. This study has collected input from 167 individuals from 29 countries, working for universities, research and technology organisations, small and large corporations, government organisations and European institutions, complemented by in-depth interviews with five randomly selected respondents. The most important result is that the general attitude towards the LS system is quite positive – it is perceived as better than the traditional system, at least for some funding schemes, and is seen as meeting its aims. However, the system could be modified further to reach its full potential.
Autorid : DG, EPRS

Climate Mainstreaming in the EU Budget: 2022 Update EN

05-05-2022 PE 732.369 BUDG CONT
Kokkuvõte : This study reviews and updates the previous study ‘Documenting climate mainstreaming in the EU budget - Making the system more transparent, stringent and comprehensive’, published in July 2020. It provides an overview of the methods used by the European Commission to track expenditure on climate protection and biodiversity, with a critical assessment of the methodological strengths and weaknesses. It examines the legislative framework for the 2021-2027 programming period and the Commission’s approach to ensuring that the target for climate expenditure is reached. The study also suggests objectives and recommendations for the implementation of the Interinstitutional Agreement (IIA).
Autorid : François LEVARLET et al.

Practices on the Side-Earnings of EU Public Office Holders and Functionaries EN

05-05-2022 PE 732.269 BUDG CONT
Kokkuvõte : The study on ‘Practices on the Side-Earnings of EU Public Office Holders and Functionaries’ was carried out for the European Parliament’s Budgetary Control Committee in 2022. The study highlights significant differences in the rules being applied in the various EU Institutions and Member States. It highlights a number of good practices and the possible implications for the proposed EU ethics body.

HERA work plan 2022: Foresight and capabilities of the European Health Union EN

04-05-2022 PE 729.406
Kokkuvõte : The Health Emergency Preparedness and Response Authority (HERA), the Commission's new Directorate-General for monitoring cross-border health threats, has published its first work plan, for 2022. This 'At a glance' note gives an overview of the actions that HERA is expected to take in its first year, and lists key deliverables that offer the opportunity for future-oriented scrutiny and oversight by Members of the European Parliament.

Revision of the Trans-European Transport Network (TEN-T) Regulation EN

04-05-2022 PE 730.316 TRAN
Kokkuvõte : The IA provides a comprehensive problem analysis, based on the evaluation of the current TEN-T Regulation, a public consultation, and targeted consultations with stakeholders and Member States. It is transparent about the methods and uncertainties (e.g. long-term funding) and limitations. The objectives and the policy options have a clear link to the problem definition. The IA comprehensively analyses the economic, social and environmental impacts of the policy options. However, territorial impacts linked to the shift to more sustainable modes of transport could have been explained in more depth. Costs and benefits are assessed and quantified. It could have been explained in more detail how funding will be mobilised. All in all, the IA provides useful information for policy-makers and future policy choices.

Chile: Economic indicators and trade with EU EN

03-05-2022 PE 729.371
Kokkuvõte : Trade relations between the EU and Chile are imbalanced not only in terms of trends in export and import of goods, but also in the diversity of trade products and in their ranking in the list of main trade partners. The EU was Chile's third biggest trade partner in 2021, with a 10,4 % share in Chile's trade with the world. Germany, Spain and the Netherlands are leading the list of Chile's top EU trade partners.

EU legislation and policies to address racial and ethnic discrimination EN

03-05-2022 PE 690.525
Kokkuvõte : Racial and ethnic minorities face discrimination and its consequences on a daily basis. The exact scale of the problem is hard to gauge due to a lack of data and general under-reporting of racist incidents. The coronavirus pandemic has seen a major increase in reports of racist and xenophobic incidents, and the crisis it triggered has had a disproportionately large negative effect on racial and ethnic minority groups, in the form of higher death and infection rates. Although since 2000 the European Union (EU) has introduced legislation to combat racial and xenophobic discrimination, the problem persists, with the need for new measures recently highlighted by the global Black Lives Matter protests. A number of studies also point to the cost of racial discrimination not only for the individuals concerned but also for society as a whole. For instance, a 2018 EPRS report argued that the loss in earnings caused by racial and ethnic discrimination for both individuals and societies amounts to billions of euros annually. EU citizens also acknowledge this problem: a 2019 survey found that over half of Europeans believe racial or ethnic discrimination to be widespread in their country. To address racial discrimination and the inequalities it engenders, the European Commission has put forward a number of equality strategies and actions. One such action, the second European summit against racism, was held on 21 March 2022. The European Parliament, meanwhile, has long been demanding an end to racial discrimination. In recent resolutions, the Parliament has called for putting an end to structural racism, discrimination, racial profiling and police brutality; for asserting the right to protest peacefully; and for boosting the role of culture, education, media and sport in the fight against racism. This updates a briefing from March 2021.

Revision of the market stability reserve for the EU emissions trading system: Fit for 55 package EN

03-05-2022 PE 698.896
Kokkuvõte : The proposal to revise the market stability reserve (MSR) for the EU emissions trading system (ETS) consists of prolonging its current parameters. Under the current rules, the intake rate of allowances to the MSR and the minimum allowances placed in the reserve have been doubled until the end of 2023, to allow for a quick removal of surplus EU ETS allowances. The proposal is aimed at maintaining the current doubled intake rate (24 %) and minimum number of allowances placed in the reserve (200 million) until 31 December 2030, the end of Phase IV of the EU ETS. In Parliament, the file has been assigned to the Committee on the Environment, Public Health and Food Safety (ENVI). The committee adopted its report on 15 March 2022, with 65 votes in favour, 20 against and one abstention. During the plenary sitting of 5 April 2022, the Parliament adopted, with amendments to the recitals, the institution's position for negotiations, by 490 votes in favour, 127 against and seven abstentions. The Council is currently debating the proposal. Its December 2021 progress report notes delegations' differing views. Third edition. 'EU legislation in progress' briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure.

The EU's zero pollution ambition: Moving towards a non-toxic environment EN

03-05-2022 PE 729.404
Kokkuvõte : In the European Union (EU), one in eight deaths is linked to environmental pollution. Pollution is also one of the five main causes of biodiversity loss, representing a significant cost for society. The EU has set the goal of achieving zero pollution for a non-toxic environment by 2050. This would mean reducing air, water and soil pollution to 'levels no longer considered harmful to health and natural ecosystems and respecting the boundaries the planet can cope with'. Achieving this long-term ambition will mean updating the comprehensive legal framework currently in place at EU level to address pollution in order to keep up with the latest scientific evidence. In 2022, the EU is expected to review its air quality standards to align more closely with the recently updated World Health Organization recommendations, and to look into pollutants affecting surface and groundwater. Additional areas that should be revised in parallel include key laws designed to tackle pollution at source, setting requirements for pollutant emissions from industry and vehicles, for urban wastewater treatment and sustainable use of pesticides. The key challenges in achieving the zero pollution goal remain to ensure policy coherence, compliance and enforcement. Other issues to monitor include liability for pollution and related costs, with recent assessments pointing to the need to be consistent and rigorous in implementing the 'polluter pays' principle. Parliament has pushed for ambitious action to protect people's health and the environment from pollution. It has argued that air quality legislation should also cover non-regulated pollutants with demonstrated adverse impacts, such as ultrafine particles, black carbon, mercury and ammonia. It has also called for decisive action on pollutants of emerging concern in water, such as per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances, microplastics, endocrine-disrupting chemicals and pharmaceuticals. Finally, it has urged the Commission to design a dedicated legal framework for soil protection, equivalent to that existing for water and air. Recently, steps have been taken at global level to curb plastic pollution through legally binding means and to form a science-policy interface body on chemicals and waste.
Autorid : Vivienne HALLEUX

Textiles and the environment EN

03-05-2022 PE 729.405
Kokkuvõte : The amount of clothes bought per person in the European Union (EU) has increased by 40 % in just a few decades, driven by a fall in prices and the increased speed with which fashion is delivered to consumers. Clothing has the fourth highest impact on the environment of all categories of EU consumption. This impact is often felt in non-EU countries, where most production takes place. The production of raw materials, spinning them into fibres, weaving fabrics and dyeing require enormous amounts of water and chemicals, including pesticides for growing raw materials such as cotton. Consumer use also has a large environmental footprint, owing to the water, energy and chemicals used in washing, tumble-drying and ironing, and microplastics shed into the environment. Less than half of used clothes are collected for reuse or recycling when they are no longer needed, and only 1 % are recycled into new clothes, since technologies that would enable clothes to be recycled into virgin fibres are only now starting to emerge. Various ways to address these issues have been proposed, including developing new business models for clothing rental, designing products in a way that would make re-use and recycling easier (circular fashion), convincing consumers to buy fewer clothes of better quality (slow fashion), and generally steering consumer behaviour towards choosing more sustainable options. The European Commission laid out its vision for the textiles sector for 2030 in the March 2022 EU strategy for sustainable and circular textiles. The Commission has proposed a regulation on ecodesign requirements for sustainable products and a directive on empowering consumers for the green transition. The package will aim to make all products on the internal market more sustainable, while providing consumers with information on sustainability. The application of these rules to textiles will be specified in delegated acts, largely planned for 2024. This briefing expands on and updates a 2019 EPRS briefing Environmental impact of the textile and clothing industry: What consumers need to know.
Autorid : Nikolina SAJN

The future of the European Financial Architecture for Development EN

03-05-2022 PE 653.665 DEVE
Kokkuvõte : The workshop, organised at the request of the Committee on Development (DEVE) on 7 February 2022, provided a brainstorming platform for an exchange of views between Members of the committee, invited experts and various stakeholders, on the future of European Financial Architecture for Development (EFAD). It examined the state of play and the decisions made by the Council to pursue the ‘status quo +’ option, as well as other alternative options and scenarios, such as the establishment of a European Climate and Sustainable Development Bank. It provided recommendations on the best way forward, including on the roles of the European Investment Bank (EIB), the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) and EU Member States’ development finance institutions, also in the context of the ‘Team Europe’ approach and the implementation of the NDICI-Global Europe regulation. The workshop was accompanied by written briefings by external experts, feeding into the drafting process of the committee’s own-initiative report on the subject-matter. Two panels corresponding to the thematic focus of the experts’ briefings were held as follows: Panel 1: ‘Evaluation of the state of play of the European Financial Architecture for Development’ and Panel 2: ‘The roles of the European Investment Bank (EIB), the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) and EU Member States’ development finance institutions’. This report compiles the briefings, and a summary of the debate.
Autorid : Mikaela GAVAS; Aitor PÉREZ

Democratic Oversight of the Police EN

03-05-2022 PE 703.590 LIBE
Kokkuvõte : This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the LIBE Committee, aims to provide background information concerning police ethics, accountability, and oversight across the EU. The study shows that existing EU tools and instruments can contribute to enhance police accountability. The study also identifies some gaps and weaknesses. Recommendations are provided in order to remedy the gaps and weaknesses identified
Autorid : Emmanuel-Pierre GUITTET, Niovi VAVOULA, Anastassia TSOUKALA, Monika BAYLIS

IPR and the use of open data and data sharing initiatives by public and private actors EN

03-05-2022 PE 732.266 JURI
Kokkuvõte : This study analyses recent developments in data related practice, law and policy as well as the current legal framework for data access, sharing, and use in the European Union. The study identifies particular issues of concern and highlights respective need for action. On this basis, the study evaluates the Commission’s proposal for a Data Act. The study is commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the Committee on Legal Affairs.
Autorid : Matthias Leistner, Lucie Antoine

Roaming Regulation review EN

02-05-2022 PE 690.605
Kokkuvõte : The Roaming Regulation established the 'roam like at home' (RLAH) rule that mandated the end of retail mobile roaming charges as of 15 June 2017 in all EU Member States and EEA countries. The regulation is currently in force until 30 June 2022. The application of the RLAH rule has been a success, boosting the use of mobile devices while travelling to other EU/EEA countries. For instance, the use of data roaming increased 17 times in the summer of 2019 compared with the summer preceding the abolition of roaming surcharges. Nevertheless, five years after its implementation, the Commission needed to review the Roaming Regulation, with a view to extending the roaming market rules for a further 10 years. The Commission also sought to continue lowering wholesale roaming charges, improve the quality of roaming services, and provide access to all available network generations and technologies, including free access to emergency services, and information on any cost incurred in accessing value added services. Within the European Parliament the file was allocated to the Committee on Industry, Research and Energy (ITRE). The committee report was adopted on 14 October 2021, and the mandate for trilogue negotiations approved in plenary the following week. For its part, the Council agreed its position on 16 June 2021. The co-legislators reached a provisional agreement on the text on 9 December 2021. According to the final text, which was published in the Official Journal of the EU on 13 April 2022 and enters into force on 1 July 2022, the RLAH regime will be renewed for a further 10 years.
Autorid : Maria Del Mar NEGREIRO ACHIAGA, Maria Niestadt

Towards new rules for European elections? EN

02-05-2022 PE 729.403
Kokkuvõte : During the May I plenary session, Parliament is expected to vote on a legislative-initiative report proposing to repeal the 1976 European Electoral Act and replace it with a new Council Regulation on the election of the Members of the European Parliament (MEPs) by direct universal suffrage. Since the first European elections in 1979, the rules applying to the election of MEPs combine the common principles established in the European Electoral Act, as modified in 2002, and the different national rules implementing them. As a result, important elements of the electoral procedure remain in the hands of the national legislatures and there is no harmonisation across the Member States. Following the proposals in Parliament's (26 November 2020) resolution on stocktaking of European elections, the report proposes to further harmonise the rules applicable to European elections in areas such as the age for voting or standing as a candidate; postal voting; the electoral calendar for European elections; the principles applicable to the selection of candidates, including from a gender perspective; and the electoral threshold. In addition, the report proposes to establish a common electoral system and procedure for the election of 28 MEPs in a Union-wide constituency comprising the territory of all the Member States. Once finalised by Parliament, the proposal is transmitted to the Council for its adoption, with the EP required to consent to the final text. First edition. The 'EU Legislation in Progress' briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure.
Autorid : Maria DIAZ CREGO

Research for REGI Committee: EU regions in the transformation towards a climate-neutral future EN

30-04-2022 PE 699.629 REGI
Kokkuvõte : This study provides information on requirements and goals for successful transformation towards a climate neutral future at regional level in the EU. Based on the analysis of six regional best practice examples across the EU, the key drivers, conditions and instruments for a successful transformation were identified. The project results in the formulation of specified policy recommendations for EU decision-makers in the field of supporting the EU regions in achieving the goals of climate neutrality.
Autorid : Jacques LECARTE, Frederic GOUARDERES

The situation of Article 2 TEU values in Greece - Focus on anti-corruption measures and media freedom EN

30-04-2022 PE 732.214 LIBE
Kokkuvõte : This In-Depth Analysis, requested by the European Parliament's LIBE Committee - Democracy Rule of Law and Fundamental Rights Monitoring Group, examines the situation of Democracy, the Rule of Law and Fundamental Rights in Greece and how Article 2 TEU values are respected and implemented in the country, focusing on anti-corruption measures and issues related to media freedom.

Single Audit Approach - Root Causes of the Weaknesses in the Work of the Member States’ Managing and Audit Authorities EN

30-04-2022 PE 732.267 BUDG AFCO CONT
Kokkuvõte : This study aims to analyse the problems that Member States’ authorities and bodies experience in the implementation, control and audit of EU expenditure, their root causes and implications for the Single Audit approach. In particular, the specific objectives of this study are to: • Gain a comprehensive insight into the causes of the problems that Member States’ authorities and bodies face when implementing, controlling and auditing the European Union budget. • Assess the quality of their work, the independence and reliability of the auditors’ work as well as specific weaknesses in the management and control systems. • Assess the cooperation with relevant players including other national bodies, national supreme audit authorities and the EU institutions and bodies (e.g. ECA, Commission, OLAF and EPPO). • Analyse the extent of respect and application of European and international applicable standards.
Autorid : Rita CALATOZZOLO

Young people in the EU: A demographic snapshot EN

29-04-2022 PE 729.400
Kokkuvõte : Why should young people in the EU worry about demographic change? For one thing, because the share of children and young people in the total population has been decreasing, while the share of elderly people continues to grow. Adding these figures up means today's children are expected to face an increased burden in supporting the remainder of the population as they grow up and move into work. Indeed, in 2019, out of the 447 million inhabitants of the EU-27, 68 million were children (aged 14 or less) and 91 million were older people (aged 65 years or more). A third of the total EU population — around 142 million — were under the age of 30. There were slightly more boys than girls, with the former representing 51 % of the population aged 14 years or less.
Autorid : Ivana KATSAROVA

What if AI regulation promoted innovation? EN

29-04-2022 PE 729.515
Kokkuvõte : The word 'innovation' is often used as shorthand for improved technical, economic and social processes. However, any specific innovation involves the redistribution of costs and benefits, creating winners and losers. For some, regulation of technology should be avoided in case it hinders innovation, while others see regulation as essential, to mitigate risks on the path to innovation. However, regulation and innovation are not a zero-sum game. Debates about regulatory (in)action and its impact on innovation would benefit from greater specificity about which innovation paths are considered desirable, for whom, and how policy choices would help to achieve them. This paper explores the relationship between regulation and innovation in the context of artificial intelligence (AI).
Autorid : Philip Nicholas BOUCHER

EU gas storage and LNG capacity as responses to the war in Ukraine EN

29-04-2022 PE 729.401
Kokkuvõte : Russia remains Europe's largest supplier of coal, oil, and gas. This poses a particular difficulty for the EU and its Member States, which are urgently seeking to reduce their energy dependence. This is not only necessary to pressure Russia economically to end its invasion of Ukraine, but also to prevent Russia from weaponising its energy supplies and threatening Europe’s energy security in future. Replacing Russian natural gas will be much more difficult than replacing oil and coal, due to differences in supply infrastructure, transportation and storage. While part of the long-term solution lies in the promotion of renewable energy sources and energy efficiency savings, the EU will nevertheless require large volumes of natural gas imports in the short and medium term. Since most of Europe’s pipeline infrastructure is organised to import Russian gas, alternative supplies will mostly have to come by sea in the form of liquefied natural gas (LNG). To guarantee security of supply, the EU will also need to ensure gas storage levels remain high so Member States can cope with a sudden interruption of gas supplies. However, both LNG terminals and gas storage capacity are unevenly spread across Europe, with important policy implications. There is a clear need to frontload investment to diversify supplies and fill storage, but uncertainty as to who can or should finance these changes. There is also the question of how to coordinate policy action at EU level, how to buffer against negative social and economic consequences, and how to ensure coherence of security of supply with the 'fit for 55' package and the European Green Deal.
Autorid : Lasse BOEHM, Alex Benjamin WILSON

Important projects of common European interest: State of play EN

29-04-2022 PE 729.402
Kokkuvõte : The concept of important projects of common European interest (IPCEIs) is enshrined in Article 107(3)(b) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union. It enables the Commission to allow Member States to design and implement national investments targeting important market failures or societal challenges that could not otherwise be addressed. In November 2021, the Commission adopted a communication updating a 2014 communication that established the first set of guidance to be used for the assessment of IPCEIs. The revision is designed to align the criteria more closely with EU political priorities, in particular the European Green Deal and the digital strategy, while also making the setting up of IPCEIs more transparent and open to new participating Member States and economic players. In the context of the twin digital and ecological transition, IPCEIs are expected to boost the EU's strategic autonomy by ensuring Member States' capacity to invest together in technological development, and by encouraging the dissemination of solutions and promoting cooperation across the EU and the economy. As of February 2022, three IPCEIs have been approved by the Commission: one on microelectronics and two on batteries (with up to 12 participating Member States). A further initiative on microelectronics, with 20 participating Member States, was notified to the Commission in December 2021 and is awaiting approval. Other initiatives, on clean hydrogen, next generation cloud and health, are being explored.

Digitalisation of cross-border judicial cooperation EN

29-04-2022 PE 730.313 LIBE
Kokkuvõte : While the Commission makes the case for advancing the digitalisation of judicial cooperation, and while the IA supporting this initiative received a positive opinion from the RSB, it does nevertheless appear weak on several points. The Commission corroborates its problem definition using several recent sources and data. The Commission conducted several stakeholder consultation activities, for some of which, more specific information would have been useful. Stakeholder views are reflected in the IA report. It appears, however, that the main source, an external study, is available only in the interinstitutional database of EU studies and not available to the wider public at the time of writing. Moreover, it appears that the range of options is very limited, with seemingly no real alternative to the preferred legislative, Option 2 (the voluntary approach under the Option 1 is not considered as effective). It is notable that the description of impacts relating to data protection and data security is very limited for all options, despite their likely relevance.
Autorid : Katharina EISELE

Policy Departments’ Monthly Highlights - May 2022 EN

Kokkuvõte : The Monthly Highlights publication provides an overview, at a glance, of the on-going work of the policy departments, including a selection of the latest and forthcoming publications, and a list of future events.

Recovery and Resilience Plans: the involvement of stakeholders and their view EN

29-04-2022 PE 699.530 ECON
Kokkuvõte : This paper provides an overview of stakeholders’ activities at national, regional and local level, in relation to national Recovery and Resilience Plans (RRPs). The overview is based on two surveys, recently conducted. Furthermore, it presents the latest opinions and assessments by EU stakeholders and other relevant institutions and bodies on the implementation of these plans. This paper is a follow-up of previous EGOV publications on the involvement and views expressed by stakeholders in the context of the recovery and resilience plans.

Recovery and Resilience Dialogue with the European Commission EN

29-04-2022 PE 699.536 ECON
Kokkuvõte : Executive Vice-President Dombrovskis and Commissioner Gentiloni have been invited to the sixth Recovery and Resilience Dialogue under the Recovery and Resilience Facility Regulation. This briefing first presents a state of play of the Recovery and Resilience Plans, and looks the most recent data on four payment requests more recently submitted, the partial recalculation of grants’ allocation; the upcoming reporting on common indicators; the recent European Court of Justice rule of law decisions and information on two recent initiatives aimed at gathering information on national parliaments and local and regional authorities’ involvement in the RRF. The following sections address lessons learnt from the Facility and provide available information on projected economic developments given new geopolitical events and risks arising. Furthermore, the briefing lists a number of previous EGOV papers on the Recovery and Resilience Facility.

Economic repercussions of Russia’s war on Ukraine – Weekly Digest 29 April 2022 EN

29-04-2022 PE 699.537 ECON
Kokkuvõte : This paper provides a summary of recent economic, financial and budgetary decisions and developments following President Vladimir Putin’s decision of 24 February to start a military attack against Ukraine. It includes recent information relating to the EU sanctions regime, recent economic estimates, policies supporting economic and financial resilience, including the coordination of national economic and fiscal measures. It also highlights policy recommendations made in the public domain to mitigate any adverse economic, financial and social effects and to support economic recovery in the EU and the Euro Area.

Russia's war on Ukraine: US response EN

28-04-2022 PE 729.399
Kokkuvõte : The United States imposed a battery of sanctions and multilateral measures on Russia following its invasion of Ukraine, while also providing Ukraine and its EU neighbours with military, economic and humanitarian aid.
Autorid : Marcin SZCZEPANSKI, Matthew PARRY

Review of rules for alternative investment funds EN

28-04-2022 PE 730.306 ECON
Kokkuvõte : The IA supports the proposal for the review of the AIFMD in an overall effective and transparent manner. It is based on solid internal and external expertise, including an array of technical recommendations from the relevant EU and international bodies in charge of monitoring and supervising investment funds. While the intervention logic of the mostly qualitative IA is clear, some aspects could have been substantiated in a more precise way. The highly technical analysis would have been more accessible to non-expert readers if interdependencies and links between the problems and drivers, and between objectives, options and monitoring indicators, had been indicated more clearly. The IA justifies limited quantification by a lack of data, providing quantified estimates (only) for the expected potential REFIT cost savings in the area of depositary services. The IA favours, for the time being, less prescriptive solutions in order to respect proportionality and subsidiarity. It highlights the need of additional targeted expertise for a number of questions, including as regards harmonisation of reporting requirements.
Autorid : Esther KRAMER

Completing the single market for services EN

28-04-2022 PE 730.311
Kokkuvõte : The pandemic and the negotiations following Brexit have been a serious challenge for the integrity of the single market. Growing world tensions and the military aggression against Ukraine by the Russian Federation are further emphasising the benefits of unity between Member States. Faced with this extremely difficult environment, the EU has responded with unprecedented determination, developing a series of new tools and coordination mechanisms, such as common procurement and fiscal support, to rapidly address weaknesses. This is, however, not the time for complacency, as the international environment continues to be increasingly uncertain, complex and rapidly-changing. Common and long-term strategic ambition at EU level is required more than ever. Previous evaluations by DG EPRS concluded that completing the single market for services could be instrumental in that respect. In this briefing, our analysis confirms that barriers in service sectors and distortions induced by state involvement continue to significantly hinder free movement of services within the EU. Further ambitious action would be beneficial, with between €279 billion and €457 billion of additional GDP per annum in the long term. We thus conclude that completing the single market for services is an integral part of the path towards more strategic autonomy, more resilience, more security, and more rapid, broad-based and sustainable development.

Improving working conditions in platform work EN

28-04-2022 PE 730.315 EMPL
Kokkuvõte : The IA presents a qualitative and partially quantitative assessment in support of the proposal on working conditions in platform work. The problem definition would have benefited from further clarification, in particular of the target group, as it refers to 'some people', whilst the IA describes more widely problems faced by all of the people working through platforms. The IA openly explains the difficulties relating to the lack of data on platforms, an issue that the authors of the IA tried to address by making great efforts to collect relevant data, for example, through a survey and broad stakeholder consultations. The IA provides a sufficient range of options to address the defined problems and clearly describes the stakeholders' views, which appear to diverge, for example regarding the rebuttable presumption with reversed burden of proof of an employment status. In the impacts assessment, the proportionality criterion was not used in the comparison of the options, contrary to the recommendations of the Better Regulation Guidelines. Moreover, the IA openly indicates that it was not possible to quantify some costs (e.g. risk assessment, data portability). Despite its weaknesses, the IA is able to provide a useful information package for decision-making. As a technical point, to facilitate reader-friendliness, part of the information included in the extensive annexes could have been included in the main analysis.

Completing the single market for goods EN

28-04-2022 PE 730.320
Kokkuvõte : The pandemic and the negotiations following Brexit have been a serious challenge for the integrity of the single market, in particular regarding free movement. Growing world tensions and the military aggression against Ukraine by the Russian Federation are now further emphasising the benefits of unity between Member States. Faced with this extremely difficult environment, the EU has responded with unprecedented determination, developing a series of tools and coordination mechanisms, such as common procurement and fiscal support, to rapidly address weaknesses. As the situation remains uncertain and as risks accumulate, continued common action and long-term strategic planning at EU level is required more than ever to significantly reduce harmful dependencies. Previous evaluations by EPRS stressed that the single market for goods could be instrumental in this respect. In this briefing, our updated simulations confirm that the untapped potential from the single market for goods is still substantial. In particular, as barriers to trade facilitation and complexity of regulatory procedures continue to hinder the free movement of goods, further action in this area could significantly boost intra-EU trade, with potential economic benefits of between €228 billion and €372 billion per annum. We therefore conclude that completing the single market for goods is an integral part of the path towards more strategic autonomy, more resilience, more security, and more rapid, broad-based and sustainable development.

EU economic developments and projections EN

28-04-2022 PE 645.716 ECON
Kokkuvõte : This briefing provides a summary of the recent economic developments in the EU Member States and gives an overview of relevant economic projections forecasted by major international and EU institutions

Thematic Digest - the EU value added of a set of Recovery and Resilience Plans EN

28-04-2022 PE 689.466 ECON
Kokkuvõte : This briefing provides a summarised comparative analysis of three papers prepared by external experts at the request of the ECON Committee on the value added of a number of national Recovery and Resilience Plans. It further contains a summary of each of the three papers provided. Both the comparative analysis and the summaries are prepared under EGOV responsibility; assessing and evaluating the integral views of the authors require a read-through of the full papers.

Investigation into the potential of artificial intelligence in the digital age EN

27-04-2022 PE 729.381
Kokkuvõte : As a general-purpose technology, artificial intelligence (AI) has the potential to change our lives. It could bring many benefits, from increasing farming efficiency to helping to fight climate change and making transport safer, cleaner and more efficient. However, AI also generates a number of issues, such as opaque decision-making, discrimination, and intrusion into our private lives. To investigate these challenges and to analyse the impact of AI on the EU economy, the European Parliament decided to set up a special committee in June 2020. The Special Committee on Artificial Intelligence in a Digital Age (AIDA) adopted its final report on 22 March 2022, which Parliament is due to debate during the May I plenary session. This updates an earlier 'At a glance' note, from March 2022.
Autorid : Maria Niestadt

Strengthening Europol's mandate EN

27-04-2022 PE 729.382
Kokkuvõte : In December 2020, the Commission proposed to amend the Europol Regulation to improve the agency's cooperation with private parties, reinforce its role in research and innovation for law enforcement and remedy the legal gaps in the processing of personal data. During the May I plenary session, Parliament is set to vote on the provisional agreement resulting from interinstitutional negotiations.
Autorid : Carmen-Cristina CIRLIG

Proposing new rules for European elections EN

27-04-2022 PE 729.384
Kokkuvõte : The rules that apply to European elections are not uniform throughout the Union. Member States apply different national electoral rules, although all need to comply with the common principles established in the 1976 European Electoral Act. During the May I plenary session, Parliament is expected to vote on a legislative initiative proposing to repeal the European Electoral Act with a new Council regulation further harmonising the rules applicable to European elections, including through the creation of a Union-wide electoral constituency.
Autorid : Maria DIAZ CREGO

Discharge for 2020 budget – EU institutions other than the European Commission EN

27-04-2022 PE 729.386
Kokkuvõte : During the May I plenary session, the European Parliament is due to vote on the discharge for the execution of the EU budget for the 2020 financial year. Concerning administrative expenditure, the European Parliament's Committee on Budgetary Control (CONT) recommends granting discharge for the implementation of six administrative sections of the EU budget for 2020. For the European Council and Council, the Court of Auditors and the Economic and Social Committee, it recommends postponing the decision on granting discharge. If the proposals to postpone discharge are adopted, CONT will table new reports within six months.

Discharge for 2020 budget – European Commission, executive agencies and European development funds EN

27-04-2022 PE 729.387
Kokkuvõte : During its May I plenary session, the European Parliament is due to vote on whether to grant discharge for the 2020 financial year to the EU's various institutions and bodies. First in line is the report on the European Commission and six executive agencies, responsible for the bulk of EU budget spending. Separate discharge is granted for management of the European development funds (EDFs). Parliament's Committee on Budgetary Control (CONT) recommends that Parliament grant the Commission and all six executive agencies discharge for 2020. It also recommends granting discharge for implementation of the EDFs' 2020 operations.