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Plenary round-up – June II 2022 EN

24-06-2022 PE 733.563
Kort overzicht
Samenvatting : The highlight of the June II 2022 plenary session was the vote to overwhelmingly endorse the granting of candidate status to Ukraine and Moldova, and – once it meets the conditions set out by the Commission – Georgia. On the evening of 23 June, EU leaders did indeed follow suit. Members debated preparations for that European Council meeting taking place on 23-24 June 2022, including the meeting with Western Balkan leaders on 23 June. The Parliament also debated with the Commission and Council the use of national vetoes undermining the global tax deal, and held debates, inter alia, on implementation and delivery of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals, and the future of EU international investment policy. Parliament adopted its position, following the urgent procedure, on exceptional temporary support under the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development in response to the impact of Russia's invasion of Ukraine. A 'This is Europe' debate was held with the Prime Minister of Croatia, Andrej Plenković. Finally, in a formal sitting, Members heard an address by Hakainde Hichilema, President of the Republic of Zambia.

ReFuelEU Aviation initiative: Sustainable aviation fuels and the fit for 55 package EN

24-06-2022 PE 698.900
Samenvatting : On 14 July 2021, the European Commission presented a package of proposals to make the EU's climate, energy, land use, transport and taxation policies fit for reducing net greenhouse gas emissions by at least 55 % by 2030, compared with 1990 levels – the 'fit for 55' package. The package includes a proposal to ensure a level playing field for sustainable air transport, also known as the ReFuelEU Aviation initiative. In the draft regulation, the Commission proposes obligations on fuel suppliers to distribute sustainable aviation fuels (SAF), with an increasing share of SAF (including synthetic aviation fuels, commonly known as e-fuels) over time, in order to increase the uptake of SAF by airlines and thereby reduce emissions from aviation. The proposal also includes obligations on airlines to limit the uptake of jet fuel before departing from EU airports to what is needed for safe operation of flights, with the aim of ensuring a level playing field for airlines and airports, and avoiding additional emissions related to extra weight of aircraft carrying excessive amounts of fuel. In the European Parliament, the file has been referred to the Committee on Transport and Tourism (TRAN) as the lead committee. The Committee on the Environment, Public Health and Food Safety (ENVI) and the Committee on Industry, Research and Energy (ITRE) are associated under Rule 57. Third edition. The 'EU Legislation in Progress' briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure.
Indieners : Jaan SOONE

Metaverse: Opportunities, risks and policy implications EN

24-06-2022 PE 733.557
Samenvatting : One of the most talked about concepts in modern technology, the metaverse can be described as an immersive and constant virtual 3D world where people interact by means of an avatar to carry out a wide range of activities. Such activities can range from leisure and gaming to professional and commercial interactions, financial transactions or even health interventions such as surgery. While the exact scope and impact of the metaverse on society and on the economy is still unknown, it can already be seen that the metaverse will open up a range of opportunities but also a number of risks in a variety of policy areas. Major tech companies are scaling up their metaverse activities, including through mergers and acquisitions. This has given impetus to a debate on how merger regulations and antitrust law should apply. Business in the metaverse is expected to be underpinned largely by cryptocurrencies and non-fungible tokens, raising issues of ownership, misuse, interoperability and portability. Furthermore, the huge volume of data used in the metaverse raises a number of data protection and cybersecurity issues (e.g. how to collect user consent or protect avatars against identity theft). There is considerable scope for a wide range of illegal and harmful behaviours and practices in the metaverse environment. This makes it essential to consider how to attribute responsibility, inter alia, for fighting illegal and harmful practices and misleading advertising practices, and for protecting intellectual property rights. Moreover, digital immersion in the metaverse can have severe negative impacts on health, especially for vulnerable groups, such as minors, who may require special protection. Finally, the accessibility and inclusiveness of the metaverse remain areas where progress has still to be made in order to create an environment of equal opportunities.
Indieners : Tambiama André MADIEGA, POLONA CAR, Maria Niestadt

China's strategic interests in the Western Balkans EN

24-06-2022 PE 733.558
Samenvatting : The six Western Balkan countries (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo,* Montenegro, North Macedonia and Serbia) are all countries with substantial economic catch-up potential. The EU-led Berlin Process estimated an annual investment need of some €7.7 billion, which would provide the region with an additional 1 % GDP growth and a positive employment effect of up to 200 000 people. However, quality investments are scarce, or often attached to political, environmental and social conditionalities; China took the initiative to benefit from this opportunity. According to the Balkan Investigative Reporting Network (BIRN), China invested €32 billion in the region in 2009-2021. In Serbia alone, Chinese investment reached €10.3 billion. However, despite inflows of Chinese capital, the EU remains the leading economic partner, with 70 % of total foreign direct investment and 81 % of exports. China has endeavoured to portray itself as a strategic investor, who does not intervene in internal political affairs and is willing to close its eyes to some aspects such as State aid, corruption or labour laws. An early focus on transport infrastructure (through Piraeus and Belgrade to reach Duisburg) has expanded to industry, energy and communications/IT. The Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) serves as the main framework for expanding China's economic presence in the region and enables it to access key land and maritime routes. Loans and investments in undertakings further enhance China's position and create dependencies, even debt-traps, for the six Western Balkan states. An increasing number of Balkan countries now perceive the limits of China's presence, and are concerned regarding public procurement, environmental protection, human rights violations, and promotion of the authoritarian model, which all limit cooperation and impact EU accession prospects.

The return of inflation [What Think Tanks are thinking] EN

24-06-2022 PE 733.560
Samenvatting : Inflation has risen to levels not seen in 40 years in the euro area or in many other countries, forcing some central banks to raise interest rates in a context that bodes ill for economic growth. Initially driven by post-pandemic supply shortages and then by soaring energy prices, following Russia's invasion of Ukraine, inflation is now becoming increasingly broadly based, affecting everything from food and services to household goods. Dissatisfaction with the rising cost of living is leading to social protests, increasing political risks for many countries. In the euro area, price growth was 8.1 % in May year-on-year, more than four times the European Central Bank's target. This note gathers links to the recent publications and commentaries from many international think tanks on resurgent inflation. Many earlier publications on inflation can be found in a previous edition of the 'What Think Tanks are Thinking' series.
Indieners : Marcin CESLUK-GRAJEWSKI

Current membership of the European Council June 2022 EN

23-06-2022 PE 608.781
Kort overzicht
Samenvatting : The European Council consists of the 27 Heads of State or Government of the EU Member States, who are voting members, together with the President of the European Council and the President of the European Commission, who have no vote (Article 15(2) TEU). The chart shows the current members, the national office they hold and their political affiliation, as well as the year their membership of the institution began. This publication is updated periodically to reflect changes in the European Council's membership.
Indieners : Ralf DRACHENBERG

Review of rules on financial market data EN

23-06-2022 PE 730.337 ECON
Samenvatting : The IA is based on solid internal and external sources, in particular several ESMA review reports, and stakeholder consultations. However, the definitions of both the problems and the objectives lack consistency and coherence, as the lines between problems, their drivers and consequences are blurred and objectives seem to overlap (and shift). This weakens the IA's intervention logic. The policy options presented to tackle the problems are assessed against two baseline scenarios, which is unusual. Considering the technicality of their implementation – and of the whole IA, more explanatory information would have increased transparency, accessibility and accountability of the analysis, which is also affected by insufficient information on the methods, data and assumptions underlying it (namely regarding quantified estimations drawn from other sources). Finally, the effects of the preferred options combination could have been discussed in more depth.
Indieners : Esther KRAMER

Revision of Directive 2008/99/EC: Protection of the environment through criminal law EN

23-06-2022 PE 733.555
Samenvatting : The European Commission proposed a revision of Directive 2008/99/EC on the protection of the environment through criminal law in December 2021. The proposal intends to clarify some of the terms contained in the directive and includes an updated list of environmental crime offences, harmonised sanction types and levels, measures to strengthen international investigation and prosecution, improvements to the collection of statistical data and measures to improve national enforcement chains. Ultimately, the revision aims to increase the effectiveness of investigation and prosecution of environmental criminal offences across the European Union. Parliament's Legal Affairs (JURI) Committee is the committee responsible for drawing up the draft report on the proposal. First edition. The 'EU Legislation in Progress' briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure.
Indieners : Carmen-Cristina CIRLIG

EU customs control mechanisms and their possible improvement EN

23-06-2022 PE 733.135 BUDG CONT
Samenvatting : The Committee on Budgetary Control (CONT) decided to organise a workshop with the aim to get a better understanding about customs control practices in Member States and their possible improvements. This briefing provides background information to this event that took place the 15th June 2022.
Indieners : Diana HAASE

What if care work were recognised as a driver of sustainable growth? EN

22-06-2022 PE 730.333
Samenvatting : Care work provided in homes and institutions is a public good that is under-valued by society. Care workers are more likely to have low earnings and precarious working conditions. About 9 in 10 care workers are women. Most unpaid care work within households is carried out by women. The 'unpaid care penalty' for women in the EU, which is equivalent to the earnings they lost because of this unbalanced distribution of care responsibilities, is estimated to reach €287 billion per year. EU action in the care sector has the potential for high returns for society. Fostering the 'equal earner – equal carer model' could generate benefits of between €29 and €57 billion a year. EU action to promote affordable, high-quality care could produce an additional €100 to €180 billion in benefits each year.

EU - Western Balkans leaders’ meeting of 23 June 2022 EN

22-06-2022 PE 730.338
Kort overzicht
Samenvatting : On 23 June 2022, for the first time since the start of Russia's war on Ukraine, the Heads of State or Government of the EU and of the six Western Balkan countries will meet for a leaders' meeting in Brussels. The discussion will focus on enlargement, energy, security and defence, and youth. Discussion of Emmanuel Macron's 'European Political Community' proposal is not on the agenda, but it could come up during the debate.
Indieners : Suzana Elena ANGHEL

Amending budget No 3/2022: Financing reception costs of people fleeing Ukraine EN

22-06-2022 PE 733.552
Kort overzicht
Samenvatting : Russia's invasion of Ukraine has caused a massive exodus of refugees, many of them children. EU Member States are dealing with urgent migration and border management challenges and facing the costs that these entail. Draft Amending Budget No 3/2022 (DAB 3/2022) to the EU's 2022 general budget aims to assist EU Member States in receiving people fleeing the war in Ukraine. DAB 3/2022 strengthens the financing of the Asylum, Migration and Integration Fund (AMIF) and the Border Management and Visa Instrument (BMVI). The additional €99.8 million in commitment appropriations and €76 million in payment appropriations for AMIF and €100 million in payment appropriations for BMVI will help to ensure that people fleeing Ukraine benefit from adequate first reception in one of the Member States. The European Parliament is expected to vote on the Council's position on DAB 3/2022 during its June II plenary session.
Indieners : Sidonia MAZUR

Labour market integration of asylum-seekers and refugees EN

22-06-2022 PE 690.651
Samenvatting : Migration to the European Union from third countries has been substantial over the past few decades, as Europe has historically been considered a continent of relative economic prosperity and political stability. While many foreign-born individuals arrive in the European Union (EU) to work, pursue studies or join family members, the EU also receives a large number of asylum-seekers and refugees, not least in the context of the war in Ukraine since February 2022. As host societies, EU Member States are required to facilitate the integration of migrants, i.e. their acceptance in society and ability to access different services and the labour market. EU law envisages access to employment for refugees as soon as they are granted refugee status, or for asylum-seekers at the latest within nine months of lodging an asylum application. Ukrainians can rely on immediate protection upon registering for temporary protection in one of the EU Member States. However, employment rates for migrants in general, and refugees and asylum-seekers in particular, are persistently lower than those of native-born population. Moreover, they are more likely to be employed in low-skilled occupations that have high automation potential in the future. If this potential is exploited through the use of artificial intelligence and digitalisation, the European economy is expected to see a decline in low-skilled employment. To ensure that migrants' skills will match the future EU labour market and fill its gaps, focus should be turned to facilitating the proper recognition of their qualifications, as well as to upgrading their education and skills as needed. The EU supports Member States' integration efforts through its EU action plan on integration and inclusion. In addition, the European Commission is launching a new EU 'talent pool' platform in summer 2022. This Briefing updates and expands a previous edition, from June 2021.
Indieners : Anita ORAV

Outlook for the meetings of EU leaders on 23-24 June 2022 EN

22-06-2022 PE 730.336
Samenvatting : A series of sensitive topics feature on the agenda of the last regular European Council meeting before the summer break, taking place on 23-24 June. Considering the magnitude of the issues at stake, this European Council meeting – if successful – could become a milestone summit. Notably, EU leaders are expected to consider granting candidate country status to Ukraine and Moldova, most probably with certain specific conditions, to reaffirm the Western Balkans' European perspective, and to consider the proposal put forward by the President of France, Emmanuel Macron, to create a European Political Community. They will also discuss developments in and support for Ukraine following Russia's military aggression, as well as the broader consequences of the war, including food security. As at past meetings since the outbreak of the war, the President of Ukraine, Volodymyr Zelenskyy, may once again address the European Council. EU leaders could also consider the situation in the eastern Mediterranean, a topic they last discussed at the request of the President of Cyprus, Nikos Anastasiades, at the special European Council meeting of 30-31 May 2022. To what extent EU leaders will discuss the follow-up to the Conference on the Future of Europe remains uncertain.
Indieners : Ralf DRACHENBERG

The European Parliament commemorates John Hume: Speeches at the inauguration of a memorial bust, Strasbourg, 7 June 2022 EN

22-06-2022 PE 733.553
Samenvatting : A commemorative bust of John Hume (1937-2020) – awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1998 for his tireless efforts to bring peace to his native Northern Ireland – was unveiled in the European Parliament in Strasbourg on Tuesday 7 June 2022. Having served as an MEP from 1979 to 2004, John Hume understood the European Parliament as a forum in which to raise attention to the problems of Northern Ireland and build European support for resolving the conflict. And it was also – with a measure of seclusion not available to them in Belfast – a place where he and the unionist MEPs from Northern Ireland could work together to improve Northern Ireland's situation. The bust of John Hume, representing him at the age he was first elected to the European Parliament, is by Northern Ireland-born sculptor Elizabeth O'Kane, and has been donated to the Parliament by the Irish government. The bust was unveiled by the Irish Taoiseach, Micheál Martin, and the President of the European Parliament, Roberta Metsola. Before the ceremony, Chris Patten, former European Commissioner, delivered a lecture, in which he paid tribute to John Hume's work as peace-maker and his commitment to democratic values. This Briefing brings together the texts of all three speeches.
Indieners : DG, EPRS

Fit for 55 package: Energy performance of buildings (recast) EN

21-06-2022 PE 730.341 ITRE
Samenvatting : After two negative opinions from the Commission's Regulatory Scrutiny Board and without making adaptations in the IA itself after the second negative opinion, the Commission adjusted its legislative proposal: the legislative framework for new buildings would conform largely to the preferred PO3 ('High ambition I'), while changes for existing buildings would conform broadly to PO2 ('Medium ambition'). The IA analyses the problem, the problem drivers and the likely impacts of the proposed policy options, based on sound research and reliable data. However, although interlinkages with other legislative proposals of the 'fit for 55' legislative package are described, the size of the problem is not fully clear and could have been better explained. The IA draws a clear logic between the problems, the problem drivers and the specific objectives. It provides realistic alternative options. However, the multitude of measures, with varying levels of policy intensity for each of the options, lacks clarity and therefore weakens the IA's ability to inform decision-making effectively. The presentation of the options and the description of the baseline as the 'starting point' for comparison of options is at times unclear, which makes it difficult to follow the reasoning as to why PO3 ('High ambition I') was chosen as the preferred option. Finally, the IA provides a detailed description of the stakeholder consultations. However, the IA presents the views of stakeholder groups (including SMEs) in relation to specific measures rather than to the proposed policy options. It is therefore unclear what support the preferred option of the IA enjoys among stakeholders, in particular SMEs.

Russia's war on Ukraine: Timeline of cyber-attacks EN

21-06-2022 PE 733.549
Samenvatting : Russia launched its war on Ukraine on 24 February 2022, but Russian cyber-attacks against Ukraine have persisted ever since Russia's illegal annexation of Crimea in 2014, intensifying just before the 2022 invasion. Over this period, Ukraine's public, energy, media, financial, business and non-profit sectors have suffered the most. Since 24 February, limited Russian cyber-attacks have undermined the distribution of medicines, food and relief supplies. Their impact has ranged from preventing access to basic services to data theft and disinformation, including through deep fake technology. Other malicious cyber-activity involves sending of phishing emails, distributed denial-of-service attacks, and use of data-wiper malware, backdoors, surveillance software and information stealers. Organisations and governments around the world have not been indifferent to the hybrid risks thus posed. EU-, US- and NATO-led initiatives have been carried out with the aim of neutralising cyber-threats and protecting essential infrastructure. As part of these initiatives, the EU has activated its Cyber Rapid Response Teams (a project under Permanent Structured Cooperation (PESCO) in the area of security and defence policy), to support Ukraine's cyber-defence. Non-government and private players have supported Ukraine through various cyber-resilience activities. Since the beginning of the invasion, a significant number of counter-attacks have been launched by independent hackers, affecting the Russian state, security, banking and media systems. The European Parliament has called for stepping up cybersecurity assistance to Ukraine and for making full use of the EU's cyber-sanctions regimes against individuals, entities and bodies responsible for or involved in the various cyber-attacks targeting Ukraine.
Indieners : Jakub PRZETACZNIK

The EU's global approach to research and innovation EN

21-06-2022 PE 733.550
Samenvatting : International cooperation has been a key feature of modern and contemporary scientific and technological activities. The magnitude of global challenges, such as the climate crisis and the coronavirus pandemic, has shown the relevance of joining forces and pooling resources to facilitate the creation and dissemination of knowledge and innovative solutions. In 2021, the European Commission adopted a communication on a global approach to research and innovation – the new European strategy for international cooperation. In 2022, the European Parliament and the EU Member States responded to the communication with respectively a resolution and a declaration tabled by the Council presidency. The two documents took into account the growing geopolitical tensions, caused, among others, by the Russian war of aggression in Ukraine, and identified the investment and policy initiatives needed to ensure that Europe's openness to the world will safeguard EU strategic autonomy, interests and values. Following the launch of Horizon Europe in 2021, the EU is expected to intensify international cooperation, including by extending the scope of countries associated to the programme to new non-European partners such as Australia, Canada and New Zealand. Investment under Horizon will support EU research and innovation players in cooperating with global partners, but is also expected to continue contributing to making the EU attractive for international scientists and innovators. The participation of stakeholders in international cooperation activities is key to Europe's capacity to expand its scientific and technological leadership – thus far established in the domain of joint exploratory scientific activities, including transdisciplinary initiatives – to also cover technological development and standardisation. European research and innovation players are unambiguously supporting international cooperation for global goods, such as knowledge, the environment and global health. They also express hopes that the United Kingdom would swiftly join Horizon Europe as an associated country.

Slovenia's National Recovery and Resilience Plan: Latest state of play EN

21-06-2022 PE 733.551
Samenvatting : EU support for the implementation of Slovenia's National Recovery and Resilience Plan (NRRP) amounts to €2 482.3 million, and includes €1 776.9 million in grants and €705.4 million in loans. This amount should be committed by the end of 2023, and paid out to Slovenia by the end of 2026. While the overall allocation represents only 0.3 % of the total Recovery and Resilience Facility (RRF), it stood at 5.1 % of the country's gross domestic product (GDP) in 2019 (the RRF being 5.2 % of EU-27 GDP in 2019). Slovenia, one of the seven Member States that have already requested loans, decided to use 22 % of the maximum amount of loans available; it can request the remaining €2 900 million up to the end of August 2023. While in nominal terms, Slovenia is among the Member States with the smallest total allocation, it ranks much higher per capita. With €1 185 per citizen (grants and loans), Slovenia is among the ten biggest RRF beneficiaries. On 17 September 2021, Slovenia received €231 million in pre-financing, equivalent to 13 % of the grant allocation. Slovenia did not ask for a pre-financing of the loan component. Further payments – ten instalments for grants and six for loans – will depend on progress in implementing the plan. Slovenia's NRRP includes 34 reforms and 58 investments, designed to tackle both the Covid-19 pandemic's socio-economic consequences and more long-standing challenges facing the country and identified in the Slovenian development strategy 2030. The plan is strongly focused on the green transition and digital transformation. Planned spending on these areas exceeds the compulsory targets, totalling 42.4 % for climate and 21.4 % for digital. Other priority areas include smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, and health and welfare. The European Parliament participates in interinstitutional forums for cooperation and discussion on RRF implementation, and scrutinises the European Commission's work. This briefing is one in a series covering all EU Member States. First edition. The 'NGEU delivery' briefings are updated at key stages throughout the lifecycle
Indieners : POLONA CAR, Magdalena SAPALA

Research for CULT Committee - The European Schools system: State of Play, Challenges and Perspectives. EN

21-06-2022 PE 699.653 CULT
Kort overzicht
Samenvatting : This At a glance note summarises the study on The European Schools system: State of Play, Challenges and Perspectives. The study examines the progress that the European Schools System has made during the past decade and overviews its state of affairs as of 2022. The educational dimension of the study focuses on questions related to teaching and learning, while the operational one concentrates on the administrative and managerial sides of the system. The study pinpoints the key challenges that the system currently faces and provides tailored recommendations on how to overcome them.
Indieners : Katarzyna Anna ISKRA, KINGA OSTANSKA

Outcome of a survey on the role of national parliaments in the implementation of the RRF EN

21-06-2022 PE 699.541 ECON
Uitgebreide analyse
Samenvatting : This paper summarises the findings and provides some further details of the replies received from a survey on the involvement of national parliaments in scrutinising the implementation of Recovery and Resilience Facility, notably the Recovery and Resilience Plans at the national level. This survey aimed to keep stock of whether and how EU national parliaments are involved in the implementation of the RRF. It was addressed directly to EU national parliament services and reflected developments in the first months of the RRF implementation timeline (e.g. information flow, adoption of RRPs, payment requests, stakeholder involvement, and parliamentary scrutiny procedures)

Possible Solutions for Missing Trader Intra-Community Fraud EN

21-06-2022 PE 731.902 BUDG CONT
Samenvatting : This study examines the problem of Missing Trader Intra-Community (MTIC) Fraud, the nature and scale of its impact on the EU’s finances, and potential solutions. The solutions that are assessed are: Split Payment Methods, Electronic Clearance Procedure (a digital solution), Real-Time Reporting (and TX++), VAT Coin, and the Definitive VAT system (and proposed amendments). Recommendations are made regarding the most appropriate solution.
Indieners : Jack MALAN and Ivan BOSCH CHEN, Centre for Strategy & Evaluation Services (CSES). Two external experts assisted the CSES team: Professor Marie LAMENSCH Professor (UCLouvain and Vrije Universiteit Brussel) and Stefano PAVESI (Ernst & Young).

The future of EU-Africa trade relations EN

20-06-2022 PE 733.539
Kort overzicht
Samenvatting : The European Parliament is due to discuss ways to foster ethical and sustainable trade relations with African countries during its June II plenary session, in a context of global challenges compounded by the coronavirus pandemic and Russia's war on Ukraine.
Indieners : Eric PICHON

Review of the EU ETS: Fit for 55 EN

20-06-2022 PE 729.455
Kort overzicht
Samenvatting : On 14 July 2021, as part of the 'Fit for 55' package, the Commission presented a legislative proposal for a revision of the EU Emissions Trading System (ETS), to align it with the target set in the European Climate Law of a 55 % reduction of EU net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 2030, compared to 1990 levels. The report of the Committee on Environment, Public Health and Food Safety (ENVI) was rejected in the June I plenary session, but has been re-tabled for the June II session, including those amendments carried in June I. A new set of compromise amendments was tabled on 15 June 2022, aimed at overcoming the impasse.
Indieners : Gregor ERBACH

EU carbon border adjustment mechanism EN

20-06-2022 PE 729.462
Kort overzicht
Samenvatting : The European Commission proposed a carbon border adjustment mechanism (CBAM), which aims to level the playing field between EU and third-country producers by putting a carbon price on certain imported products, while phasing out free allocation of emissions allowances to European industry. The European Parliament's Committee on the Environment, Public Health and Food Safety (ENVI) adopted a report that puts forward significant amendments to the original proposal. The vote on the report was re-scheduled for the June II session.

Implementation of the Recovery and Resilience Facility EN

20-06-2022 PE 733.533
Kort overzicht
Samenvatting : At its June II plenary session, the Parliament is set to discuss the joint own-initiative report of the Committees on Budgets and on Economic and Monetary Affairs on implementation of the Recovery and Resilience Facility (RRF). The report's objective is to provide the European Parliament's input to the review report on RRF implementation which the European Commission is due to present by 31 July 2022. The joint report highlights the RRF's key role in the EU's economic recovery, and in making the EU more resilient, competitive and strategically autonomous. It stresses the importance of regular scrutiny and monitoring of RRF expenditure and compliance with the rule of law, and notes that successful implementation is key to ensuring a long-term impact and economic growth.
Indieners : Velina LILYANOVA

Regulation on gas storage EN

20-06-2022 PE 733.538
Kort overzicht
Samenvatting : On 23 March 2022, the European Commission proposed an urgent regulation on gas storage to counter the risks of an interruption of gas supplies from Russia. The Parliament and Council negotiated this regulation under an expedited procedure, with a provisional agreement reached on 19 May 2022. The Industry, Research and Energy (ITRE) Committee endorsed the agreed text, which is set for vote during the June II plenary session.
Indieners : Alex Benjamin WILSON

2021 Report on Montenegro EN

20-06-2022 PE 733.540
Kort overzicht
Samenvatting : Montenegro applied for EU membership in 2008, and accession negotiations began in June 2012. The country has opened all 33 negotiation chapters, three of which have been provisionally closed. Public opinion surveys show that 75 % of Montenegrins are in favour of joining the EU. Parliament is expected to debate the European Commission's 2021 annual report on Montenegro during its June II plenary session.

EU accession to the Hague Judgments Convention EN

20-06-2022 PE 733.547
Kort overzicht
Samenvatting : The Committee on Legal Affairs is proposing that the European Parliament give its consent to EU accession to the Convention of 2 July 2019 on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Judgments in Civil or Commercial Matters, concluded within the framework of the Hague Conference on Private International Law.
Indieners : Rafał MAŃKO

International Day against Drug Abuse and Illicit Trafficking EN

20-06-2022 PE 733.548
Kort overzicht
Samenvatting : In 1987, the United Nations General Assembly decided that every year 26 June should mark International Day against Drug Abuse and Illicit Trafficking. The idea was to demonstrate its commitment to the fight against drug abuse, illicit production and trafficking, and their nefarious effects on individuals and on society as whole. The illicit drug market generates huge profits for organised crime, and is estimated to be the source of approximately one fifth of global crime proceeds.

Amendments to AIFMD and UCITSD: Managing risks and protecting investors EN

20-06-2022 PE 729.321
Samenvatting : Two European Union (EU) directives regulate the EU collective investment funds industry, the Directive relating to undertakings for collective investment in transferable securities (UCITS) and the Alternative Investment Funds Manager Directive (AIFMD). The UCITS, which covers mutual funds, lays down uniform rules, allowing their cross-border offer, while the AIFMD, which covers hedge funds and private equity, lays down the rules for authorising, supervising and overseeing the managers of such funds. While reviewing the application of the scope of the AIFMD (as mandated), the European Commission considered that a number of issues highlighted in the AIFMD review were equally relevant for the activities of UCITS. As a result, it proposed to amend both directives, to better align their requirements. The file is currently under review by the co-legislators. Within the European Parliament, it has been assigned to the Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs, which is now considering the draft report. First edition. The 'EU Legislation in Progress' briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure.
Indieners : Angelos DELIVORIAS

Treaty on the prohibition of nuclear weapons – First meeting of States Parties EN

20-06-2022 PE 733.545
Samenvatting : From 21 to 23 June 2022, the 61 States Parties to the Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons (TPNW) will meet for the first time. Russia's threat to use nuclear weapons in the context of its war on Ukraine has given new relevance – and some will argue urgency – to the initiative launched a decade ago to prohibit nuclear weapons. The TPNW entered into force on 22 January 2021. On that day, nuclear weapons development, testing, production, possession, stockpiling, use and threat of use, as well as the stationing or deployment of another country's nuclear weapons on a state party's national territory became prohibited under international law. The TPNW has been hailed as historic by supporters of the initiative, which has gained ground in recent years, to rid the world of the most destructive weapon known to humankind. The International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons (ICAN), which spearheaded these efforts, was awarded the 2017 Nobel Peace Prize. Supporters hope that the TPNW will strengthen the international legal framework and gradually advance the political norm against possession and use of nuclear weapons. However, opponents of the Treaty argue that the conditions for disarmament do not currently exist and that promoters of the TPNW fail to recognise this. Arguably, their position has been strengthened by recent developments. The nine states known to have military nuclear programmes have not signed the TPNW. Nor have Member States of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), which re-confirmed its commitment to nuclear deterrence in 2016. This raises doubts about the impact of this new instrument and its ability to create normative values. Most EU Member States, 21 of which are members of NATO, oppose the TPNW, and only three have ratified it. The European Parliament has noted that the TPNW provided evidence of the desire to achieve the objective of a nuclear weapons-free world. This is an updated version of an earlier briefing, from January 2021.
Indieners : Beatrix IMMENKAMP

The Digital Single Market and the digitalisation of the public sector - GovTech and other innovations in public procurement (At A Glance - Study In Focus) EN

20-06-2022 PE 695.490 IMCO
Kort overzicht
Samenvatting : This research paper provides insight into GovTech and innovation in the context of public procurement. It examines the possibilities for developing an EU GovTech Platform with the aim of supporting the modernisation of the public sector; the further development of the European GovTech market; and engagement with citizens and businesses. This document was provided by the Policy Department for Economic, Scientific and Quality of Life Policies at the request of the committee on Internal Market and Consumer Protection (IMCO).
Indieners : Marissa HOEKSTRA, TNO Cass CHIDEOCK, TNO Gabriela BODEA, TNO Nitesh BHAROSA, TU Delft Jonathan CAVE, GNKS Consult Ben KOKKELER, Technopolis Ivette OOMENS, Technopolis Annelieke VAN DEN BERG, TNO Anne Fleur VAN VEENSTRA, TNO Frank ALLEWELDT (second reader), Civic Consulting
Gelinkte documenten

10 years after “whatever it takes”: fragmentation risk in the current context EN

20-06-2022 PE 703.367 ECON
Samenvatting : On 26 July 2012, then ECB President Mario Draghi gave the so-called “whatever it takes” speech, today widely considered as the turnaround point in the European sovereign debt crisis. Shortly after, the European Central Bank (ECB) announced the details of its outright monetary transactions programme (OMT) tool. The speech, together with the OMT announcement, were enough to remove re-denomination risk from sovereign bond markets. OMT was never actually used. 10 years after, in a context of record-high inflation, fragmentation risk has emerged once again as a central issue for monetary policy in the euro area. Four papers were prepared by the ECON Committee’s Monetary Expert Panel, looking into the recent re-emergence of fragmentation risk in the euro area. This publication is provided by Policy Department A for the Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs (ECON), ahead of the Monetary Dialogue with ECB President Lagarde on 20 June 2022.

PROCEEDINGS - Workshop The EU borrowing strategy for Next Generation EU: design, challenges and opportunities EN

20-06-2022 PE 733.141 BUDG CONT
Samenvatting : A workshop was organised for the Budgets committee (BUDG) on "The EU borrowing strategy for NGEU: design, challenges and opportunities" on 27 October 2021. This document consists of an In-depth analysis by Bruegel entitled "Next Generation EU borrowing: a first assessment", a policy paper by Sebastian Mack entitled "Don't change horses in midstream: how to make NGEU bonds the euro area's safe asset", biographies of the speakers and the Power Point slides of the Bruegel presentation.

Artificial intelligence act and regulatory sandboxes EN

17-06-2022 PE 733.544
Samenvatting : The artificial intelligence act envisages setting up coordinated AI 'regulatory sandboxes' to foster innovation in artificial intelligence (AI) across the EU. A regulatory sandbox is a tool allowing businesses to explore and experiment with new and innovative products, services or businesses under a regulator's supervision. It provides innovators with incentives to test their innovations in a controlled environment, allows regulators to better understand the technology, and fosters consumer choice in the long run. However, regulatory sandboxes also come with a risk of being misused or abused, and need the appropriate legal framework to succeed. In April 2021, the European Commission presented a proposal for a regulation laying down harmonised rules on AI (the 'artificial intelligence act' or 'AI act'). Academics and stakeholders have commented on the proposal, touching, in particular, on issues regarding the lack of liability protection for sandbox participants, the need for a more harmonised approach to AI regulatory sandboxes, and the interplay between AI sandbox and EU data protection rules. The European Parliament has called for introducing regulatory sandbox instruments in several resolutions. Its April 2022 committee draft report on the AI act argued for more transparency on the implementation and use of AI sandboxes.
Indieners : Tambiama André MADIEGA

Public hearing with Christine Lagarde, Chair of the European Systemic Risk Board EN

17-06-2022 PE 689.467 ECON
Samenvatting : This note is prepared in view of a regular public hearing with the Chair of the European Systemic Risk Board (ESRB), Christine Lagarde, which will take place on 20 June 2022. The aim of the meeting is to discuss recent developments in macroprudential policy field, potential systemic risks looming ahead, notably the impact of the Russia-Ukraine conflict. The briefing provides (i) summaries of the issues highlighted by the ESRB in its letters to the European Parliament; (ii) the risks building-up in housing markets; (iii) summarises the ongoing macroprudential policy framework re-view; and (iv) dwells deeper into the cyber risks. It should be noted that various institutions, including the ESRB, are pointing out that there are potentially systemic risks building-up in the commercial real estate sector. Neverthe-less, as the First Vice-Chair of the ESRB Stefan Ingves pointed out in his hearing in the European Parliament, there is a lack of harmonised commercial real estate sector data, which makes the analysis complicated and therefore, commercial real estate risks are not covered in this briefing.

Economic repercussions of Russia’s war on Ukraine – Weekly Digest 17 June 2022 EN

17-06-2022 PE 699.542 ECON
Uitgebreide analyse
Samenvatting : This paper provides a summary of recent economic, financial and budgetary decisions and developments following President Vladimir Putin’s decision of 24 February to start a military attack against Ukraine. It includes recent information relating to the EU sanctions regime, recent economic estimates, and policies supporting economic and financial resilience, including the coordination of national economic and fiscal measures. It also highlights policy recommendations made in the public domain to mitigate any adverse economic, financial and social effects and to support economic recovery in the EU and the Euro Area

War in Ukraine: implications for the ECB EN

17-06-2022 PE 703.366 ECON
Samenvatting : The war in Ukraine, overlapping with the lingering effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, is causing a significant economic impact on the euro area economy. On the rise since mid-2021, annual headline inflation in the euro area surpassed 8% in May 2022. Previously driven mainly by increasing energy prices and supply chain bottlenecks, inflationary pressure is becoming more persistent and broad-based. The European Central Bank (ECB) is now facing a difficult challenge: commencing a monetary policy tightening cycle while, at the same time, avoiding triggering a recession and financial instability. Five papers were prepared by the ECON Committee’s Monetary Expert Panel, looking into current monetary policy challenges in the context of the war in Ukraine. This publication is provided by Policy Department A for the Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs (ECON), ahead of the Monetary Dialogue with ECB President Lagarde on 20 June 2022.
Indieners : Charles WYPLOSZ, Daniel GROS, Farzaneh SHAMSFAKHR, Pierre SIKLOS, Luigi BONATTI, Roberto TAMBORINI, Atanas PEKANOV, Stefan SCHIMAN

The NIS2 Directive: A high common level of cybersecurity in the EU EN

16-06-2022 PE 689.333
Samenvatting : The Network and Information Security (NIS) Directive is the first piece of EU-wide legislation on cybersecurity, and its specific aim was to achieve a high common level of cybersecurity across the Member States. While it increased the Member States' cybersecurity capabilities, its implementation proved difficult, resulting in fragmentation at different levels across the internal market. To respond to the growing threats posed with digitalisation and the surge in cyber-attacks, the Commission has submitted a proposal to replace the NIS Directive and thereby strengthen the security requirements, address the security of supply chains, streamline reporting obligations, and introduce more stringent supervisory measures and stricter enforcement requirements, including harmonised sanctions across the EU. The proposed expansion of the scope covered by NIS2, by effectively obliging more entities and sectors to take measures, would assist in increasing the level of cybersecurity in Europe in the longer term. Within the European Parliament, the file has been assigned to the Committee on Industry, Research and Energy. The committee adopted its report on 28 October 2021, as well as a mandate to enter into interinstitutional negotiations. For its part, the Council agreed its position on 3 December 2021. The co-legislators reached a provisional agreement on the text on 13 May 2022. The text now needs to be adopted formally by both institutions, with the Parliament due to vote on it in plenary in the coming months. Third edition. The 'EU Legislation in Progress' briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure.
Indieners : Maria Del Mar NEGREIRO ACHIAGA

Distortive foreign subsidies regulation: A level playing-field for the single market EN

16-06-2022 PE 690.700
Samenvatting : Public financing of enterprises, which has been on the rise globally, can have a distortive effect on competitive markets. In response to this trend, in May 2021 the European Commission published a proposal for a regulation to tackle foreign subsidies with a distortive effect on the EU single market. It would enable the Commission to investigate subsidies granted by non-EU public authorities to companies operating on the single market, and to apply countervailing measures, should these subsidies be found to be distortive. The Commission would have three tools at its disposal: two are notification-based, allowing it to investigate foreign subsidies in companies' mergers and acquisitions, and to investigate the bids in large public procurement procedures involving third-country government support. The acquirer or bidder would have to give ex-ante notification of external financial contribution. The third would enable the Commission to investigate other market situations. The Parliament adopted its position in plenary in May 2022, and trilogue negotiations have since commenced. Third edition. The 'EU Legislation in Progress' briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure.
Indieners : Marcin SZCZEPANSKI

Proposed anti-coercion instrument EN

16-06-2022 PE 729.299
Samenvatting : It is widely held that geopolitical tensions in the world are on the rise. One of the clear indicators of this phenomenon is the increasing use of economic tools for the pursuit of strategic and geopolitical aims. This can take the form of coercion used by one country against another through restrictions on trade or investment in order to interfere with their sovereign choices. In response to the EU and its Member States becoming the target of deliberate economic coercion in recent years, on 8 December 2021 the Commission published a proposal for the adoption of an anti-coercion instrument that would allow the EU to better respond to such challenges on a global scale. While the new framework is primarily designed to deter economic coercive action through dialogue and engagement, it also allows – as a last resort – to retaliate with countermeasures comprising a wide range of restrictions related to trade, investment and funding. While there is broad support for creating a legislative tool to address the growing problem of economic coercion, opinions are divided as regards the severity of countermeasures and the manner of establishing when they should kick in. Within the European Parliament, the file has been assigned to the Committee on International Trade (INTA). The draft report was published in April and the committee is expected to vote its report in autumn 2022. Second edition. The 'EU Legislation in Progress' briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure.
Indieners : Marcin SZCZEPANSKI

A sustainable blue planet – The international ocean governance agenda: Pre-legislative synthesis of national, regional and local positions on the European Commission's initiative EN

16-06-2022 PE 733.516
Samenvatting : This Briefing provides a pre-legislative synthesis of the positions of national, regional and local governmental organisations on the European Commission's recent initiative, 'Setting the course for a sustainable blue planet – Update on the international ocean governance agenda'. It forms part of an EPRS series offering a summary of the pre-legislative state-of-play and advance consultation on a range of key European Commission priorities during its five-year term in office. It seeks to present the current state of affairs, to examine how existing policy is working on the ground, and to identify best practice and ideas for the future on the part of governmental organisations at all levels of the European system of multilevel governance. This analysis of the positions of partner organisations at European Union (EU), national, regional and local levels suggests that they would like the following considerations to be reflected in the discussion on the forthcoming initiative on 'Setting the course for a sustainable blue planet – Update on the international ocean governance agenda'. There is an overall consensus that many environmental challenges pose a threat to the marine environment and require further action. The EU has had a profound impact on European oceans and coastal areas by adopting relevant legislation and providing funding for a number of projects contributing to their sustainability. EU support in addressing environmental challenges should be further enhanced. In addition, seas and oceans are seen as an important element of economic growth. A number of 'blue growth' measures are being developed by national, regional and local entities in order to explore this sometimes untapped potential in a way that can further contribute to their economic sustainability. Knowledge and innovation are prerequisites for ocean management and ensuring the long-term, sustainable development of maritime industries. Cross-border and global cooperation on ocean governance issues is taking place in various European and international fora and should be further reinforced. There is also broad consensus on the need to improve multi-level governance within EU Member States through the establishment of participatory bodies where institutions, research centres, NGOs and citizens can interact with each other.

Understanding SDGs: The UN's Sustainable Development Goals EN

16-06-2022 PE 733.541
Samenvatting : In 2015, the United Nations adopted the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), to be attained by 2030, as a follow-up to the Millennium Development Goals (2000-2015) and the Rio+20 Summit (2012). Unlike their antecedents, the SDGs commit both developed and developing countries, and embrace the economic, environmental and social aspects of development. The SDGs and the broader 2030 Agenda for sustainable development, of which they form the core, are based on findings that human activities have triggered dramatic changes in the conditions on Earth (climate change and biodiversity loss), which in turn have contributed to the deterioration of human wellbeing. To reverse the trend, there is an urgent need to simultaneously address the multiple causes and consequences of environmental depletion and social inequalities, by developing synergies and managing trade-offs between the SDGs. Challenges in pursuing the SDGs include the fact that countries do not necessarily have an equal starting point and, even more importantly, that regardless of their stage of development, they can no longer afford to apply the current development model, where production and consumption happen at the expense of natural resources. According to many observers, this model creates unsolvable tensions between SDGs, notably between the safeguarding of natural resources and the aspirations for improved wellbeing. The structural transformation that would bring about the desired change requires a joint effort by the international community, but equally so from natural and public or private legal persons, to speed up the process. The European Union has been a leader in drafting the SDGs; it is also a frontrunner in mainstreaming the SDGs in all its policies. The European Parliament regularly assesses the EU commitments on achieving the SDGs. This briefing updates a previous edition by Marta Latek and Eric Pichon, published in December 2019.
Indieners : Marta LATEK, Eric PICHON

Ukraine’s application to join the EU [What Think Tanks are thinking] EN

16-06-2022 PE 733.542
Samenvatting : EU Heads of State or Government will discuss war-torn Ukraine’s bid to join the EU when they meet at a regular European Council meeting in Brussels next week. The leaders are expected to discuss Ukraine’s request to gain the status of official EU candidate along with French President Emmanuel Macron’s plan to create a ‘European Political Community’, with Ukraine as a member, as news media have reported, quoting draft Council conclusions. The meeting on 23-24 June is unlikely to make any firm decisions on either of the two proposals, the quoted draft conclusions suggest. EU enlargement, which had been on the backburner for some years, returned to the spotlight after Russia attacked Ukraine on 24 February. Having failed to conquer Ukraine quickly, Russia is now concentrating its war effort in the south-eastern provinces of the country. This note gathers links to recent publications and commentaries from many international think tanks on Russia’s war on Ukraine. Earlier analyses of the implications of the war can be found in a previous edition of the ‘What Think Tanks are Thinking’ series.
Indieners : Marcin CESLUK-GRAJEWSKI

Empowering consumers for the green transition EN

16-06-2022 PE 733.543
Samenvatting : On 30 March 2022, the Commission published a proposal for a directive empowering consumers for the green transition, through better protection against unfair practices and better information. The proposal is designed to enhancing consumer rights in making informed choices in order to play an active role in the transition to a climate-neutral society. It proposes new rules to provide consumers with information on products' sustainability, in particular their durability and reparability, at the point of purchase. It also aims to promote commercial guarantees exceeding the two-year legal guarantee, as well as to ban false and misleading green claims ('greenwashing') and certain types of premature obsolescence of products. In the European Parliament, the file has been referred to the Committee on the Internal Market and Consumer Protection. In the Council, discussions have started in the working party on consumer protection and information. First edition. The 'EU Legislation in Progress' briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure.
Indieners : Nikolina SAJN

Research for REGI Committee: Cities and the Ukrainian Refugees EN

16-06-2022 PE 699.654 REGI
Samenvatting : This briefing summarizes the implications of the influx of refugees from Ukraine for European cities, and how cities can navigate challenges to continue being a positive factor in the support of Ukraine. The briefing is based on available official sources and expert commentaries and written in the context of the study ‘Social challenges in cities’ contracted by the European Parliament . The PPMI research team conducted desk research in English, Lithuanian, Hungarian, Romanian and Polish languages. National experts supported the search for information on the situation in Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Slovakia, Spain, and Malta.
Indieners : PPMI: Iselin Mulvik, Hanna Siarova

'This is Europe' debate in the European Parliament: Speech by Micheál Martin, Taoiseach of Ireland, 8 June 2022 EN

15-06-2022 PE 730.334
Kort overzicht
Samenvatting : 'This is Europe' – an initiative proposed by the President of the European Parliament, Roberta Metsola – consists of a series of debates with EU leaders to discuss their visions for the future of the European Union. Following the first speech in this series by the Italian Prime Minister, Mario Draghi, on 3 May 2022, the Irish Taoiseach (Prime Minister), Micheál Martin, was the second EU leader to address the Parliament, on 8 June.1 Mr Martin suggested numerous ways to strengthen and further develop the Union, notably by increasing its budget. He also expressed his support for Treaty change, if necessary, as well as for Ukraine's application for EU membership, and stressed the need to protect EU values and apply EU laws.
Indieners : Ralf DRACHENBERG

CAP strategic plans: Approval process EN

15-06-2022 PE 733.537
Kort overzicht
Samenvatting : The delivery model for the post 2022 common agricultural policy (CAP) involves basic EU level policy rules and greater responsibility for Member States as to how they tailor their CAP measure toolboxes to local needs. The national CAP strategic plans drawn up to this end by Member States are now at the approval stage.
Indieners : Rachele ROSSI

Social climate fund: Fit for 55 package EN

15-06-2022 PE 698.777
Samenvatting : On 14 July 2021 the European Commission adopted the 'fit for 55' package, a set of legislative proposals to meet the new EU objective of a minimum 55 % reduction in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 2030. The fit for 55 package is part of the Commission's European Green Deal, which aims to set the EU firmly on the path towards net zero GHG emissions (climate neutrality) by 2050. The fit for 55 package includes a regulation establishing a new social climate fund (SCF). The aim of the SCF is to help vulnerable households, micro-businesses and transport users meet the costs of the green energy transition in the buildings and road transport sector. The SCF is designed to counter the additional costs that vulnerable consumers may face when the EU Emissions Trading System (ETS) Directive is revised to cover these two sectors, as proposed in the fit for 55 package. The SCF aims to provide over €72 billion in EU funding over the 2025-2032 period, to be paid for mainly by ETS credits in the buildings and road transport sectors. The SCF funds will need to be matched by equivalent social climate funding from Member States, which must prepare social climate plans. As a new budget line to be financed from EU 'own resources', the SCF will require amendments to the Own Resources Decision and the 2021-2027 multiannual financial framework. The file was referred to the Committee on Environment, Public Health and Food Safety (ENVI) and to the Committee for Employment and Social Affairs, which produced a joint report in May 2022. While the amendments were voted in plenary in the June I session, the final plenary vote was delayed due to political disagreements over the wider Fit for 55 package. Second edition. The 'EU Legislation in Progress' briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure.
Indieners : MARIANNA PARI, Alex Benjamin WILSON

New EU regulation on gas storage EN

15-06-2022 PE 729.393
Samenvatting : The Russian invasion of Ukraine in February 2022 has triggered serious concerns about EU energy security. The problem is particularly acute in the gas sector, where Russia is the leading third-country supplier, on which several Member States are heavily dependent. To ensure the EU is prepared for the risk of an interruption of gas supplies next winter, the Commission has proposed an urgent regulation on gas storage, requiring Member States to: fill in at least 80 % of their storage capacity by 1 November 2022 (rising to 90 % in subsequent years); carry out the certification of all gas storage system operators; and provide a 100 % tariff discount on entry and exit points into gas storage. The Commission proposed that this urgent regulation be agreed under an expedited procedure by the Parliament and the Council, so that it could start taking full effect from summer 2022. The co-legislators proceeded to swiftly negotiate a text, with agreement reached after trilogue negotiations on 19 May 2022. The agreed text was endorsed in the ITRE committee on 2 June 2022 and is to be voted during the June II plenary session. It must also be adopted by the Council of the EU, before it can enter into force. The agreed text endorses the core tenets of the Commission’s proposal but also takes account of national variations and the need for flexibilities in the gas market. Second edition. The 'EU Legislation in Progress' briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure.
Indieners : Alex Benjamin WILSON

Revision of Directive 2010/40/EU on the deployment of intelligent transport systems EN

15-06-2022 PE 730.335
Samenvatting : The IA provides a qualitative and quantitative assessment, which is based on the evaluation of the existing ITS Directive, the external supporting study, extensive stakeholder consultations, and various data sources. The IA informs openly about uncertainties and limitations in the analysis, for instance regarding estimates of administrative costs. The problem definition would have benefited from a further description of the expected consequences and evolution of the problem, and it would have been useful if the findings of the evaluation had been explained in more detail. The IA comprehensively presents three policy options, which are cumulative and not actual alternatives. With regard to substantiating the preferred option, a further clarification of proportionality aspects, and more detailed information on the stakeholders' views would have been useful. Stakeholder views are referred to in the context of policy measures, but the views of different stakeholder groups on the fully fledged policy options have not been presented. The IA refers to 'wide support' of stakeholders, while pointing to 'some reservations', without however explaining which stakeholder groups have doubts, to which extent the views diverge, and whether all stakeholders find the measures of the policy options proportional. Moreover, the description of the stakeholder consultation results is limited, with the IA referring to the IA supporting study, which does not appear to be publicly available. Overall, this transparency issue weakens the IA's quality.

Path to the digital decade programme EN

15-06-2022 PE 733.519
Samenvatting : In its digital decade strategy, the European Commission has put forward its vision for new strategic digital objectives for 2030. These should prepare Europe for the roll-out of the next generation of broadband infrastructure with gigabit speeds, including 5G, for the digital transformation of the public and private sectors, and to improve the digital divide. To measure progress towards the digital decade, the Commission proposes a 'digital compass' with indicators based on four dimensions: improved digital skills, secure and sustainable digital infrastructures, digital transformation of businesses, and digitalisation of the public sector. The decision will establish the 'Path to the digital decade' policy programme, which aims to set up a governance framework and funding to help achieve the 2030 digital decade targets, including multi-country projects and cooperation mechanisms between the Commission and Member States. At the European Parliament, the file has been allocated to the Committee on Industry, Research and Energy, which adopted its report on 17 May 2022 and also agreed to enter into negotiations with the Council. The mandate was endorsed by Parliament during the June plenary session. First edition. The 'EU Legislation in Progress' briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure.
Indieners : Maria Del Mar NEGREIRO ACHIAGA

Directive on adequate minimum wages EN

15-06-2022 PE 733.535
Samenvatting : Wage policy in the EU is a patchwork of different national traditions and legal frameworks. As a result, minimum wage levels diverge considerably, and leave many workers unprotected. While setting minimum wages is the competence of EU Member States, the EU has a supporting and complementary role. In October 2020, the European Commission proposed a directive seeking to improve the adequacy and increase the coverage of minimum wages, while also strengthening collective bargaining as the main instrument to ensure fair wages and working conditions. It is the first time that the Commission has initiated legislative action on minimum wage protection, leaving Member States to define the specific minimum wage levels. The ensuing debate focused on how far-reaching and binding the concrete EU requirements for national minimum wages should be. The European Parliament adopted its position in November 2021, and the Council in December 2021. Interinstitutional negotiations concluded on 6 June 2022 with a provisional agreement that must now be confirmed by the Parliament and Council. First edition. The 'EU Legislation in Progress' briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure.
Indieners : Marketa PAPE

Russia's war on Ukraine: Implications for transport EN

15-06-2022 PE 733.536
Samenvatting : The unjustified Russian invasion of Ukraine has damaged transport infrastructure, caused major transport disruptions and led to a massive flow of refugees into the EU and neighbouring countries. In response, the EU has adopted several sets of sanctions, leading to the closure of EU airspace to Russian aircraft, the closure of EU ports to Russian vessels, a ban on Russian transport operators and a ban on exports of goods and technology in the aviation, maritime and space sectors. Designed to undermine Russia's economic and financial ability to sustain its war effort, the sanctions have also impacted on transport in the EU, leading to traffic shortages, supply chain bottlenecks and the need to bypass traditional routes, thereby lengthening journey times and increasing costs. In order to monitor and deal with these negative impacts and humanitarian crises, the EU has introduced measures to support traffic flows and supply chains, securing the swift and safe transfer of people trapped in war zones and the transfer of essential goods and commodities. The European Commission has devised a dedicated contingency plan for transport to strengthen coordination in the event of emergencies. It introduces guiding principles for implementing crisis response measures, and contains a number of initiatives intended to remedy the difficulties encountered following the war. The European Parliament is meanwhile playing an active role by closely monitoring and evaluating the situation, including the EU action taken so far, while also proposing the adoption of additional EU measures to support passenger and freight traffic flows. This briefing updates an 'at a glance' note on the same topic, published in March 2022.
Indieners : Monika KISS

EU economic developments and projections EN

15-06-2022 PE 645.716 ECON
Samenvatting : This briefing provides a summary of the recent economic developments in the EU Member States and gives an overview of relevant economic projections forecasted by major international and EU institutions

The United Nations Ocean Conference, 27 June -1 July 2022, Lisbon, Portugal EN

15-06-2022 PE 703.379 ENVI
Samenvatting : Pollution, ecosystem decline, climate impacts and overfishing threaten the health of the world’s ocean. The 2022 Ocean Conference provides an opportunity to strengthen synergies among stakeholders to achieve Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 14, ‘Life Below Water’. The targets set under SDG 14 have largely not been achieved on an international level. Marine pollution remains a major issue, while increasing deoxygenation and acidification is putting marine species and coastal communities alike in danger. Existing and emerging economic activities (such as shipping and seabed mining) are competing for the use of marine space and are threatening ecosystems and biodiversity. Fish stocks continue to be overexploited. The economies of Small Island Developing States (SIDS) and many Least Developing States (LDS) depend on the health the ocean.
Indieners : Argyro Kepesidi, Panagiota Pavlou, Isa Vroom, Tony Zamparutti (Milieu Consulting)

Ireland's tax reforms and the fight against aggressive tax schemes EN

14-06-2022 PE 733.532
Kort overzicht
Samenvatting : As Ireland has a high number of (foreign-owned) multinationals, which employ a large share of the Irish workforce, the country's corporate tax system plays a key role in the economy. However, Ireland has been criticised for the way in which its tax system has been used by multinationals to set up aggressive tax planning structures and exploit mismatches and gaps in the international tax framework. In response, Ireland has taken a series of anti-tax avoidance measures at national, EU and OECD level.
Indieners : Pieter BAERT

Transitional justice: Central to fighting impunity EN

14-06-2022 PE 733.534
Kort overzicht
Samenvatting : Ending impunity for serious crimes against human rights and humanitarian norms is an important EU and United Nations objective. It is essential in overcoming the legacy of past conflict and building the basis of stable, peaceful societies, as shown by the experience of societies that have taken this path in recent decades. The EU has developed a comprehensive approach to help non-EU countries implement transitional justice.
Indieners : Ionel ZAMFIR

Fit for 55 package: Reducing methane emissions in the energy sector EN

14-06-2022 PE 730.328 ENVI
Samenvatting : The IA clearly identifies the problem that needs to be addressed and details the problem drivers. Furthermore, the IA discusses the evolution of the problem if the EU were to take no action. The IA relates the objectives with the problem/problem drivers in a supported manner. The options for the different policy areas to tackle appear to be sufficient and justified against the objectives. The assessment of the options retained for their economic, environmental and social impacts is thorough, but could have benefited from the availability of more complete data, and from the application of the Better Regulation Guidelines in assessing impacts on SMEs and on competitiveness. The indicators for monitoring and evaluating the success of the initiative are supported by existing frameworks and can be considered to be sufficient and effective. Consultation of interested parties occurred through an open public consultation and three stakeholder meetings, the findings of which are in line with the preferred options in the IA. The analysis performed in the IA seems to be well supported, and the comments from the RSB were addressed. In conclusion, the IA and the proposal are consistent.

Monitoring the energy situation in the EU: June 2022 EN

13-06-2022 PE 729.446
Kort overzicht
Samenvatting : This infographic aims to provide an overview of some of the most important energy indicators. It is purely for information purposes and subject to change. Figures on page one are based on market data (gas and oil prices) or data supplied by market actors (LNG capacity and gas storage rates). Figures on page 2 are based on the latest publicly available Eurostat data. These data are only available retrospectively, usually on an annualised basis, and therefore do not reflect the latest state-of-play following the outbreak of the war.
Indieners : Giulio SABBATI, Alex Benjamin WILSON

World Refugee Day: EU solidarity with Ukraine EN

13-06-2022 PE 733.530
Kort overzicht
Samenvatting : In December 2000, in a resolution to mark the 50th anniversary of the 1951 Geneva Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, the UN General Assembly designated 20 June as World Refugee Day. According to the UN, at the end of 2020 there were 82.4 million forcibly displaced people in the world; nearly 26.4 million of them were refugees and around half of those were under 18 years old. In 2022, following Russia's war on Ukraine, Europe is facing a large new wave of refugees in search of peace and security.
Indieners : Anita ORAV

The Czech Parliament and EU affairs EN

13-06-2022 PE 733.526
Samenvatting : The Czech Republic (Czechia) has a parliamentary system of government. The Czech Parliament consists of Poslanecká sněmovna (the Chamber of Deputies) and Senát (the Senate), both elected directly. It is considered an imperfect bicameral system, with the Chamber of Deputies able to overrule the Senate in most instances (Chapter II of the Czech Constitution adopted in 1992). Equal powers between the two chambers are limited to constitutional and electoral laws, the ratification of international agreements, and certain cases pertaining to defence and security. In 2012, the Czech Parliament gave up its competence to elect the President of the Republic in order to introduce direct presidential elections. This did, however, not lead to a semi-presidential system, even if evolution in this direction cannot be excluded. The President appoints the government, led by the Prime Minister, which must gain a vote of confidence in the Chamber of Deputies at the beginning of its term (Article 68 of the Constitution). The government remains accountable to the Chamber of Deputies. The President can, under specific circumstances (Article 35), dissolve the Chamber of Deputies, while the chamber has the power to override presidential vetoes. The Senate is a permanent institution that cannot be dissolved. The members of the Chamber of Deputies are elected every four years according to the principle of proportional representation by a universal, equal, direct and secret vote. Senators are elected for a six-year term, with one third of them being renewed every two years by a universal, equal, direct and secret vote in the form of a plurality voting system. This briefing is part of an EPRS series on national parliaments (NPs) and EU affairs. It aims to provide an overview of the way the NPs of EU Member States are structured and how they process, scrutinise and engage with EU legislation. It also provides information on relevant NP publications.
Indieners : Yann-Sven RITTELMEYER

EU support for human rights defenders around the world EN

13-06-2022 PE 733.529
Samenvatting : More than two decades after the United Nations General Assembly adopted its Declaration on Human Rights Defenders (HRDs) to enhance recognition of their role and encourage states to create a more protective environment, many human rights defenders face an increasingly hostile environment, with both repressive governments and some non-state actors, such as economic interest or criminal groups, opposing their work and posing a serious threat. Support for human rights defenders is a long established component of the European Union's external human rights policy and one of its major priorities. The EU guidelines on HRDs, adopted in 2004, outline concrete measures for protecting HRDs at risk, including the provision of emergency aid. They also encourage EU diplomats to take a more proactive approach towards HRDs. The European Commission manages a financial instrument in support of HRDs working in the world's most dangerous situations. The EU has continually adapted and extended its actions to take the new challenges into account. The European Parliament is a long-standing advocate of a comprehensive EU policy on HRDs, and has actively contributed to its shaping. Its urgent resolutions on human rights breaches around the world, some of which have focused on individual HRDs and the particular threats they face, have drawn attention to the difficulties facing HRDs in many countries. Parliament has also organised hearings with HRDs, issued statements about cases of HRDs at risk, and highlighted the plight of HRDs during its delegations' visits to the countries concerned. The Parliament's Sakharov Prize is the EU's most visible action in favour of HRDs. It has a significant impact on laureates, providing them with recognition and, in many cases, indirect protection. This a further updated version of a briefing from December 2018.
Indieners : Ionel ZAMFIR

IMF special drawing rights allocations for global economic recovery EN

13-06-2022 PE 733.531
Samenvatting : On 2 August 2021, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) announced that an exceptionally large allocation of special drawing rights (SDRs), worth US$650 billion (€550 billion), had been approved with effect from 23 August 2021. The SDR allocation, the largest in the IMF's history, would serve to 'boost global liquidity' and help all members 'address the long-term global need for reserves'. The initiative complies with the IMF's mission of monitoring and promoting stability on the international monetary markets and mitigating balance-of-payment crises. SDRs are not a currency per se, but a 'reserve currency', the value of which is determined by a basket of the five freely and most traded currencies; SDRs can be exchanged for currencies among the IMF member countries. The SDR allocation is made in proportion to the IMF quotas of the individual member countries. Interest is paid on SDRs utilised, and the rate is calculated according to the interest rates paid on the currencies included in the SDR basket; it is thus substantially lower than that otherwise charged for a riskier country. Even before this approval, concerns were raised that the funds may not be channelled to those countries – especially highly indebted and less wealthy ones – that are most in need of support to fight the pandemic and recover from it. For this reason, an initiative was launched to help re-channel the SDRs to such countries, and the IMF is setting up a Resilience and Sustainability Trust (RST) that IMF members may stock up with funds, using their SDR allocations on a voluntary basis. The IMF will monitor these funds and ensure that these SDRs are distributed to members on the condition that they implement the necessary economic policies. The EU supports the re-channelling process, in the awareness of the looming risks for the stability of the international monetary system if highly indebted and less wealthy countries are not supported in fighting the pandemic and attaining economic recovery.
Indieners : ISSAM HALLAK

World Day Against Child Labour EN

10-06-2022 PE 690.665
Kort overzicht
Samenvatting : The International Labour Organization (ILO) introduced the World Day Against Child Labour in 2002, as part of their efforts to eradicate this unacceptable phenomenon. The day is observed annually on 12 June, and this year the theme is 'Universal Social Protection to End Child Labour'. It is also an opportunity to consider measures taken at international and EU level. This is an update of an 'At a glance' note published in June 2021.
Indieners : Kristina GROSEK

Plenary round-up – June I 2022 EN

10-06-2022 PE 733.527
Kort overzicht
Samenvatting : The war in Ukraine stayed on the agenda for the June I 2022 plenary session in Strasbourg, with Ruslan Stefanchuk, Speaker of Verkhovna Rada making an address to a formal sitting of Parliament. Members also debated the conclusions of the special European Council meeting of 30 31 May 2022. Parliament debated the rule of law and the potential approval of the Polish National Recovery Plan, and approved the call for a convention on revision of the EU Treaties. Members debated global threats to abortion rights, particularly in the USA, and the massacre of Christians in Nigeria. A 'This is Europe' debate was held with the Taoiseach of Ireland, Micheál Martin. Finally, a ceremony celebrated the 60th anniversary of the common agricultural policy.

Russia's war on Ukraine: Investigating and prosecuting international crimes EN

10-06-2022 PE 733.525
Samenvatting : Since the start of Russia's war on Ukraine there has been mounting evidence of what may constitute violations of international criminal law in the conduct of the war. Active investigations into alleged core international crimes (which are classified as war crimes, crimes against humanity and genocide) have begun, with the involvement of the Ukrainian authorities, the International Criminal Court, and other international organisations. The EU is playing an active role in this process, with Eurojust assisting a Joint Investigation Team established by Ukraine, Poland and Lithuania, and with the participation of a number of other Member States. The Office of the Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court is also participating, the first time it has joined a Joint Investigation Team. However, investigations of the crime of aggression, relating to Russia's invasion of Ukraine, are hampered by the fact that neither Russia nor Ukraine are signatories of the Statute of Rome, which established the International Criminal Court and brought this crime within its jurisdiction. This briefing discusses investigations into core international crimes in Ukraine. It looks at the identification, gathering and assessment of information to ensure that it is admissible as evidence in trials of those accused of these crimes. It also analyses the specific challenges involved in the assessment of digital information and how to ensure that it is properly evaluated in an era of deepfakes and digital manipulation.
Indieners : ANN NEVILLE

Research for REGI Committee: Social Challenges in Cities EN

10-06-2022 PE 699.631 REGI
Samenvatting : This study explores social challenges and policy responses in EU cities in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. It demonstrates that the pandemic has placed additional pressures on vulnerable groups and the institutions that work to support them. It finds that the local policy capacity to respond to the crisis has differed across cities and multi-level governance settings. Participatory and integrated policy efforts have often failed to meet the expectations of urban citizens and stakeholders. To move towards urban resilience in times of crisis, EU-level funding needs to become more accessible and focused on long-term transformations, as well as improving policy dialogue with those cities most limited by ineffective local governance structures and historical legacies.
Indieners : Iselin MULVIK, Eigirdas SABALIAUSKAS, Hanna SIAROVA, Kristupas PRIBUIŠIS, Joanna KOSTKA
Soort document


COVID-19 response of EU public administration EN

10-06-2022 PE 733.411 BUDG CONT
Samenvatting : In order to provide the Members of the Budgetary Control Committee with reliable information and data on the COVID-19 response of the EU public administration, the study analyses the EU institutions’ response, their business continuity measures and their impact on the budget from 2020 onwards and staff of the respective institution. Furthermore, the study provides an overview of practices and challenges around the new working modalities EU institutions are adopting for the post-pandemic future, as well as recommendations for the way forward.

Perspectives for EU governance: between Community method, new-intergovernmentalism and parliamentarisation EN

10-06-2022 PE 733.512 AFCO
Samenvatting : This study, commissioned by the European Parliament's Policy Department for Citizens' Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the AFCO Committee, analyses the evolutions of the modes of governance at EU level. It shows that the so-called Community method has undergone a double evolution towards more intergovernmentalism, on the one hand, and more parliamentarisation, on the other. In particular, in recent years, the first trend has dominated. The study proposes solutions to defend the centrality of the Community method and to increase the Union’s capacity to act in an efficient, integrated and democratic way.
Indieners : COSTA Oliver

The Conference on the Future of Europe and the European Council: How far is there a shared policy agenda for the future? EN

09-06-2022 PE 730.325
Samenvatting : After one year of deliberation, the Conference on the Future of Europe (CoFoE) delivered its first result in the form of 49 proposals, including concrete objectives, and more than 320 potential measures on ways of achieving them. As a follow up to the CoFoE, the European Parliament called on 4 May 2022 for the launch of a Convention under Article 48 TEU; this request has also received the support of some EU leaders, notably the French President, Emmanuel Macron, the Italian Prime Minister, Mario Draghi, and the President of the European Commission, Ursula von der Leyen. The 23-24 June 2022 European Council meeting is expected to discuss the results of the CoFoE, and EU Heads of State or Government are likely to lay out their views on its possible follow-up. In this context, this EPRS Briefing addresses two complementary aspects of the discussions in the European Council. Firstly, it compares and analyses, based on the annexed table, the objectives set by the CoFoE in its proposals with the Strategic Agenda 2019-2024, as well as subsequent conclusions of the European Council, and identifies the areas of convergence and differences as well as ‘blank spots’. It thereby locates the potential common ground for (inter-)institutional follow-up to the CoFoE. Secondly, it provides an overview of initial views on the possible follow-up to the CoFoE, by outlining recent positions of EU leaders and EU institutions on the need for Treaty change.
Indieners : Ralf DRACHENBERG

Research for CULT Committee: The European Schools system: State of Play, Challenges and Perspectives EN

09-06-2022 PE 699.647 CULT
Samenvatting : This study examines the progress that the European Schools System has made during the past decade and overviews its state of affairs as of 2022. The educational dimension of the study focuses on questions related to teaching and learning, while the operational one concentrates on the administrative and managerial sides of the system. The study pinpoints the key challenges that the system currently faces and provides tailored recommendations on how to overcome them.
Indieners : Visionary Analytics: Simonas GAUŠAS (lead), Ildar DAMINOV, Elžbieta JAŠINSKAITĖ, Diana ČOP, Ilze MILEIKO, Greta GUDAUSKAITĖ plus external experts: Dr. Sandra LEATON GRAY, Dr. Stefanie PUKALLUS, John BULWER

Decentralisation reforms in the Western Balkans EN

08-06-2022 PE 733.522
Kort overzicht
Samenvatting : Decentralisation, and implementation of the principle of subsidiarity, are at the heart of both EU accession negotiations with the Western Balkan countries and their accession-related reforms. As the region's six countries differ in population size, territory and history, their decentralisation models differ from each other as well. The European Commission and the European Parliament are closely monitoring these countries' overall progress in multi-level governance and in the implementation of the EU acquis on an annual basis.

Russia's influence in the Western Balkans EN

08-06-2022 PE 733.523
Kort overzicht
Samenvatting : The countries in the Western Balkans are traditionally a focus of Russian interests. The Russian Federation has strong historical ties with the Western Balkans and holds a relative soft-power attraction for them, yet its influence and economic impact in the region are declining, as investment and aid by the EU-27 and other players, such as China, have been dwarfing Russian investment. This ‘At a glance’ note has been produced at the request of a member of the European Committee of the Regions, in the framework of the cooperation agreement between the Parliament and Committee. It updates a publication by Martin Russell from July 2017.

Ecodesign for sustainable products EN

08-06-2022 PE 733.524
Samenvatting : On 30 March 2022, the European Commission put forward a proposal for a regulation establishing a general framework for setting ecodesign requirements for sustainable products, repealing rules currently in force which concentrate on energy-related products only. The regulation would lay down rules that would apply to all products on the internal market, with the aim of making them more durable, reusable, reparable, upgradable, recyclable and generally less harmful to the environment. The regulation would include rules on a digital product passport, green public procurement and banning the destruction of unsold goods. Within the European Parliament, the file has been referred to the Committee on the Environment, Public Health and Food Safety. The proposal is in line with previous requests by Parliament to broaden the scope of the ecodesign legislation to cover all main product groups, and to introduce a digital product passport and green public procurement criteria. Reactions of stakeholders to the proposal varied, from calling it a 'game-changer' and appealing for swift action on product-specific rules, to worries about possible overlapping requirements and warnings about significant investments that would be required from businesses. First edition. The 'EU Legislation in Progress' briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure.
Indieners : Nikolina SAJN

Nominations for Members of the European Court of Auditors (The Netherlands) EN

08-06-2022 PE 733.764 BUDG CONT
Kort overzicht
Samenvatting : At national level, the Dutch supreme audit institution, the Netherlands Court of Audit (Algemene Rekenkamer), is headed by three board members, who are appointed for life. However, board members can either end their term on their own initiative. They have to retire when they reach the age of 70. The Dutch Supreme Court (Hoge Raad) can also decide to end their mandate following misconduct, based on the compatibility law.

Combating hate speech and hate crime in the EU EN

07-06-2022 PE 733.520
Kort overzicht
Samenvatting : In recent times, the European Union (EU) has witnessed a sharp rise in hate speech and hate crime, yet EU law criminalises such conduct only if related to a limited set of protected characteristics, such as race and ethnicity. The Commission, with the support of the Parliament, seeks to address this limitation by extending the list of 'EU crimes' included in Article 83 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU), to cover hate speech and hate crime. This can only be done by a Council decision adopted by unanimity, with the Parliament's consent.
Indieners : Piotr BAKOWSKI

EU action on ocean governance and achieving SDG 14 EN

07-06-2022 PE 733.517
Samenvatting : The United Nations 2030 Agenda and the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), adopted in 2015, set the global roadmap for achieving sustainable development. It includes SDG 14 on 'life below water', which focuses on the sustainability of the oceans, thereby recognising their essential role in life on our planet. Oceans contain 80 % of all life forms, produce more than 50 % of the Earth's oxygen and play a central role in regulating the climate. In addition, the 'blue economy' provides 4.5 million direct jobs in the EU. It covers traditional sectors, such as fisheries, maritime transport and coastal tourism, as well as innovative sectors, such as renewable ocean energy and the blue bioeconomy, which show great potential for sustainable blue growth. However, human activities threaten the health of our oceans. The effects of climate change are devastating, resulting in rising water temperatures, acidification, increased flooding and loss of marine biodiversity. The combination with other man-made stressors, such as pollution, including from land-based resources, and overexploitation of marine resources exacerbates the problem, reduces the resilience of oceans and poses a serious threat to the planet as a whole. To manage maritime activities sustainably and cope with different environmental pressures, the EU has implemented a wide range of policies. This includes established policies, such as the common fisheries policy, the marine strategy framework directive and the maritime spatial planning directive, as well as specific legislation related to marine litter. Other new initiatives under the European Green Deal also play an important role in relation to ocean governance and sustainable blue growth, such as the 2030 biodiversity strategy, the offshore renewable energy strategy, the 'Fit for 55' package and the new guidelines on aquaculture. The external dimension of EU policies, its international ocean governance agenda and its global commitments make the EU a global player in shaping ocean governance and contribute to its commitment to deliver fully on SDG 14. On the occasion of World Oceans Day on 8 June 2022, this publication provides an overview of the main EU policies and initiatives in the field of ocean governance.

European declaration on digital rights and principles EN

07-06-2022 PE 733.518
Samenvatting : Digital transformation concerns us all, in every aspect of our lives, from learning, working, communicating, doing business, to interacting with administrations, shopping and enjoying culture. The online environment has become very often our first and sometimes our only space for interaction. To steer this process so that no one is left behind, the European Commission tabled a draft declaration on digital rights and principles for a human-centred digital transformation. The declaration would serve as an overarching reference framework for the digital transformation, based on the principle that European Union rights and freedoms, as well as European values, should be respected online in exactly the same way as they are offline. The declaration is built around six themes: 1. people at the centre of digital transformation; 2. solidarity and inclusion; 3. freedom of choice; 4. participation; 5. safety and security; and 6. sustainability), and derives from primary and secondary EU law and EU case law. It does not confer new rights, as fundamental rights already apply online, nor does it replace existing proposals, but rather complements them instead. As such, it is not legally binding; it has primarily an advocacy role aimed at raising public awareness as well as promoting digital rights worldwide. The three EU institutions, Commission, Council and Parliament, must now agree on a common text and sign it in the form of a solemn declaration.
Indieners : POLONA CAR